Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Value Related Abstracts

20 Linking Business Owners’ Choice of Organizational Form to Appraisers’ Determination of Value: An Agency Theory Perspective

Authors: Ali Muhammad, Majdi Anwar Quttainah, William Paczkowski

Abstract:

Determining the value of a privately held firms confound those in academia as well as practitioners in the fields of appraisal, forensic accounting, and law. Divergent parties to the transfer look to apply the valuation technique to serve their own best interests. This paper seeks to explore how agency theory induces owners to choose the form of their businesses at inception and how this choice will affect the appraisers’ valuation of the firm at the transfer of ownership.

Keywords: Value, Agency Theory, organizational form

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19 Macroeconomic Determinants of Cyclical Variations in Value, Size, and Momentum Premium in the UK

Authors: N. Todorovic, G. Sarwar, C. Mateus

Abstract:

The paper examines the asymmetries in size, value and momentum premium over the economic cycles in the UK and their macroeconomic determinants. Using Markov switching approach we find clear evidence of cyclical variations of the three premiums, most noticeably variations in size premium. We associate Markov switching regime 1 with economic upturn and regime 2 with economic downturn as per OECD’s Composite Leading Indicator. The macroeconomic indicators prompting such cyclicality the most are interest rates, term structure and credit spread. The role of GDP growth, money supply and inflation is less pronounced in our sample.

Keywords: Value, size, macroeconomic determinants, Markorv Switching

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18 Augmented Reality as Enhancer of the Lean Philosophy: An Exploratory Study

Authors: F. Charrua-Santos, P. Gil, A. A. Baptista, S. Azevedo, A. Espirito-Santo, J. Páscoa

Abstract:

Lean manufacturing is a philosophy of industrial management that aims to identify and eliminate any waste that exists in the companies. The augmented reality is a new technology that stills being developed in terms of software and hardware. This technology consists of an image capture device, a device for data processing and an image visualization equipment to visualize collected and processed images. It is characterized by being a technology that merges the reality with the virtual environment, so there is an instantaneous interaction between the two environments. The present work intends to demonstrate that the use of the augmented reality will contribute to improve some tools and methods used in Lean manufacturing philosophy. Through several examples of application in industry it will be demonstrated that the technological impact of the augmented reality on the Lean Manufacturing philosophy contribute to added value improvements.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Case studies, Lean manufacturing, Value

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17 Value of Mergers

Authors: Reza Yaghoubi, Stuart Locke, Jenny Gibb

Abstract:

This study investigates sources of value in mergers and acquisitions. While much emphasis is put on operating synergies from acquisitions the evidence provided in this study shows that the difference between the WACCs of the combined firm and the merging firms may have a significant role on the value effect of mergers. These findings suggest that changes in the capital structure of the combined firm, compared to capital structures of the acquirer and the target, play a key role in determining the value of an acquisition. Moreover, findings of this study suggest that reducing the cost of capital of the combined firm, compared to the merging firms, is value creating even in the absence of operating synergies. Furthermore, this study shows that the component of value associated with the difference between the WACCs of the combined firm and the acquirer is mainly determined by leverage of the acquiring firm and the method of payment. While cash payment is value creating, high leverage of the acquirer prior to an acquisition can destroy value by raising the cost of capital of the firm. This is especially important to managers when they are planning an acquisition.

Keywords: Value, Synergy, Mergers, Acquisitions, WACC

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16 Breakthrough Innovation Thinking Technology of a Conglomerate for Next Generation Plan

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Doan-Quoc Hoan, Soomi Shin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to suggest the Value Innovation type Breakthrough Innovation which is a Big Thinking Process that realizes a creative idea for the next generation innovation Master Plan of a company. The BI based on the PVI methodology is believed to contribute to the launching of a new business, the acquisition of new markets, and the development of an innovative management process.

