Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Utilization Related Abstracts

28 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed

Abstract:

In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: Utilization, chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, sponge

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27 Bacillus licheniformis sp. nov. PS-6, an Arsenic Tolerance Bacterium with Biotransforming Potential Isolated from Sediments of Pichavaram Mangroves of South India

Authors: Padmanabhan D, Kavitha S

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to investigate arsenic resistance ability of indigenous microflora and its ability to utilize arsenic species form containing water source. PS-6 potential arsenic tolerance bacterium was screened from thirty isolates from Pichavaram Mangroves of India having tolerance to grow up to 1000 mg/l of As (V) and 800 mg/l of As (III) and arsenic utilization ability of 98 % of As (V) and 97% of As (III) with initial concentration of 3-5 mg/l within 48 hrs. Optimum pH and temperature was found to be ~7-7.4 and 37°C. Active growth of PS-6 in minimal salt media (MSB) helps in cost effective biomass production. Dry weight analysis of PS-6 has shown significant difference in biomass when exposed to As (III) and As (V). Protein level study of PS-6 after exposing to As (V) and As (III) shown modification in total protein concentration and variation in SDS-PAGE pattern. PS-6 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on partially sequenced of 16S rRNA using NCBI Blast. Further investigation will help in using this potential bacterium as a well-grounded source for urgency.

Keywords: Utilization, arsenite, arsenate, Bacillus licheniformis

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26 Assessment of the Use of Participatory Research Methods among Researchers in Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria

Authors: Samson Olusegun Apantaku, Adetayo K. Aromolaran, Giyatt Hammed

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The study assessed the use of participatory research methods among Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria (FUNAAB) researchers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty respondents from the study area. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Results showed that 75.8% of the respondents were males while only 21.3% were female. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 years and most (77.5%) of them were married. 15% of the respondents were in professorial cadre, 21.7% and 20% of the respondents were senior lecturers/fellow and lecturer/research fellow I&II respectively. The results further revealed that 93.3% of the respondents were aware of participatory research methods and 82.5% of the respondents have utilized it before. The average period of usage was 2.7 years and participation by consultation (86.7%) and interactive participation (76.7%) were mostly used. Most (94.2%) indicated that fund was the major hindrance to the use of participatory research methods. The result of correlation analysis showed that there was significant relationship between the years of research experience, designation post (status) of the respondents and usage of participatory research methods (r = 0.034, 0.031, p < 0.05). The study concluded that most of the researchers were aware of and used participatory research methods, which could influence the quality of their research or make it acceptable to the end users. It was recommended that more funds should be made available and accessible for participatory research. All researchers should be trained and encouraged to make use of participatory research methods in their research activities so as to achieve effective research and capacity building that could enhance adoption of technologies and increase agricultural production in the country. Farmers’ capacity to participate in agricultural research should also be enhanced.

Keywords: Utilization, awareness, participatory research, participatory research methods

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25 Utilization of CD-ROM Database as a Storage and Retrieval System by Students of Nasarawa State University Keffi

Authors: Suleiman Musa

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The utilization of CD-ROM as a storage and retrieval system by Nasarawa State University Keffi (NSUK) Library is crucial in preserving and dissemination of information to students and staff. This study investigated the utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NUSK. Data was generated using structure questionnaire. One thousand and fifty two (1052) respondents were randomly selected among post-graduate and under-graduate students. Eight hundred and ten (810) questionnaires were returned, but only five hundred and ninety three (593) questionnaires were well completed and useful. The study found that post-graduate students use CD-ROM Databases more often than the under-graduate students in NSUK. The result of the study revealed that knowledge about CD-ROM Database 33.22% got it through library staff. 29.69% use CD-ROM once a month. Large number of users 45.70% purposely uses CD-ROM Databases for study and research. In fact, lack of users’ orientation amount to 58.35% of problems faced, while 31.20% lack of trained staff make it more difficult for utilization of CD-ROM Database. Major numbers of users 38.28% are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, while a good number of them 27.99% are satisfied. Then 1.52% is highly dissatisfied but could not give reasons why. However, to ensure effective utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NSUK, the following recommendations are made: effort should be made to encourage under-graduate in using CD-ROM Database. The institution should conduct orientation/induction course for students on CD-ROM Databases in the library. There is need for NSUK to produce in house databases on their CD-ROM for easy access by users.

