Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Vaccine Related Abstracts

9 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif

Abstract:

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.

Keywords: Vaccine, Viruses, Molecular Characterization, Libya, infectious bronchitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
8 Low Pertussis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Sylwia Dyk, Izabela Gołebiak

Abstract:

Background. Since 2014 the pertussis vaccine is recommended to Polish health care workers who have close contacts with infants. Although this recommendation is implemented into the National Immunization Programme, its realization has remained unknown. The Purpose: The aim of the study, conducted at the department of Social Medicine and Public Health (Medical University of Warsaw, Poland), was to describe a perception, knowledge and coverage rates regarding pertussis vaccination among nursing staff. According to the authors' knowledge, it was the first study related to this topic in our country. Material and Methods: A total number of 543 nurses who work at pediatric or neonatal wards was included into the study (501 women and 42 men), average age was 47 years. All nurses were asked to fulfill the anonymous survey, previously validated. Results: 1. Coverage rates: The analysis of results revealed that only 4% of responders reported they were vaccinated with Tdpa within past 10 years, while 8% declared they would plan the vaccine in the future. 35% of responders would consider the Tdpa vaccine whether there is some kind of the reimbursement. 2. Perception and knowledge of the disease and vaccination: The majority (82%) of nurses did not recognize pertussis as a re-emerging infectious disease. 54% of them believed that obligatory vaccinations in the childhood protect against the disease and the protection is a life-long one. Only 15% of nurses considered pertussis as a possible nosocomial infection. The current epidemiology of the disease was known to 6% of responders, while 24% of them were familiar with pertussis vaccination schedules for infants, children and adolescents, but only 9% of responders knew that adults older than 19 years are recommended to be vaccinated with Tdpa every 10 years. Many nurses (82%) would expect more educational activities related to pertussis and methods of its prophylaxis. Conclusions: The pertussis vaccine coverage rate among Polish nurses is extremely low. This is a result of not enough knowledge about the disease and its prevention. Educational activities addressed to health care workers and reimbursement of the pertussis vaccine are required to improve awareness and increase of vaccine coverage rates in the future.

Keywords: Vaccine, coverage, nurse, pertussis

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
7 Determination of the Vaccine Induced Immunodominant Regions of Nucleoprotein Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

Authors: Engin Berber, Nurettin Canakoglu, Ibrahim Sozdutmaz, Merve Caliskan, Shaikh Terkis Islam Pavel, Hazel Yetiskin, Aykut Ozdarendeli

Abstract:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The CCHFV genome consists of three molecules of negative-sense single-stranded RNA, each encapsulated separately. The virion particle contains viral RNA polymerase (L segment), surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc (Msegment), and a nucleocapsid protein NP (S segment). CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Clinical CCHF was first recognized in Turkey in 2002. The numbers of CCHF cases have gradually increased in Turkey making the virus a public health concern. Between 2002 and 2014, more than 8000 the CCHF cases have been reported in Turkey and mortality rate is around 5%. So, Turkey is one of the countries where the epidemy has become spread to the wider geography and the biggest outbreaks of CCHF have occurred in the world. We have recently developed an inactivated cell-culture based vaccine against CCHF. We have showed that the Balb/c mice immunized with the CCHF vaccine induced the high level of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we aimed to determine the immunodominant regions of nucleoprotein (NP) CCHFV Kelkit06 strain which stimulate T cells. For this purpose, pools of overlapping NP were used for an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay. Balb/c mice were divided into two groups for the experiment. Two groups (n = 10 each) were immunized via the intraperitoneal route with 5, or 10μg of the cell culture-based vaccine. The control group (n = 6) was mock immunized with PBS. Booster injections with the same formulation were given on days 21 and 42 after the first immunization. The higher reactivity against the CCHFV NP pools 31-40 and 80-90 was determined in the two dose groups. In order to analyze the vaccine-induced T cell responses in Balb/c mice immunized with varying doses of the vaccine, we have been also currently working on CD4+, CD8+ and CD3 + T cells by flow cytometry.

Keywords: Vaccine, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, immunodominant regions of NP, T cell response

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6 Effects of Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Administration on Hematology and Biochemistry Parameters with PPR Vaccine

Authors: Oguzhan Avci, Burak Dik, Irmak Dik, Emre Bahcivan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alone and combined administration of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL) on the hematology and biochemistry parameters levels in sheep. CCL and PPR vaccine changes cell and organ activity. In this study, 12 ewes were divided into equal groups; first group; PPR vaccine was applied only one time 1 mL subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep, and the second group; CCL (1 mL) and PPR vaccine (1 mL) combination were applied only one time subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0. hour, control) and after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) from the sheep. Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry parameters and there were statistically significant in sheep. In conclusion, combined usage of PPR vaccine with CCL may not influence cells and organs. Repeated CCL treatment with vaccine can create hepatotoxic, renal and bone marrow effects in sheep.