Keywords: Innovation, Value, breakthrough innovation, Korean firm

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15 Value Analysis Dashboard in Supply Chain Management, Real Case Study from Iran

Authors: Seyedehfatemeh Golrizgashti, Seyedali Dalil

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is proposing a supply chain value dashboard in home appliance manufacturing firms to create more value for all stakeholders via balanced scorecard approach. Balanced scorecard is an effective approach that managers have used to evaluate supply chain performance in many fields but there is a lack of enough attention to all supply chain stakeholders, improving value creation and, defining correlation between value indicators and performance measuring quantitatively. In this research the key stakeholders in home appliance supply chain, value indicators with respect to create more value for stakeholders and the most important metrics to evaluate supply chain value performance based on balanced scorecard approach have been selected via literature review. The most important indicators based on expert’s judgment acquired by in survey focused on creating more value for. Structural equation modelling has been used to disclose relations between value indicators and balanced scorecard metrics. The important result of this research is identifying effective value dashboard to create more value for all stakeholders in the supply chain via balanced scorecard approach and based on an empirical study covering ten home appliance manufacturing firms in Iran. Home appliance manufacturing firms can increase their stakeholder's satisfaction by using this value dashboard.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Value, Stakeholders, Balanced Scorecard, Structural modeling

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14 Universal Design Implementation in a Private University; Investment, Decision Making, Perceptions and the Value of Social Capital

Authors: Sridara Tipian, Henry Skates Jr., Antika Sawadsri

Abstract:

It is widely recognized that universal design should be implemented as broadly as possible to benefit as many groups and sub groups of people within a society. In Thailand, public buildings such as public universities are obvious places where the benefits of universal design principles are easily appreciated and applied, but there are other building types such as private universities where the benefits may not be just as obvious. In these buildings, the implementation of universal design is not always achieved. There are many reasons given for this among which is the perceived additional cost of implementation. This paper argues that social capital should be taken into consideration when such decisions are being made. The paper investigates the background, principles and theories pertaining to universal design and using a case study of a private university, investigates the implementation of universal design against the background of current legislation and the perceptions of the private university administrators. The study examines the physical facilities of the case study university in the context of current theories and principles of universal design alongside the legal requirements for same. A survey of building users evaluates knowledge of and attitudes to universal design. The research shows that although administrators perceive the initial cost of investment to be prohibitive in the short term, in the long term, changes in societal values in relation to social inclusiveness are changing and that the social capital of investing in universal design should not be underestimated. The results of this study should provide greater incentive for the enforcement of the legal requirements for universal design in Thailand.

Keywords: Decision Making, Investment, Value, Enforcement, physical facilities, public buildings, social capital private university, legal requirements

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13 The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

Authors: Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu

Abstract:

Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.

Keywords: Environment, Interaction, Value, Environmental Ethics

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12 Evaluating Value of Users' Personal Information Based on Cost-Benefit Analysis

Authors: Jae Hyun Park, Sangmi Chai, Minkyun Kim

Abstract:

As users spend more time on the Internet, the probability of their personal information being exposed has been growing. This research has a main purpose of investigating factors and examining relationships when Internet users recognize their value of private information with a perspective of an economic asset. The study is targeted on Internet users, and the value of their private information will be converted into economic figures. Moreover, how economic value changes in relation with individual attributes, dealer’s traits, circumstantial properties will be studied. In this research, the changes in factors on private information value responding to different situations will be analyzed in an economic perspective. Additionally, this study examines the associations between users’ perceived risk and value of their personal information. By using the cost-benefit analysis framework, the hypothesis that the user’s sense in private information value can be influenced by individual attributes and situational properties will be tested. Therefore, this research will attempt to provide answers for three research objectives. First, this research will identify factors that affect value recognition of users’ personal information. Second, it provides evidences that there are differences on information system users’ economic value of information responding to personal, trade opponent, and situational attributes. Third, it investigates the impact of those attributes on individuals’ perceived risk. Based on the assumption that personal, trade opponent and situation attributes make an impact on the users’ value recognition on private information, this research will present the understandings on the different impacts of those attributes in recognizing the value of information with the economic perspective and prove the associative relationships between perceived risk and decision on the value of users’ personal information. In order to validate our research model, this research used the regression methodology. Our research results support that information breach experience and information security systems is associated with users’ perceived risk. Information control and uncertainty are also related to users’ perceived risk. Therefore, users’ perceived risk is considered as a significant factor on evaluating the value of personal information. It can be differentiated by trade opponent and situational attributes. This research presents new perspective on evaluating the value of users’ personal information in the context of perceived risk, personal, trade opponent and situational attributes. It fills the gap in the literature by providing how users’ perceived risk are associated with personal, trade opponent and situation attitudes in conducting business transactions with providing personal information. It adds to previous literature that the relationship exists between perceived risk and the value of users’ private information in the economic perspective. It also provides meaningful insights to the managers that in order to minimize the cost of information breach, managers need to recognize the value of individuals’ personal information and decide the proper amount of investments on protecting users’ online information privacy.