Keywords: Utilization, Storage, Retrieval, students, CD-ROM databases

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24 Consequential Effects of Coal Utilization on Urban Water Supply Sources – a Study of Ajali River in Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Enebe Christian Chukwudi

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Water bodies around the world notably underground water, ground water, rivers, streams, and seas, face degradation of their water quality as a result of activities associated with coal utilization including coal mining, coal processing, coal burning, waste storage and thermal pollution from coal plants which tend to contaminate these water bodies. This contamination results from heavy metals, presence of sulphate and iron, dissolved solids, mercury and other toxins contained in coal ash, sludge, and coal waste. These wastes sometimes find their way to sources of urban water supply and contaminate them. A major problem encountered in the supply of potable water to Enugu municipality is the contamination of Ajali River, the source of water supply to Enugu municipal by coal waste. Hydro geochemical analysis of Ajali water samples indicate high sulphate and iron content, high total dissolved solids(TDS), low pH (acidity values) and significant hardness in addition to presence of heavy metals, mercury, and other toxins. This is indicative of the following remedial measures: I. Proper disposal of mine wastes at designated disposal sites that are suitably prepared. II. Proper water treatment and III. Reduction of coal related contaminants taking advantage of clean coal technology.

Keywords: Waste, treatment, Utilization, Water Quality, Coal, Sources, Contamination, effects

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23 Improving Automotive Efficiency through Lean Management Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Raed El-Khalil, Hussein Zeaiter

Abstract:

Managing and improving efficiency in the current highly competitive global automotive industry demands that companies adopt leaner and more flexible systems. During the past 20 years the domestic automotive industry in North America has been focusing on establishing new management strategies in order to meet market demands. 98The lean management process also known as Toyota Manufacturing Process (TPS) or lean manufacturing encompasses tools and techniques that were established in order to provide the best quality product with the fastest lead time at the lowest cost. The following paper presents a study that focused on improving labor efficiency at one of the Big Three (Ford, GM, Chrysler LLC) domestic automotive facility in North America. The objective of the study was to utilize several lean management tools in order to optimize the efficiency and utilization levels at the “Pre-Marriage” chassis area in a truck manufacturing and assembly facility. Utilizing three different lean tools (i.e. Standardization of work, 7 Wastes, and 5S) this research was able to improve efficiency by 51%, utilization by 246%, and reduce operations by 14%. The return on investment calculated based on the improvements made was 284%.

Keywords: Utilization, Lean manufacturing, standardized work, operation efficiency

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22 Knowledge and Utilization of Partograph among Obstetric Care Givers in Public Health Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Engida Yisma, Berhanu Dessalegn, Ayalew Astatkie, Nebreed Fesseha

Abstract:

Background: The use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results: Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6%) of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3%) correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6%) correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3%) of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9%) compared to those working in hospitals (34.4%) [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28)]. Conclusions: A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and on-job training of obstetric care givers on the use of the partograph should be given emphasis. Mandatory health facility policy is also recommended to ensure safety of women in labour in public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Keywords: Knowledge, Utilization, public health institutions, partograph, obstetric care givers

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21 Whose Education Is It? Developing Communities Left Out in Framing Higher Education

Authors: Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

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Developing communities accommodating institutions of Higher Education (HE) often have no capacity to pay for HE and so do not contribute values and do not participate in Quality Assurance. Only governments, academia, employers and professional organisations determine values, QA and curricula in HE. A gap between the values in HE and those desirable in local communities and environments leads to erroneous conceptions of the purposes of HE, and to graduates who hardly fit into those local communities. Unemployment and under-utilization of local resources are thus expected. As a way to improve and make HE more relevant for local communities and environment, public perceptions, values and needs should be researched and HE courses should relate with local values and environments. Communities should participate in QA.

