Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Vaccination Related Abstracts

16 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: J. P. Chollom, T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor

Abstract:

This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Vaccination, mathematical model, hepatitis B virus

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15 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

Abstract:

Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: Cytokines, Vaccination, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases

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14 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan

Abstract:

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: Population, Vaccination, Immunity, measles

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13 Low Influenza Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Katarzyna Zycinska, Ewa Gyrczuk, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Kazimierz Wardyn

Abstract:

Introduction: Influenza is an important clinical and epidemiological problem and should be considered as a possible nosocomial infection. The aim of the study was to determine the influenza vaccine coverage rates among Polish nurses and to find out drivers and barriers for influenza vaccination among this group of health care workers (HCWs). Material and methods: The self- fulfilled survey with 26 questions about the knowledge, perception, and influenza coverage rates was distributed among 461 nurses. Results: Only 15% of nurses were vaccinated against influenza in the consecutive seasons. The majority (75%) of the regularly vaccinated nurses were ambulatory careworkers. The difference between the number of vaccinated hospitals and ambulatory care nurses was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main motivating factors for an influenza vaccination were: a fear of the illness and its complications (97%) and a free of charge vaccine available at the workplace (87%). Ambulatory care nurses more often declared that they were vaccinated mainly to protect themselves while hospital care nurses more often declared the will to protect their patients, these differences in the perception and attitudes to an influenza vaccination among hospital and ambulatory care nurses were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main barriers for an influenza vaccination among the nursing staff were: a lack of reimbursement of the vaccine (95%), a lack of insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness, and safety of the influenza vaccine (54%). The ambulatory care nurses more often found influenza vaccination as the ethical duty compared to hospital care nurses (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The influenza vaccine coverage rates among the Polish nurses are low and must be improved in the future. More educational activities dedicated to HCWs may result in the increased awareness of influenza vaccination benefits for both medical professionals and patients.

Keywords: Vaccination, Influenza, Nurses, ambulatory careworkers

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12 Development and Efficacy Assessment of an Enteric Coated Porous Tablet Loaded with F4 Fimbriae for Oral Vaccination against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections

Authors: Atul Srivastava, D. V. Gowda

Abstract:

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is one of the major causes contributing to the development of diarrhoea in adults and children in developing countries. To date, no preventive/treatment strategy showed promising results, which could be due to the lack of potent vaccines, and/or due to the development of resistance of ETEC to antibiotics. Therefore, in the present investigation, a novel porous Sodium Alginate (SA) tablet formulation loaded with F4 fimbriae antigen was developed and tested for efficacy against ETEC infections in piglet models. Pre-compression parameters of the powder mixes and post compression parameters of tablets have been evaluated and results were found to be satisfactory. Loading of F4 fimbrial antigens in to the tablets was achieved by inducing pores in the tablets via the sublimation of camphor followed by incubation with purified F4 fimbriae. The loaded tablets have been coated with Eudragit L100 to protect the F4 fimbriae from (a) highly acidic gastric environment; (b) proteolytic cleavage by pepsin; and (c) to promote subsequent release in the intestine. Evaluation of developed F4 fimbrial tablets in a Pig model demonstrated induction of mucosal immunity, and a significant reduction of F4+ E. coli in faeces. Therefore, F4 fimbriae loaded porous tablets could be a novel oral vaccination candidate to induce mucosal and systemic immunity against ETEC infections.

Keywords: Vaccination, porous tablets, sublimation, f4 fimbriae, eudragit l100

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11 An Optimal Control Model for the Dynamics of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Ibrahim M. Elmojtaba, Rayan M. Altayeb

Abstract:

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus leishmania. The transmission of the parasite to humans and animals occurs via the bite of adult female sandflies previously infected by biting and sucking blood of an infectious humans or animals. In this paper we use a previously proposed model, and then applied two optimal controls, namely treatment and vaccination to that model to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of the disease using treatment and vaccination as the system control variables. The possible impact of using combinations of the two controls, either one at a time or two at a time on the spread of the disease is also examined. Our results provide a framework for vaccination and treatment strategies to reduce susceptible and infection individuals of VL in five years.