Keywords: Value, Attributes, private information, perceived risk, users, online information privacy

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11 Security as Human Value: Issue of Human Rights in Indian Sub-Continental Operations

Authors: Pratyush Vatsala, Sanjay Ahuja

Abstract:

The national security and human rights are related terms as there is nothing like absolute security or absolute human right. If we are committed to security, human right is a problem and also a solution, and if we deliberate on human rights, security is a problem but also part of the solution. Ultimately, we have to maintain a balance between the two co-related terms. As more and more armed forces are being deployed by the government within the nation for maintaining peace and security, using force against its own citizen, the search for a judicious balance between intent and action needs to be emphasized. Notwithstanding that a nation state needs complete political independence; the search for security is a driving force behind unquestioned sovereignty. If security is a human value, it overlaps the value of freedom, order, and solidarity. Now, the question needs to be explored, to what extent human rights can be compromised in the name of security in Kashmir or Mizoram like places. The present study aims to explore the issue of maintaining a balance between the use of power and good governance as human rights, providing security as a human value. This paper has been prepared with an aim of strengthening the understanding of the complex and multifaceted relationship between human rights and security forces operating for conflict management and identifies some of the critical human rights issues raised in the context of security forces operations highlighting the relevant human rights principles and standards in which Security as human value be respected at all times and in particular in the context of security forces operations in India.

Keywords: Security, Human Right, Value, Kashmir, mizoram

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10 Values in Higher Education: A Case Study of Higher Education Students

Authors: Bahadır Erişti

Abstract:

Values are the behavioral procedures of society based communication and interaction process that includes social and cultural backgrounds. The policy of learning and teaching in higher education is oriented towards constructing knowledge and skills, based on theorist framework of cognitive and psychomotor aspects. This approach makes people not to develop generosity, empathy, affection, solidarity, justice, equality and so on. But the sensorial gains of education system provide the integrity of society interaction. This situation carries out the necessity of values education’s in higher education. The current study aims to consider values education from the viewpoint of students in higher education. Within the framework of the current study, an open ended survey based scenario of higher education students was conducted with the students’ social, cognitive, affective and moral developments. In line with this purpose, the following situations of the higher education system were addressed based on the higher education students’ viewpoint: The views of higher education students’ regarding values that are tried to be gained at the higher education system; The higher education students’ suggestions regarding values education at the higher education system; The views of the higher education students’ regarding values that are imposed at the higher education system. In this study, descriptive qualitative research method was used. The study group of the research is composed of 20 higher education postgraduate students at Curriculum and Instruction Department of Educational Sciences at Anadolu University. An open-ended survey was applied for the purpose of collecting qualitative data. As a result of the study, value preferences, value judgments and value systems of the higher education students were constructed on prioritizes based on social, cultural and economic backgrounds and statues. Multi-dimensional process of value education in higher education need to be constructed on higher education-community-cultural background cooperation. Thus, the act of judgement upon values between higher education students based on the survey seems to be inherent in the system of education itself. The present study highlights the students’ value priorities and importance of values in higher education. If the purpose of the higher education system gains on values, it is possible to enable society to promote humanity.

Keywords: Higher Education, Value, Values Education, values in higher education

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9 Development of Mechanisms of Value Creation and Risk Management Organization in the Conditions of Transformation of the Economy of Russia

Authors: Mikhail V. Khachaturyan, Inga A. Koryagina, Eugenia V. Klicheva

Abstract:

In modern conditions, scientific judgment of problems in developing mechanisms of value creation and risk management acquires special relevance. Formation of economic knowledge has resulted in the constant analysis of consumer behavior for all players from national and world markets. Effective mechanisms development of the demand analysis, crucial for consumer's characteristics of future production, and the risks connected with the development of this production are the main objectives of control systems in modern conditions. The modern period of economic development is characterized by a high level of globalization of business and rigidity of competition. At the same time, the considerable share of new products and services costs has a non-material intellectual nature. The most successful in Russia is the contemporary development of small innovative firms. Such firms, through their unique technologies and new approaches to process management, which form the basis of their intellectual capital, can show flexibility and succeed in the market. As a rule, such enterprises should have very variable structure excluding the tough scheme of submission and demanding essentially new incentives for inclusion of personnel in innovative activity. Realization of similar structures, as well as a new approach to management, can be constructed based on value-oriented management which is directed to gradual change of consciousness of personnel and formation from groups of adherents included in the solution of the general innovative tasks. At the same time, valuable changes can gradually capture not only innovative firm staff, but also the structure of its corporate partners. Introduction of new technologies is the significant factor contributing to the development of new valuable imperatives and acceleration of the changing values systems of the organization. It relates to the fact that new technologies change the internal environment of the organization in a way that the old system of values becomes inefficient in new conditions. Introduction of new technologies often demands change in the structure of employee’s interaction and training in their new principles of work. During the introduction of new technologies and the accompanying change in the value system, the structure of the management of the values of the organization is changing. This is due to the need to attract more staff to justify and consolidate the new value system and bring their view into the motivational potential of the new value system of the organization.

Keywords: Organization, Risk, Value, Problems, Creation

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8 An Evaluation of the Trends in Land Values around Institutions of Higher Learning in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Ben Nwokenkwo, Michael M. Eze, Felix Ike

Abstract:

The need to study trends in land values around institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. Numerous studies in Nigeria have investigated the economic, and social influence of the sitting of institutions of higher learning at the micro, meso and macro levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the temporal extent at which such institution influences local land values. Since institutions greatly influence both the physical and environmental aspects of their immediate vicinity, attention must be taken to understand the influence of such changes on land values. This study examines the trend in land values using the Mann-Kendall analysis in order to determine if, between its beginning and end, a monotonic increase, decrease or stability exist in the land values across six institutions of higher learning for the period between 2004 and 2014. Specifically, The analysis was applied to the time series of the price(or value) of the land .The results of this study revealed that land values has either been increasing or remained stabled across all the institution sampled. The study finally recommends measures that can be put in place as counter magnets for land values estimation across institutions of higher learning.

Keywords: land, Value, influence, trend

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7 Well Inventory Data Entry: Utilization of Developed Technologies to Progress the Integrated Asset Plan

Authors: Danah Al-Selahi, Sulaiman Al-Ghunaim, Bashayer Sadiq, Fatma Al-Otaibi, Ali Ameen

Abstract:

In light of recent changes affecting the Oil & Gas Industry, optimization measures have become imperative for all companies globally, including Kuwait Oil Company (KOC). To keep abreast of the dynamic market, a detailed Integrated Asset Plan (IAP) was developed to drive optimization across the organization, which was facilitated through the in-house developed software “Well Inventory Data Entry” (WIDE). This comprehensive and integrated approach enabled centralization of all planned asset components for better well planning, enhancement of performance, and to facilitate continuous improvement through performance tracking and midterm forecasting. Traditionally, this was hard to achieve as, in the past, various legacy methods were used. This paper briefly describes the methods successfully adopted to meet the company’s objective. IAPs were initially designed using computerized spreadsheets. However, as data captured became more complex and the number of stakeholders requiring and updating this information grew, the need to automate the conventional spreadsheets became apparent. WIDE, existing in other aspects of the company (namely, the Workover Optimization project), was utilized to meet the dynamic requirements of the IAP cycle. With the growth of extensive features to enhance the planning process, the tool evolved into a centralized data-hub for all asset-groups and technical support functions to analyze and infer from, leading WIDE to become the reference two-year operational plan for the entire company. To achieve WIDE’s goal of operational efficiency, asset-groups continuously add their parameters in a series of predefined workflows that enable the creation of a structured process which allows risk factors to be flagged and helps mitigation of the same. This tool dictates assigned responsibilities for all stakeholders in a method that enables continuous updates for daily performance measures and operational use. The reliable availability of WIDE, combined with its user-friendliness and easy accessibility, created a platform of cross-functionality amongst all asset-groups and technical support groups to update contents of their respective planning parameters. The home-grown entity was implemented across the entire company and tailored to feed in internal processes of several stakeholders across the company. Furthermore, the implementation of change management and root cause analysis techniques captured the dysfunctionality of previous plans, which in turn resulted in the improvement of already existing mechanisms of planning within the IAP. The detailed elucidation of the 2 year plan flagged any upcoming risks and shortfalls foreseen in the plan. All results were translated into a series of developments that propelled the tool’s capabilities beyond planning and into operations (such as Asset Production Forecasts, setting KPIs, and estimating operational needs). This process exemplifies the ability and reach of applying advanced development techniques to seamlessly integrated the planning parameters of various assets and technical support groups. These techniques enables the enhancement of integrating planning data workflows that ultimately lay the founding plans towards an epoch of accuracy and reliability. As such, benchmarks of establishing a set of standard goals are created to ensure the constant improvement of the efficiency of the entire planning and operational structure.