Keywords: Higher Education, Utilization, Quality assurance, Values

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20 Production, Utilization and Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka M. Chidieber-Mark, Roseline D. Ejike

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have been described as all biological materials, other than timber extracted from natural and managed forests for human subsistence and economic activities. This study focused on the production, utilization and marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study. Data were from primary sources only. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tools as well as Net Income Analysis. Results show that a vast number of plant based and animal based NTFPs exist in the study area. They are harvested and used for multiple purposes. NTFPs are a source of income for the indigenes that depend on it for their livelihood. Unsustainable production and harvesting as well as poor marketing information was among the constraints impeding the growth and development of NTFPs sub-sector in the study area.

Keywords: Marketing, Production, Utilization, Non-Timber Forest Products

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19 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Nkiru T. Meludu, Ladele Ademola A., Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: Utilization, sweet potato, blends, sensory evaluation, diversification

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18 The Perspective of Using Maiden Name: A Sample of Konya-Turkey

Authors: Ayfer Karaaslan, Manar Aslan

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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the attitude towards the use of the maiden name of the Turkish people. Methods: For the study group who lives in the center of Konya/Turkey and people aged 16-65 years, as the sample identified 1,000 people with simple random between the months of February to May 2013. The survey created by the researchers, for investigating the perception of using the maiden name of the people of Konya consists of 25 questions with demographic characteristics. For statistical analysis of the obtained data made using SPSS 20, chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance methods of frequency, average, were evaluated as percentage distribution. Results: The traditional view of Konya increasing age increases, decreases the desire to use her maiden name. So look favorably than younger generations to use maiden name. In parallel with the level of educational levels are increasing utilization rates maiden name. Thus, individuals with higher levels of education are more positive look at the use of her maiden name. Looking at the marital status; compared to individuals with a single against the use of her maiden name of individuals who are married are more negative attitude.

Keywords: Women, Utilization, Maiden name, public viewpoint

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17 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

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Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: Health Care, Distribution, Availability, Utilization

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16 Awareness and Perception of Food Safety, Nutrition and Food Security among Omani Women

Authors: Abeer Al Kalbani

Abstract:

Oman is a sub-tropical country with limited water resources, harsh weather and limited soil fertility, constraining food production. Therefore, it largely depends on international markets to assure supply of food. In the light of these circumstances, food security in Oman is defined as the ability of the country to grant the staple food needs of people (e.g. rice, wheat, lentil, sugar, dates, dairy products, fish and plant or vegetable oils). It also involves exporting local goods with high production rates to exchange them with required food products. This concept of food security includes the availability of food through production and/or importing, stability of the market prices during all circumstances, and the ability of people to meet their needs within their income capabilities. As a result, most of the food security work is focused on availability and access dimensions of the issue. Not much research is focused on the utilization aspect of food security in Oman. Although women play a vital role in food security, there is limited research on women’s role in food security neither in Oman nor in neighboring Gulf countries. Women play an important role not only by carrying the responsibility of feeding their families but also by setting the consumption model for the household. Therefore, the research aims to contribute to the work done on food security in Oman and similar regions of the world by studying the role women play at the utilization level. Methods used in this research include Qualitative unstructured interviews, focus groups, survey questionnaire and an experimental study. Based on the FAO definition of food security, it consists of availability, access, utilization and sustainability. Results from a pilot study conducted for this research on two groups of women in Oman; urban and rural women, showed that women in Oman are responsible for achieving these four pillars at the household level. Moreover, awareness of women increased as their educational level increased. Urban women showed more awareness and openness to adopt healthier and proper food related choices than rural women. Urban women seem also more open than rural women to new ideas and concepts and ways to healthier food. However, both urban and rural women claim that no training and educational programs are available for them and awareness of food security in general remains relatively low in both groups. In the light of these findings, this research attempts to further investigate the social beliefs, practices and attitudes women adopt in relation to food purchase, storage, preparation and consumption as considered as important parts of the food system. It also seeks to examine the effect of educational training programs and media on the level of women awareness on the issue.