Keywords: treatment, Optimal Control, Vaccination, Numerical Simulation, visceral leishmaniasis

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10 Effects of Propolis on Immunomodulatory and Antibody Production in Broilers

Authors: Yu-Hsiang Yu

Abstract:

The immunomodulatory effect of propolis has been widely investigated in the past decade. However, the beneficial effects in broilers are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis added in drinking water on immunomodulatory and antibody production in broiler. Total of 48 chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 12 broilers per group. All birds were intranasal inoculated with Newcastle Disease vaccine at 4 and 14 days old of age. Four groups, including control without any treatment, groups of A, B and F [3 days of anterior (A), 3 days of posterior (P) and 6 days of full (F)] were supplied the propolis at 300 ppm in drinking water when vaccination was performed, respectively. Our results showed that no significant difference was found in growth performance, antibody production and immune organ index among groups. However, propolis treatments in broilers significantly reduced IL-4 expression in spleen at 14 days-old of age and bursa at 28 days-old of age compared with control group. The expression of IFN-gamma in spleen (A, P and F group) and bursal (F group) were elevated compared with control group at 28 days-old of age. In conclusion, our results indicated that propolis-treated birds could bear the capability for immunomodulatory effects by change Th1 subset cytokine expression in vaccination.

Keywords: Vaccination, propolis, broiler, immunomodulatory

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9 Analysis of Impact of Flu Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Viral Infections (ARVI) Morbidity among Population in South Kazakhstan Region, 2010-2015

Authors: Karlygash Tulendieva

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Presently vaccination is the most effective method of prevention of flu and its complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the increase of coverage of the population of South Kazakhstan region with flu vaccination and decrease of the ARVI morbidity. The analysis was performed on the data of flu vaccination of risk groups, including children under one year and pregnant women. Data on ARVI morbidity during 2010-2015 and data on vaccination were taken from the reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of Department of Consumers’ Rights Protection of South Kazakhstan region. Coverage with flu vaccination of the risk groups was annually increasing and in 2015 it reached 16% (450,000/2,800,682) from the total population. The ARVI morbidity rate in the entire population in 2010 was 2,010.4 per 100,000 of the population and decreased 3.2 times to 609.9 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Annual growth was observed from 2010 to 2015 of specific weight of the vaccinated main risk groups: healthcare workers by 51% (from 17,331 in 2010 to 33,538 in 2015), children with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases, immune deficiency, weak and sickly children above six months by 39% (from 63,122 in 2010 to 158,023 in 2015), adults with chronic co-morbidities by 27% (from 44,271 in 2010 to 162,595 in 2015), persons above 65 by 17% (from 10,276 in 2010 to 57,875 in 2015), and annual coverage of pregnant women on second or third trimester from 34,443 in 2010 to 37,969 in 2015. Starting from 2013 and until 2015 vaccination was performed in the region with coverage of at least 90% of children from 6 months to one year. The ARVI morbidity in this age group decreased 3.3 times from 8,687.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2010 to 2,585.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Vaccination of pregnant women on 2-3 trimester was started in the region in 2012. Annual increase of vaccination coverage of pregnant women from 86.1% (34,443/40,000) in 2012 to 95% (37,969/40,000) in 2015 decreased the morbidity 1.5 times from 4,828.8 per 100,000 of population in 2012 to 3,022.7 per 100,000 of population in 2015. Following the increase of vaccination coverage of the population in South Kazakhstan region, the trend was observed of decrease of ARVI morbidity rates among the population and main risk groups, among pregnant women and children under one year.

Keywords: Vaccination, acute respiratory viral infections, flu, risk groups

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8 A Vaccination Program to Control an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A among MSM in Taiwan, 2016

Authors: Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang, Ying-Jung Hsieh, Angela S. Huang, Chu-Ming Chiu