Keywords: Automation, Communication, Integration, Value

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6 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: Power, Culture, Educational Leadership, Saudi Arabia, Value, model, England, primary school, middle leader

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5 Brokerage and Value-Creation: Trading Practices in the English Market of 20th-Century Maps

Authors: Shaun Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents a 9-month ethnographic case study of the value creating strategies employed by an Oxford market-trader of 20th-century maps. Maps are usually valued and sold as either antique objets d’art or useful navigational tools, with 20th-century maps precariously lying between the boundary of the aesthetic and utilitarian value-regimes. Here, the brokerage practices involved in the framing of outdated, lowly valued maps into vintage commodities will be examined. Ethnographic material of the unstudied market of old maps is introduced and situated in the second-hand, antique and collectible spheres of exchange. The map-trader as a broker is the ethnographic and methodological starting point of this paper. Brokerage is understood through the activity of framing that defines and brackets the value-regimes of commodities with the aid of market and framing devices. The trader’s activities will be examined in three parts. (1) The post-sourcing industry: the altering, mounting and tagging of maps before putting them into market circulation. Mounts, frames and tags are seen as market devices that authenticates and frames maps with aesthetic and symbolic values along with the disentanglement of its use value. (2) The market-display: the constitution of space that encourages the relations of looking at maps as aesthetic objects, while the categorical arrangement of the display contributes to legitimising of the collectability of maps. (3) The salesmanship strategies of the trader: the match-making of customers with maps of meaningful value, and the mediating of knowledge through the verbal articulation of the map’s symbolic values. Ultimately, value is not created in an accumulative sense, but is layered and superimposed to cater to a wide spectrum of patrons. The trader creates demand for his goods by mediating and articulating value-regimes already coherent to potential patrons.

Keywords: Markets, Commodification, Value, Framing, art and material culture, brokerage

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4 Consumers’ Trust and Values towards Halal Food Products in Malaysia

Authors: A. B. Elistina, S. Norhafifah, R. N. Nashaqilla, M. A. Afida Mastura., O. Mohhidin

Abstract:

The issue of halal, especially in food products, raises lots of concern among Muslim consumers. Halal is often associated with safe, clean and nutritious food, according to the principle of halal toyyiban. Apart from that, the importance of halal food is not only emphasized by Muslim consumers but also non-Muslims. This is because the halal product is something that has been recognized for its cleanliness and safety. Nevertheless, consumers often face problems to ensure that the products they buy are genuinely halal as they can only rely on the certification of the authorities. However, the issue is the extent to which consumers place trust in the responsible certification authorities to determine the status of halal for a product. Therefore, this paper is intended to identify the relationship between consumer values and trust towards responsible parties such as Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM), the Ministry of Health (MOH), foreign halal certification body and producers with consumers’ behavior. Apart from that, this study will also determine the value which consumers hold when choosing halal food and its relationship with consumers’ behavior. The total of 400 respondents who had been selected through stratified random sampling had participated in this study, and the data were collected through a set of self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that trust towards JAKIM is the highest, followed by trust towards MOH, foreign Halal certification agency and lastly the producers. Meanwhile, the values associated with halal foods are the quality, followed by emotional, economic and lastly social values. Results show that all factors can explain 20.3% variance in consumers’ behavior when consuming halal food products and trust towards the producers become the main determinant factor. Therefore, this study is expected to help the certification authorities local or abroad to inculcate trust among consumers as well as assisting food products manufacturers to enhance the halal food industry in Malaysia.