Keywords: Food Security, Utilization, household food security, role of women

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15 Challenges and Opportunities of Utilization of Social Media by Business Education Students in Nigeria Universities

Authors: Titus Amodu Umoru

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The global economy today is full of sophistication. All over the world, business and marketing practices are undergoing an unprecedented transformation. In realization of this fact, the federal government of Nigeria has put in place a robust transformation agenda in order to put Nigeria in a better position to be a competitive player and in the process transform all sectors of its economy. New technologies, especially the internet, are the driving force behind this transformation. However, technology has inadvertently affected the way businesses are done thus necessitating the acquisition of new skills. In developing countries like Nigeria, citizens are still battling with effective application of those technologies. Obviously, students of business education need to acquire relevant business knowledge to be able to transit into the world of work on graduation from school and compete favourably in the labour market. Therefore, effective utilization of social media by both teachers and students can help extensively in empowering students with the needed skills. Social media which is described as a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological foundations of Web 2.0, and which allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content, if incorporated into the classroom experience may be the needed answer to unemployment and poverty in Nigeria as beneficiaries can easily connect with existing and potential enterprises and customers, engage with them and reinforce mutual business benefits. Challenges and benefits of social media use in education in Nigeria universities were revealed in this study.

Keywords: Social Media, Challenges, Utilization, Business Education, Opportunities

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14 Assessment of Utilization of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling and Associated Factors among Adult out Patient Department Patients in Wonchi Woreda, South West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Dinka Fikadu

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Background: Currently in health facility, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus testing is the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services, but most people remains unaware of their HIV status due to various reasons. In many high-prevalence countries, fewer than one in ten people with HIV are aware of their HIV status. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, "has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. Reaching individuals with HIV who do not know their serostatus is a global public health priority. Objective: To assess utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and associated factors among adult outpatient department patients. Methods: Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 392 adult outpatient department patients in Wonchi woreda from February 24 to March 24 /2013. The study participant was recruited patients from all adult outpatient department patients of all four public health facilities of wonchi woreda using systematic sampling. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to elicit all important variables from the study participants and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Result: A total of 371 adult outpatient department patients aged between 15 to 64 years were actively participated in the study and 291(78.4%) of them utilized provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and 80(21.6%) of them refused. Knowledge on HIV is low in the study population; majority of the participants didn’t have comprehensive knowledge (64.7%) and (35.3%) fail to reject misconception about means of HIV transmission and prevention. Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were associated with divorced/widowed marital status[AOR (95%CI) = 0.32(0.15, 0.69)], being male sex [AOR (95%CI) =1.81(1.01, 3.24)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [AOR (95%CI) =0.408(0.220,0.759)],having awareness about provider initiated HIV testing and counseling [AOR(95%CI) =2.89(1.48,5.66)] and receiving test on HIV before[AOR (95%CI)=4.15(2.30, 7.47)]. Conclusion: Utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling among adult outpatient departments in wonchi woreda public health facility was [(78.4%)].Strengthening health information through mass media and peer education on HIV to address barrier to testing in the community such as low awareness on PITC, to increase up take of PITC among adult OPD patients.

Keywords: Utilization, Testing, human immune deficiency, provider, initiate

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13 Utilization Of Medical Plants Tetrastigma glabratum (Blume) Planch from Mount Prau in the Blumah, Central Java

Authors: A. Lianah, B. Peter Sopade, C. Krisantini

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Walikadep/Tetrastigma glabratum (Blume) Planch is a traditional herb that has been used by people of Blumah village; it is believed to have a stimulant effect and ailments for many illnesses. Our survey demonstrated that the people of Blumah village has exploited walikadep from Protected Forest of Mount Prau. More than 10% of 448 households at Blumah village have used walikadep as traditional herb or jamu. Part of the walikadep plants used is the liquid extract of the stem. The population of walikadep is getting scarce and it is rarely found now. The objectives of this study are to examine the stimulant effect of walikadep, to measure growth and exploitation rate of walikadep, and to find ways to effectively propagate the plants, as well as identifying the impact on the environment through field experiments and explorative survey. Stimulant effect was tested using open-field and hole-board test. Data were collected through field observation and experiment, and data were analysed using lab test and Anova. Rate of exploitation and plant growth was measured using Regression analysis; comparison of plant growth in-situ and ex-situ used descriptive analysis. The environmental impact was measured by population structure vegetation analysis method by Shannon Weinner. The study revealed that the walikadep exudates did not have a stimulant effect. Exploitation of walikadep and the long time required to reach harvestable size resulted in the scarcity of the plant in the natural habitat. Plant growth was faster in-situ than ex-situ; and fast growth was obtained from middle part cuttings treated with vermicompost. Biodiversity index after exploitation was higher than before exploitation, possibly due to the toxic and allellopathic effect (phenolics) of the plant. Based on these findings, further research is needed to examine the toxic effects of the leave and stem extract of walikadep and their allelopathic effects. We recommend that people of Blumah village to stop using walikadep as the stimulant. The local people, village government in the regional and central levels, and perhutani should do an integrated efforts to conserve walikadep through Pengamanan Terpadu Konservasi Walikadep Lestari (PTKWL) program, so this population of this plant in the natural habitat can be maintained.