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Background and Objectives: Hepatitis A is primarily acquired by the fecal-oral route through person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. During 2010 to 2014, an average of 83 cases of locally-acquired disease was reported to Taiwan’s notifiable disease system. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) identified an outbreak of acute hepatitis A which began in June 2015. Of the 126 cases reported in 2015, 103 (82%) cases were reported during June–December and 95 cases (92%) of them were male. The average age of all male cases was 31 years (median, 29 years; range, 15–76 years). Among the 95 male cases, 49 (52%) were also infected with HIV, and all reported to have had sex with other men. To control this outbreak, TCDC launched a free hepatitis A vaccination program in January 2016 for close contacts of confirmed hepatitis A cases, including family members, sexual partners, and household contacts. Effect of the vaccination program was evaluated. Methods: All cases of hepatitis A reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System were included. A case of hepatitis A was defined as a locally-acquired disease in a person who had acute clinical symptoms include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea or abdominal discomfort compatible with hepatitis, and tested positive for anti-HAV IgM during June 2015 to June 2016 in Taiwan. The rate of case accumulation was calculated using a simple regression model. Results: During January–June 2016, there were 466 cases of hepatitis A reported; of the 243 (52%) who were also infected with HIV, 232 (95%) had a history of having sex with men. Of the 346 cases that were followed up, 259 (75%) provided information on contacts but only 14 (5%) of them provided the name of their sexual partners. Among the 602 contacts reported, 349 (58%) were family members, 14 (2%) were sexual partners, and 239 (40%) were other household contacts. Among the 602 contacts eligible for free hepatitis A vaccination, 440 (73%) received the vaccine. There were 87 (25%) cases that refused to disclose their close contacts. The average case accumulation rate during January–June 2016 was 21.7 cases per month, which was 6.8 times compared to the average case accumulation rate during June–December 2015 of 3.2 cases per month. Conclusions: Despite vaccination program aimed to provide free hepatitis A vaccine to close contacts of hepatitis A patients, the outbreak continued and even gained momentum in transmission. Refusal by hepatitis A patients to provide names of their close contacts and rejection of contacts to take the hepatitis A vaccine may have contributed to the poor effect of the program. Targeted vaccination efforts of all MSM may be needed to control the outbreak among this population in the short term. In the long term, universal vaccination program is needed to prevent the infection of hepatitis A.

Keywords: HIV, Vaccination, men who have sex with men, hepatitis A

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7 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Fan Yang, Li Lu, Chengbin Wang, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin

Abstract:

Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: Vaccination, outbreak, varicella, breakthrough varicella

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6 Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Tunisian Health Care Workers

Authors: Nabiha Bouafia, Asma Ammar, Olfa Ezzi, Mohamed Mahjoub, Mansour Njah, Asma BenCheikh, Wadiaa Bannour, Radhia Helali

Abstract:

Background: The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with vaccination against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among healthcare workers (HWs) in the University Hospital Center (UHC) Farhat Hached Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study all licensed physicians (n= 206) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 372) exercising at UHC Hached Sousse (Tunisia) during two months (January and February 2014). Data were collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire, which composed by 21 questions. In order to determinate factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B among HWs, this questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, one of the most classical behavior theories. Logistic regression with the stepwise method of Hosmer and Lemeshow was used to identify the determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV. Results: The response rates were 79.8%. Fifty two percent believe that HBV is frequent in our healthcare units and 60.6% consider it a severe infection. The prevalence of HWs vaccination was 39%, 95% CI [34.49%; 43.5%]. In multivariate analysis, determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV among HWs were young age (p=10-4), male gender (p = 0. 006), high or very high importance accorded to health (p = 0.035), perception membership in a risk group for HBV infection (p = 0.038) and very favorable or favorable opinion about vaccination against HVB (p=10-4). Conclusion: The results of our study should be considered in any strategy for preventing VHB infection in HWs. In the mean time, coverage with standard vaccines should be improved also by supplying complete information on the risks of VHB infection and on the safety and efficacy of vaccination.

Keywords: Vaccination, Prevalence, hepatitis B virus, healthcare workers

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5 Spread of Measles Disease in Indonesia with Susceptible Vaccinated Infected Recovered Model

Authors: Septiawan A. Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Sutanto Sastraredja

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Measles is a disease which can spread caused by a virus and has been a priority’s Ministry of Health in Indonesia to be solved. Each infected person can be recovered and get immunity so that the spread of the disease can be constructed with susceptible infected recovered (SIR). To prevent the spread of measles transmission, the Ministry of Health holds vaccinations program. The aims of the research are to derive susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR) model, to determine the patterns of disease spread with SVIR model, and also to apply the SVIR model on the spread of measles in Indonesia. Based on the article, it can be concluded that the spread model of measles with vaccinations, that is SVIR model. It is a first-order differential equation system. The patterns of disease spread is determined by solution of the model. Based on that model Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2186 with the average of vaccinations scope about 88% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 4.9%. If it is simulated as Ministry of Health new programs with the average of vaccinations scope about 95% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 3%, then Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2184. Even with the average of vaccinations scope about 100% and no failure of vaccinations, Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2183. Indonesia’s target as a measles-free nation in 2020 has not been reached.