Keywords: Behavior, Trust, Halal Food, Consumers, Value

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3 Buddhism: Its Socio-Economic Relevance in the Present Changing World

Authors: Bandana Bhattacharya

Abstract:

‘Buddhism’, as such signifies the ‘ism’ that is based on Buddha’s life and teachings or that is concerned with the gospel of Buddha as recorded in the literature available in Pali, Sanskrit, Buddhist Sanskrit, Prakrit and even in the other non-Indian languages wherein it has been described a very abstruse, complex and lofty philosophy of life or ‘the way of life’ preached by Him (Buddha). It has another side too, i.e., the applicability of the tenets of Buddha according to the needs of the present society, where human life and outlook has been totally changed. Applied Buddhism signifies the applicability of the Buddha’s noble tenets. Along with the theological exposition and textual criticism of the Buddha’s discourses, it has now become almost obligatory for the Buddhist scholars to re-interpret Buddhism from modern perspectives. Basically Applied Buddhism defined a ‘way of life’ which may transform the higher quality of life or essence of life due to changed circumstances, places and time. Nowadays, if we observe the present situation of the world, we will find the current problems such as health, economic, politic, global warming, population explosion, pollution of all types including cultural scarcity essential commodities and indiscriminate use of human, natural and water resources are becoming more and more pronounced day by day, under such a backdrop of world situation. Applied Buddhism rather Buddhism may be the only instrument left now for mankind to address all such human achievements, lapses, and problems. Buddha’s doctrine is itself called ‘akālika, timeless’. On the eve of the Mahāparinibbāṇa at Kusinara, the Blessed One allows His disciples to change, modify and alter His minor teachings according to the needs of the future, although He has made some utterances, which would eternally remain fresh. Hence Buddhism has been able to occupy a prominent place in modern life, because of its timeless applicability, emanating from a set of eternal values. The logical and scientific outlook of Buddha may be traced in His very first sermon named the Dhammacakkapavattana-Sutta where He suggested to avoid the two extremes, namely, constantly attachment to sensual pleasures (Kāmasukhallikānuyoga) and devotion to self-mortification that is painful as well as unprofitable and asked to adopt Majjhimapaṭipadā, ‘Middle path’, which is very much applicable even today in every spheres of human life; and the absence of which is the root cause of all problems event at present. This paper will be a humble attempt to highlight the relevance of Buddhism in the present society.

Keywords: Ecology, Value, Self-Awareness, applied Buddhism

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2 Value Chain Analysis of Melon “Egusi” (Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Mansf) among Rural Farm Enterprises in South East, Nigeria

Authors: Chigozirim Onwusiribe, Jude Mbanasor

Abstract:

Egusi Melon (Citrullus Lanatus Thunb. Mansf ) is a very important oil seed that serves a major ingredient in the diet of most of the households in Nigeria. Egusi Melon is very nutritious and very important in meeting the food security needs of Nigerians. Egusi Melon is cultivated in most farm enterprise in South East Nigeria but the profitability of its value chain needs to be investigated. This study analyzed the profitability of the Egusi Melon value chain. Specifically this study developed a value chain map for Egusi Melon, analysed the profitability of each stage of the Egusi Melon Value chain and analysed the determinants of the profitability of the Egusi Melon at each stage of the value chain. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 125 farm enterprises with similar capacity and characteristics. Questionnaire and interview were used to elicit the required data while descriptive statistics, Food and Agriculture Organization Value Chain Analysis Tool, profitability ratios and multiple regression analysis were used for the data analysis. One of the findings showed that the stages of the Egusi Melon value chain are very profitable. Based on the findings, we recommend the provision of grants by government and donor agencies to the farm enterprises through their cooperative societies, this will provide the necessary funds for the local fabrication of value addition and processing equipment to suit their unique value addition needs not met by the imported equipment.

Keywords: farm, Value, Melon, chain, enterprises

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1 Scaling up Potato Economic Opportunities: Evaluation of Youths Participation in Potato Value Chain in Nigeria

Authors: Chigozirim N. Onwusiribe, Jude A. Mbanasor

Abstract:

The potato value chain when harnessed can engage numerous youths and aid in the fight against poverty, malnutrition and unemployment. This study seeks to evaluate the level of youth participation in the potato value chain in Nigeria. Specifically, this study will examine the extent of youth participation in potato value chain, analyze the cost, benefits and sustainability of youth participation in the potato value chain, identify the factors that can propel or hinder youth participation in the potato value chain and make recommendations that will result in the increase in youth employment in the potato value chain. This study was conducted in the North Central and South East geopolitical zones of Nigeria. A multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 540 youths from the study areas. Focused group discussions and survey approach was used to elicit the required data. The data were analyzed using statistical and econometric tools. The study revealed that the potato value chain is very profitable.

Keywords: Enterprise, Youth, Value, potato, chain

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