Keywords: Utilization, traditional, medical plants, Tetastigma glabratum

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12 Using Low-Calorie Gas to Generate Heat and Electricity

Authors: Аndrey Marchenko, Oleg Linkov, Alexander Osetrov, Sergiy Kravchenko

Abstract:

The low-calorie of gases include biogas, coal gas, coke oven gas, associated petroleum gas, gases sewage, etc. These gases are usually released into the atmosphere or burned on flares, causing substantial damage to the environment. However, with the right approach, low-calorie gas fuel can become a valuable source of energy. Specified determines the relevance of areas related to the development of low-calorific gas utilization technologies. As an example, in the work considered one of way of utilization of coalmine gas, because Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of coal mine gas emission (4.7% of total global emissions, or 1.2 billion m³ per year). Experts estimate that coal mine gas is actively released in the 70-80 percent of existing mines in Ukraine. The main component of coal mine gas is methane (25-60%) Methane in 21 times has a greater impact on the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide disposal problem has become increasingly important in the context of the increasing need to address the problems of climate, ecology and environmental protection. So marked causes negative effect of both local and global nature. The efforts of the United Nations and the World Bank led to the adoption of the program 'Zero Routine Flaring by 2030' dedicated to the cessation of these gases burn in flares and disposing them with the ability to generate heat and electricity. This study proposes to use coal gas as a fuel for gas engines to generate heat and electricity. Analyzed the physical-chemical properties of low-calorie gas fuels were allowed to choose a suitable engine, as well as estimate the influence of the composition of the fuel at its techno-economic indicators. Most suitable for low-calorie gas is engine with pre-combustion chamber jet ignition. In Ukraine is accumulated extensive experience in exploitation and production of gas engines with capacity of 1100 kW type GD100 (10GDN 207/2 * 254) fueled by natural gas. By using system pre- combustion chamber jet ignition and quality control in the engines type GD100 introduces the concept of burning depleted burn fuel mixtures, which in turn leads to decrease in the concentration of harmful substances of exhaust gases. The main problems of coal mine gas as a fuel for ICE is low calorific value, the presence of components that adversely affect combustion processes and terms of operation of the ICE, the instability of the composition, weak ignition. In some cases, these problems can be solved by adaptation engine design using coal mine gas as fuel (changing compression ratio, fuel injection quantity increases, change ignition time, increase energy plugs, etc.). It is shown that the use of coal mine gas engines with prechamber has not led to significant changes in the indicator parameters (ηi = 0.43 - 0.45). However, this significantly increases the volumetric fuel consumption, which requires increased fuel injection quantity to ensure constant nominal engine power. Thus, the utilization of low-calorie gas fuels in stationary gas engine type-based GD100 will significantly reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere when the generate cheap electricity and heat.

Keywords: Utilization, methane, gas engine, low-calorie gas, pre-combustion chamber

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11 Development of a Methodology for Surgery Planning and Control: A Management Approach to Handle the Conflict of High Utilization and Low Overtime