Keywords: Vaccination, measles, susceptible infected recovered (SIR), susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR)

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4 Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Immune Response Induced in Lungs by Intranasal Immunization with Mycobacterium indicus pranii

Authors: Ananya Gupta, Sangeeta Bhaskar

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Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a saprophytic mycobacterium. It is a predecessor of M. avium complex (MAC). Whole genome analysis and growth kinetics studies have placed MIP in between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. It shares significant antigenic repertoire with M. tuberculosis and have unique immunomodulatory properties. MIP provides better protection than BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models. Immunization with MIP by aerosol route provides significantly higher protection as compared to immunization by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. However, mechanism behind differential protection has not been studied. In this study, using mice model we have evaluated and compared the M.tb specific immune response in lung compartments (airway lumen / lung interstitium) as well as spleen following MIP immunization via nasal (i.n.) and s.c. route. MIP i.n. vaccination resulted in increased seeding of memory T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in the airway lumen. Frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 migratory marker (CXCR3) and activation marker (CD69) were also high in airway lumen of MIP i.n. group. Significantly high ex vivo secretion of cytokines- IFN-, IL-12, IL-17 and TNF- from cells of airway luminal spaces provides evidence of antigen-specific lung immune response, besides generating systemic immunity comparable to MIP s.c. group. Analysis of T cell response on per cell basis revealed that antigen specific T-cells of MIP i.n. group were functionally superior as higher percentage of these cells simultaneously secreted IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha cytokines as compared to MIP s.c. group. T-cells secreting more than one of the cytokines simultaneously are believed to have robust effector response and crucial for protection, compared with single cytokine secreting T-cells. Adoptive transfer of airway luminal T-cells from MIP i.n. group into trachea of naive B6 mice revealed that MIP induced CD8 T-cells play crucial role in providing long term protection. Thus the study demonstrates that MIP intranasal vaccination induces M.tb specific memory T-cells in the airway lumen that results in an early and robust recall response against M.tb infection.

Keywords: Vaccination, airway lumen, Mycobacterium indicus pranii, Th1 migratory markers

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3 Relationship between Mannheimia haemolytica and the Fertility Characteristics of Boer Goats

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali

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A study was conducted to determine the effects on the severity of pneumonia due to Mannheimia haemolytica and its relation with the fertility of bucks. A total of 12 crossbred Boer bucks of 3 treatment groups of equal number (4 goats per group, aged 12-14 months) were selected in this study. Group A was intranasally inoculated live M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group B was first immunized subcutaneously M. haemolytica killed vaccine (2 ml) two week before intranasal inoculation of M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group C was treated with normal saline (PBS) as control. Electro-ejaculator was used for semen collection once per week whilst scrotal circumference was measured before and after challenge. The semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, live/dead percentage and morphology were evaluated. From the semen evaluation, goats in Group A exhibited significant decrease in the semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and live/dead sperm compared with vaccinated group B. The scrotal circumference was significantly decreased in group A compared to B. There were non-significant differences in scrotal circumferences of group B and C. The results suggested that M. haemolytica infection has negative effects on the fertility of Boer bucks.

Keywords: Vaccination, Mannheimia haemolytica, Boer bucks, semen evaluation

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2 Migrant and Population Health, Two Sides of a Coin: A Descriptive Study