Keywords: Hematology, Vaccine, Corynebacterium cutis lysate, peste des petits ruminants

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5 Evaluation of Antibody Titer Produced in Layer Chicken after Vaccination with an Experimental Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal Vaccine

Authors: Ali Shirazi, Dorsa Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Javad Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Hosein Hosseini

Abstract:

Respiratory infections are the most important diseases that affect poultry. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections including alveolar inflation and pneumonia in birds. The aim of this study was to evaluated antibody titer against Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal in layer chicken sera after vaccination with an experimental ORT vaccine that produced in Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Cultured bacteria were inactivated by formalin, and controlled tests were conducted on it. The obtained antigens were formulated using Montanide oil and were homogenized using homogenizer. Eighty SPF chickens were kept until the age of 14 days under existing standards for temperature, humidity, and light. At the age of 14 days, chickens were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 chickens injected with prepared ORT vaccine, the second group, as control group, included 15 chickens injected with sterile PBS to get stress of infection and the third group included 15 chickens with no injection performed to them. All 3 groups were kept in separate cages at same room. Blood samples were regularly taken from the chickens every week for serum separation and evaluation of antibody titer. During the fifth week post vaccination, booster vaccine was injected into the chickens of vaccinated group. The chickens were inspected every day in terms of mortality as well as any injection site reactions. Three weeks after the booster injection, blood samples were taken from all chickens of all groups, and sera were isolated. The sera of immunized (vaccinated) SPF chickens with ORT vaccine as well as that of SPF chickens in the control groups were reviewed according to the recommendations of ELISA kit manufacturer to examine the chicken’s humeral immune response to the studied vaccine. Potency, stability and sterility tests were also performed on the above mentioned vaccine. Results obtained indicate high antibody titer in sera of chickens vaccinated with experimental ORT vaccine as compared with the control groups that emphasize the ability of experimentally prepared ORT vaccine to stimulate humoral immune response of chicken. After the second injection, antibody titer increased and remained almost stable up to 9 weeks after the injection. ORT vaccine can cause potency in chickens and can protect them against disease.

Keywords: Vaccine, Antibody, layer chicken, Ornithobactrium rhinotracitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
4 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Vaccine, Microparticles, PLGA, Aeromonas hydrophila

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3 Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Clostridium botulinum Types B Vaccine Candidate

Authors: Kichan Lee, Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Bang-Hun Hyun and Byeong Yeal Jung

Abstract:

Botulism is a paralytic disease of human beings and animals caused by neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxins are genetically distinguished into 8 types, A to H. Ingestion of performed toxin, usually types B, C, and D, have been shown to produce diseases in most cases of cattle botulism. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent cattle botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. We produced recombinant protein using gene of heavy chain domain of botulinum toxin B of which binds to cellular receptor of neuron cells and used as immunogen. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of botulism vaccine composed of recombinant types B. Safety test was done by National Regulation for Veterinary Biologicals. For efficacy test, female ICR mice (5 weeks old) were subcutaneously injected, intraperitoneally challenged, and examined the survival rates compared with vaccination and non-vaccination group. Mouse survival rate of recombinant types B vaccine was above 80%, while one of non-vaccination group was 0%. A vaccine composed of recombinant types B was safe and efficacious in mouse. Our results suggest that recombinant heavy chain receptor binding domain can be used as an effective vaccine candidate for type B botulism.

Keywords: Livestock, Vaccine, toxin, recombinant protein, botulism

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2 Acute Hepatitis A Outbreak in Men Who Has Sex with Men in a Medical Center in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Tzu Hsu, Alice Wu, Hsiang-Kuang Tseng

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis A virus causes acute hepatitis and is usually transmitted by a fecal-oral route of food contamination, which is more prevalent in areas with poor hygienic practices. However, we described a hepatitis A outbreak associated with a fecal-oral route of sexual behavior in men who has sex with men (MSM) in Northern Taiwan. Methods: We retrospectively collected patients with acute HAV infection in MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between July 2015 and November 2016. Demographic data (age, gender, onset time and infection risk), laboratory data (GOT, GPT, bilirubin, HIV status, HBsAg, HCV antibody and syphilis), clinical symptoms and travel history with a foreign tour were analyzed. We compared variables between HIV and non-HIV group. Unless otherwise stated, continuous variables were expressed as mean ± SD, and categorical variables were expressed as number (percentage) for each item. The t test for continuous variables was applied for the comparison between two groups and chi-square for categorical variables were applied for measures of association. Results: We collected 80 cases during the study period. Among them, 54 (67.5%) cases were MSM and 43 (53.8%) cases were HIV positive. The average age was 32.6±7.59 years-old. The average value of initial liver function was 1324 IU/L for AST (GOT), 2100 IU/L for ALT (GPT), and 5.82 mg/dL for bilirubin. We found seven (8.6%) cases were in the status of HBV carrier, five (6.3%) cases were positive for HCV antibody, and 15 (18.6%) cases were co-infected with syphilis. With regards to associated symptoms, 32 (40%) had fever, 46 (57.5%) had nausea, 34 (42.5%) had abdominal discomfort and 46 (57.5%) had general malaise. To compare the non-HIV patients with HIV patients, HIV patients were more likely to be male (p=0.008), MSM (p=0.000), co-infected syphilis (p=0.000) and slowly improving liver function of transaminases (p=0.033, 0.027). Conclusion: The HAV outbreak in Northern Taiwan was mainly occurred in MSM population. Hereafter, our cohort data support a policy in Taiwan to provide one dose of free HAV vaccine shot in this population. Hopefully, the outbreak could be stop by the free vaccine policy and public education.

Keywords: Vaccine, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, acute hepatitis A, men who has sex with men

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Vaccine, peptides, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, PPE68

Procedia PDF Downloads 29