Authors: Kirsten Hoeper, Timo Miebach, Carolin Felix

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In times of competitive pressures and demographic change, hospitals have to reconsider their strategies as a company. Due to the fact, that operations are one of the main income and one of the primary cost drivers otherwise, a process-oriented approach and an efficient use of resources seems to be the right way for getting a consistent market position. Thus, the efficient operation room occupancy planning is an important cause variable for the success and continued the existence of these institutions. A high utilization of resources is essential. This means a very high, but nevertheless sensible capacity-oriented utilization of working systems that can be realized by avoiding downtimes and a thoughtful occupancy planning. This engineering approach should help hospitals to reach her break-even point. Firstly, the aim is to establish a strategy point, which can be used for the generation of a planned throughput time. Secondly, the operation planning and control should be facilitated and implemented accurately by the generation of time modules. More than 100,000 data records of the Hannover Medical School were analyzed. The data records contain information about the type of conducted operation, the duration of the individual process steps, and all other organizational-specific data such as an operating room. Based on the aforementioned data base, a generally valid model was developed by an analysis to define a strategy point which takes the conflict of capacity utilization and low overtime into account. Furthermore, time modules were generated in this work, which allows a simplified and flexible operation planning and control for the operation manager. By the time modules, it is possible to reduce a high average value of the idle times of the operation rooms. Furthermore, the potential is used to minimize the idle time spread.

Keywords: Utilization, Capacity, operating Room, surgery planning and control

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10 Factors Constraining the Utilization of Risk Management Strategies in the Execution of Public Construction Projects in North East Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Mohammad, S. U. Kunya

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Construction projects in Nigeria are characterized with risks emanating from delays and accompanying cost-overruns. The aim of the study was to identify and assess factors constraining the utilization of risk management strategies in the execution of public construction project in North-East Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire administered to three identified projects in the North-east. Data collected were analysed using the severity index. Findings revealed political involvement, selection of inexperienced contractors and lack of coordinated public sector strategy as the most severe factors constraining the utilization of risk management strategies. The study recommended that: formulation of laws to prevent negative political meddling in construction projects; selection of experienced, risk-informed contractors; and comprehensive risk assessment and planning on all public construction projects.

Keywords: Risk management, Utilization, Strategies, factors, Nigeria, North-East, public projects

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9 Awareness and Utilization of Social Network Tools among Agricultural Science Students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale Olukayode Efunnowo

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess the awareness and utilization of Social Network Tools (SNTs) among agricultural science students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 280 respondents from the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that the majority (71.8%) of the respondents were single, with a mean age of 20 years. Almost all (95.7%) the respondents were aware of Facebook and 2go as a Social Network Tools (SNTs) while 85.0% of the respondents were not aware of Blackplanet, LinkedIn, MyHeritage and Bebo. Many (41.1%) of the respondents had views that using SNTs can enhance extensive literature survey, increase internet browsing potential, promote teaching proficiency, and update on outcomes of researches. However, 51.4% of the respondents perceived that SNTs usage as what is meant for the lecturers/adults only while 16.1% considered it as mainly used by internet fraudsters. Findings revealed that about 50.0% of the respondents browsed Facebook and 2go daily while more than 80% of the respondents used Blackplanet, MyHeritage, Skyrock, Bebo, LinkedIn and My YearBook as the need arise. Major constraints to the awareness and utilization of SNTs were high cost and poor quality of ICTs facilities (77.1%), epileptic power supply (75.0%), inadequate telecommunication infrastructure (71.1%), low technical know-how (62.9%) and inadequate computer knowledge (61.1%). The result of PPMC analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between constraints and utilization of SNTs at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that constraints affect efficient and effective utilization of SNTs in the study area. It is hereby recommended that management of colleges of education and agricultural institutes should provide good internet connectivity, computer facilities, and alternative power supply in order to increase the awareness and utilization of SNTs among students.

Keywords: Utilization, awareness, students, Constraints, social network tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
8 Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-Eastern, Nigeria

Authors: Bello Ali

Abstract:

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions by lecturers and students has become a necessity for the enhancement of quality teaching and learning. This study examined availability, accessibility and utilization of ICT in Teaching-Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-East, Nigeria. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique, in which, five out of the eleven Colleges of Education (both Federal and State owned) were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was drawn from the respondents by the use of questionnaire, interviews and observations. The results of the study, generally, indicate that the availability and accessibility to ICT facilities in Colleges of Education in North-East, Nigeria, especially in teaching/learning delivery of Islamic studies were relatively inadequate and rare to lecturers and students. The study further reveals that the respondents’ level of utilization of ICT is low and only few computer packages and internet services were involved in the ICT utilization, which is yet to reach the real expected situation of the globalization and advancement in the application of ICT if compared to other parts of the world, as far as the teaching and learning of Islamic studies is concerned. Observations and conclusion were drawn from the findings and finally, recommendations on how to improve on ICT availability, accessibility and utilization in teaching/ learning were suggested.