Authors: A. Sottomayor, M. Perez Duque, M. C. Henriques

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Introduction: Migration is not a new phenomenon; nomads often traveled, seeking better living conditions, including food and water. The increase of migrations affects all countries, rising health-related challenges. In Portugal, we have had migrant movements in the last decades, pairing with economic behavior. Irregular immigrants are detained in Santo António detention center from Portuguese Immigration and Borders Service (USHA-SEF) in Porto until court decision for a maximum of 60 days. It is the only long stay officially designated detention center for immigrants in Portugal. Immigrant health is important for public health (PH). It affects and is affected by the community. The XXVII Portuguese Government considered immigrant integration, including access to health, health promotion, protection and reduction of inequities a political priority. Many curative, psychological and legal services are provided for detainees, but until 2015, no structured health promotion or prevention actions were being held at USHA-SEF. That year, Porto Occidental PH Local Unit started to provide vaccination and health literacy on this theme for detainees and SEF workers. Our activities include a vaccine lecture, a medical consultation with vaccine prescription and administration, along with documented proof of vaccination. All vaccines are volunteer and free of charge. This action reduces the risk of importation and transmission of diseases, contributing to world eradication and elimination programs. We aimed to characterize the demography of irregular immigrant detained at UHSA-SEF and describe our activity. Methods: All data was provided by Porto Occidental Public Health Unit. All paper registers of vaccination were uploaded to MicrosoftExcel®. We included all registers and collected demographic variables, nationality, vaccination date, category, and administered vaccines. Descriptive analysis was performed using MicrosoftExcel®. Results: From 2015 to 2018, we delivered care to 256 individuals (179 immigrants; 77 workers). Considering immigrants, 72% were male, and 8 (16%) women were pregnant. 85% were between 20-54 years (ᵡ=30,8y; 2-71y), and 11 didn’t report any age. Migrants came from 48 countries, and India had the highest number (9%). MMR and Tetanus vaccines had > 90% vaccination rate and Poliomyelitis, hepatitis B and flu vaccines had around 85% vaccination rates. We had a consistent number of refusals. Conclusion: Our irregular migrant population comes from many different countries, which increases the risk of disease importation. Pregnant women are present as a particular subset of irregular migrants, and vaccination protects them and the baby. Vaccination of migrant is valuable for them and for the countries in which they pass. It contributes to universal health coverage, for eradication programmes and accomplishment of the Sustainable Development Goals. Peer influence may present as a determinant of refusals so we must consistently educate migrants before vaccination. More studies would be valuable, particularly on the migrant trajectory, duration of stay, destiny after court decision and health impact.

Keywords: Public Health, Vaccination, migrants, universal health coverage

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1 Impact Evaluation of Vaccination against Eight-Child-Killer Diseases on under-Five Children Mortality at Mbale District, Uganda

Authors: Lukman Abiodun Nafiu

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This study examines the impact evaluation of vaccination against eight-child-killer diseases on under-five children mortality at Mbale District. It was driven by three specific objectives which are to determine the proportion of under-five children mortality due to the eight-child-killer diseases to the total under-five children mortality; establish the cause-effect relationship between the eight-child-killer diseases and under-five children mortality; as well as establish the dependence of under-five children mortality in the location at Mbale District. A community based cross-sectional and longitudinal (panel) study design involving both quantitative and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) approaches was employed over a period of 36 months. Multi-stage cluster design involving Health Sub-District (HSD), Forms of Ownership (FOO) and Health Facilities Centres (HFC) as the first, second and third stages respectively was used. Data was collected regarding the eight-child-killer diseases namely: measles, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, poliomyelitis (polio), tetanus, haemophilus influenza, rotavirus gastroenteritis and mortality regarding immunized and non-immunized children aged 0-59 months. We monitored the children over a period of 24 months. The study used a sample of 384 children out of all the registered children for each year at Mbale Referral Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centres (HCIV, HCIII and HCII) at Mbale District between 2015 and 2019. These children were followed from birth to their current state (living or dead). The data collected in this study was analysed using cross tabulation and the chi-square test. The study concluded that majority of mothers at Mbale district took their children for immunization and thus reducing the occurrence of under-five children mortality. Overall, 2.3%, 4.6%, 3.1%, 5.4%, 1.5%, 3.8%, 0.0% and 0.0% of under-five children had polio, tetanus, diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and rotavirus gastroenteritis respectively across all the sub counties at Mbale district during the period considered. Also, different locations (sub counties) do not have significant influence on the occurrence of these eight-child-killer diseases among the under-five children at Mbale district. Therefore, the study recommended that government and agencies should continue to work together to implement measures of vaccination programs and increasing access to basic health care with a continuous improvement on the social interventions to progress child survival.

Keywords: Diseases, Children, Vaccination, Mortality

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