Keywords: Learning, Teaching, Islamic Studies, Accessibility, Availability, Utilization, ICT, North-East, college of education

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7 Improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness of Load Haul Dump Machines in Underground Coal Mines

Authors: J. BalaRaju, M. Govinda Raj, C. S. N. Murthy

Abstract:

Every organization in the competitive world tends to improve its economy by increasing their production and productivity rates. Unequivocally, the production in Indian underground mines over the years is not satisfactory, due to a variety of reasons. There are manifold of avenues for the betterment of production, and one such approach is through enhanced utilization of mechanized equipment such as Load Haul Dumper (LHD). This is used as loading and hauling purpose in underground mines. In view of the aforementioned facts, this paper delves into identification of the key influencing factors such as LHDs maintenance effectiveness, vehicle condition, operator skill and utilization of the machines on performance of LHDs. An attempt has been made for improvement of performance of the equipment through evaluation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Two different approaches for evaluation of OEE have been adopted and compared under various operating conditions. The use of OEE calculation in terms of percentage availability, performance and quality and the hitherto existing situation of the underground mine production is evaluated. Necessary recommendations are suggested to mining industry on the basis of OEE.

Keywords: Maintenance, Availability, Utilization, performance and quality

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6 Determinants of Long Acting Reversible Contraception Utilization among Women (15-49) in Uganda: Analysis of 2016 PMA2020 Uganda Survey

Authors: Nulu Nanono

Abstract:

Background: The Ugandan national health policy and the national population policy all recognize the need to increase access to quality, affordable, acceptable and sustainable contraceptive services for all people but provision and utilization of quality services remains low. Two contraceptive methods are categorized as long-acting temporary methods: intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) and implants. Copper-containing IUCDs, generally available in Ministry of Health (MoH) family planning programs and is effective for at least 12 years while Implants, depending on the type, last for up to three to seven years. Uganda’s current policy and political environment are favorable towards achieving national access to quality and safe contraceptives for all people as evidenced by increasing government commitments and innovative family planning programs. Despite the increase of modern contraception use from 14% to 26%, long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) utilization has relatively remained low with less than 5% using IUDs & Implants which in a way explains Uganda’s persistent high fertility rates. Main question/hypothesis: The purpose of the study was to examine relationship between the demographic, socio-economic characteristics of women, health facility factors and long acting reversible contraception utilization. Methodology: LARC utilization was investigated comprising of the two questions namely are you or your partner currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? And which method or methods are you using? Data for the study was sourced from the 2016 Uganda Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 Survey comprising of 3816 female respondents aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis was done using the Chi-squared tests and the probit regression at bivariate and multivariate levels respectively. The model was further tested for validity and normality of the residuals using the Sharipo wilks test and test for kurtosis and skewness. Results: The results showed the model the age, parity, marital status, region, knowledge of LARCs, availability of LARCs to be significantly associated with long acting contraceptive utilization with p value of less than 0.05. At the multivariate analysis level, women who had higher parities (0.000) tertiary education (0.013), no knowledge about LARCs (0.006) increases their probability of using LARCs. Furthermore while women age 45-49, those who live in the eastern region reduces their probability of using LARCs. Knowledge contribution: The findings of this study join the debate of prior research in this field and add to the body of knowledge related to long acting reversible contraception. An outstanding and queer finding from the study is the non-utilization of LARCs by women who are aware and have knowledge about them, this may be an opportunity for further research to investigate the attribution to this.

Keywords: Utilization, Contraception, long acting, women (15-49)

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5 Waste Utilization by Combustion in the Composition of Gel Fuels

Authors: Dmitrii Glushkov, Aleksandr G. Nigay, Olga S. Yashutina

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the intensive development of the Arctic and Antarctic areas, the actual task is to develop technology for the effective utilization of solid and liquid combustible wastes in an environment with low temperatures. Firstly, such technology will help to prevent the dumping of waste into the World Ocean and reduce the risks of causing environmental damage to the Far North areas. Secondly, promising actions will help to prepare fuel compositions from the waste in the places of their production. Such kind of fuels can be used as energy resources. It will reduce waste utilization costs when transporting them to the mainland. In the present study, we suggest a solution to the problem of waste utilization by the preparation of gel fuels based on solid and liquid combustible components with the addition of the thickener. Such kind of fuels is characterized by ease of preparation, storage, transportation and use (as energy resources). The main regularities and characteristics of physical and chemical processes are established with varying parameters of gel fuels and heating sources in wide ranges. The obtained results let us conclude about the prospects of gel fuels practical application for combustible wastes utilization. Appropriate technology will be characterized by positive environmental, operational and economic effects. The composition of the gel fuels can vary in a wide range. The fuels preparation based on one type of a combustible liquid or a several liquids mixture with the finely dispersed components addition makes it possible to obtain compositions with predicted rheological, energy or environmental characteristics. Besides, gel fuels have a lower level of the fire hazard compared to common solid and liquid fuels. This makes them convenient for storage and transportation. In such conditions, it is not necessary to transport combustible wastes from the territory of the Arctic and the Antarctic to the mainland for processing, which is now quite an expensive procedure. The research was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 18-13-00031).

Keywords: Utilization, combustible liquid waste, gel fuel, ignition and combustion

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4 Preliminary Study of Medicinal Plants in Phu Langka National Park, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Chatan, W. Promprom

Abstract:

Phu Langka National Park is located in Nakhon Phanom Province, the Northeast of Thailand. It contains about 50 km2 of one mountain and three types of forest including deciduous dipterocarp, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests. It was interesting area because of that there were some local ethnic groups living around the national park and most people use plants in this area for their life. The objective of this research is to preliminary survey of the use of medicinal plants from this area by local ethnic groups living around the national park. Colour photographs of each species were prepared. In addition, ecology, distribution in the study area, utilization and vernacular names were provided. The result showed that sixteen species of medicinal plant species were found and most plants were used for digestive system and wound. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (BKF), Thailand.

Keywords: Diversity, Utilization, taxonomy, Ethnobotany, ethnophamacology

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3 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Chatan, W. Promprom

Abstract:

Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: Utilization, taxonomy, Ethnobotany, medicinal plant, ethnophamacology

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2 Awareness and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education Courses in Nigeria Universities

Authors: Ibrahim Laro ABUBAKAR

Abstract:

The study examined the Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Nigerian Universities, specifically, Universities in Kwara State. Two purposes were formulated to guide the study from which two research questions and two hypotheses were raised. The descriptive research design was used in the research. Three Hundred respondents (100 Lecturers and 200 Students) made up the population for the study. There was no sampling, as the population of the study was not much. A structured questionnaire tagged ‘Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning Questionnaire’ (AUETTLQ) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validation, and it was equally pilot tested. The validation yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.78. The data collected from the study were statistically analyzed using frequencies and percentage count for personal data of the respondents, mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the independent t-test. One among other findings of this study showed that lecturers and Student are aware of synchronous e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education but often utilize the synchronous e-learning technologies. It was recommended among others that lecturers and Students should be sensitized through seminars and workshops on the need to maximally utilize available e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Universities.

Keywords: e-Learning, Utilization, technologies, awareness, human kinetics synchronous

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1 A Research on Determining the Viability of a Job Board Website for Refugees in Kenya

Authors: Prince Mugoya, Collins Oduor Ondiek, Patrick Kanyi Wamuyu

Abstract:

Refugee Job Board Website is a web-based application that provides a platform for organizations to post jobs specifically for refugees. Organizations upload job opportunities, and refugees can view them on the website. The website also allows refugees to input their skills and qualifications. The methodology used to develop this system is a waterfall (traditional) methodology. The reason being this model is simple, easy to understand, and use. Software development tools include Brackets, which will be used to code the website and PhpMyAdmin to store all the data in a database.

Keywords: Information Technology, Economy, Utilization, Jobs, Skills, refugee

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