Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Utilisation Related Abstracts

5 Exploring Factors That Affect the Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services: Perceptions of Women in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Leoba Nyathi, Augustine K. Tugli, Takalani G. Tshitangano

Abstract:

Use of health care services is an effective way of improving maternal and child health outcomes, especially in the rural areas. The study aimed to find out the perceptions of women on factors that affect the utilisation of antenatal care services (ANC) in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Mabunga village which is situated in Mangwe Rural District, Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach using explorative and descriptive design was adopted for the study. A sample of ten women were chosen from the target population by means of convenience sampling and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into themes and subthemes. The study results showed that access factors, socio-cultural factors, demographic factors, quality of care and knowledge about antenatal care services were the major factors affecting utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe Rural District. It was discovered that the geographical location of the village to the health care centres has a great impact on utilisation of services. All the women did not initiate ANC services as recommended and they also did not adhere to the number of times they were supposed to visit the health care centres. The findings concluded that women have the knowledge about ANC and they all attended at least once during their last pregnancy. However, inconsistencies in attendance were shown due to access, socio-cultural and demographic factors.

Keywords: Women, Utilisation, Affect, factors, perceptions, antenatal care services

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4 Designing Metal Organic Frameworks for Sustainable CO₂ Utilization

Authors: Matthew E. Potter, Daniel J. Stewart, Lindsay M. Armstrong, Pier J. A. Sazio, Robert R. Raja

Abstract:

Rising CO₂ levels in the atmosphere means that CO₂ is a highly desirable feedstock. This requires specific catalysts to be designed to activate this inert molecule, combining a catalytic site tailored for CO₂ transformations with a support that can readily adsorb CO₂. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are regularly used as CO₂ sorbents. The organic nature of the linker molecules, connecting the metal nodes, offers many post-synthesis modifications to introduce catalytic active sites into the frameworks. However, the metal nodes may be coordinatively unsaturated, allowing them to bind to organic moieties. Imidazoles have shown promise catalyzing the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides with CO₂. Typically, this synthesis route employs toxic reagents such as phosgene, liberating HCl. Therefore an alternative route with CO₂ is highly appealing. In this work we design active sites for CO₂ activation, by tethering substituted-imidazole organocatalytic species to the available Cr3+ metal nodes of a Cr-MIL-101 MOF, for the first time, to create a tailored species for carbon capture utilization applications. Our tailored design strategy combining a CO₂ sorbent, Cr-MIL-101, with an anchored imidazole results in a highly active and selective multifunctional catalyst, achieving turnover frequencies of over 750 hr-1. These findings demonstrate the synergy between the MOF framework and imidazoles for CO₂ utilization applications. Further, the effect of substrate variation has been explored yielding mechanistic insights into this process. Through characterization, we show that the structural and compositional integrity of the Cr-MIL-101 has been preserved on functionalizing the imidazoles. Further, we show the binding of the imidazoles to the Cr3+ metal nodes. This can be seen through our EPR study, where the distortion of the Cr3+ on binding to the imidazole shows the CO₂ binding site is close to the active imidazole. This has a synergistic effect, improving catalytic performance. We believe the combination of MOF support and organocatalyst allows many possibilities to generate new multifunctional catalysts for CO₂ utilisation. In conclusion, we have validated our design procedure, combining a known CO₂ sorbent, with an active imidazole species to create a unique tailored multifunctional catalyst for CO₂ utilization. This species achieves high activity and selectivity for the formation of cyclic carbonates and offers a sustainable alternative to traditional synthesis methods. This work represents a unique design strategy for CO₂ utilization while offering exciting possibilities for further work in characterization, computational modelling, and post-synthesis modification.

Keywords: Catalysis, Utilisation, MOF, carbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3 Understanding How Democratic Governance Influence Resource Allocation and Utilisation in Economies in Transition: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Terence Maisah Seka

Abstract:

This paper examines democratic governance within the private and public sectors in economies in transition (Cameroon) by exploring how they influence development in terms of resource allocation to priorities that are locally conceptualized. The benefit of this is an improvement in indigenous and the quality of life for the local population. Using an ethnographic approach, this paper suggests that institutional corruption and state bureaucracy has limited the impact of democratic governance in influencing development. This has seen funds for developments being embezzled; local projects are not being done to satisfaction among others. The paper contributes by proposing measures to eliminate corruption to improve democratic governance, which will improve resource allocation and utilization.

Keywords: Utilisation, Resource Allocation, Democratic Governance‎, Cameroon

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
2 Assessment of Pull Mechanism at Enhancing Maize Farmers’ Utilisation of Aflasafe Bio-Control Measures in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Jonathan A. Akinwale, Ibukun J. Agotola

Abstract:

There is a need to rethink how technology is being disseminated to end users in order to ensure wide adoption and utilisation. Aflasafe bio-control was developed to combat aflatoxin in maize to ensure food safety for the end users. This study was designed to assess how the pull mechanism is enhancing the utilisation of this proven technology among maize farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study determines the awareness of farmers on Aflasafe, sources of purchase of Aflasafe, incentives towards the usage of Aflasafe, constraints to farmers’ utilisation and factors influencing farmers’ utilisation of Aflasafe bio-control measures. Respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were collected from respondents through interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics (means, frequencies, and percentages) and inferential statistics (Pearson Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis). The result showed that 89% of the farmers indicated implementers as the outlet for the purchase of Aflasafe. Also, premium payment and provision of technical assistance were the highly ranked incentives to the utilisation of Aflasafe among the farmers. The study also revealed that the major constraints face by respondents were low access to credit facility, inadequate sources of purchase, and lack of storage facilities. A little above half (54%) of the farmers were found to have fully utilized Aflasafe in maize production. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between incentives and utilisation of Aflasafe (r-value=0.274; p ≤ 0.01). The result of the regression analysis indicated maize production experience (β=0.572), output (β=0.531), years of formal education (β=0.404) and household size (β=0.391) as the leading factors influencing farmers utilisation of Aflasafe bio-control in maize production. The study, therefore, recommends that governments and non-governmental organisations should be interested in making Aflasafe available to the maize farmers either through loan provision or price subsidy.

Keywords: Utilisation, Aflasafe bio-control, maize production, production incentives, pull mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1 Factors Affecting Adequate Utilisation of Ante-natal Health Care Services among Pregnant Women in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State

Authors: Ilim Moses Msughter

Abstract:

The study was carried out to examine the availability of Ante-natal care services and the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilization of these services in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State. Four specific objectives were outlined as thus to examine the availability of antenatal care services in Dutsin-Ma local government area, to identify the socio-cultural factors affecting the utilisation of ante-natal care services, to ascertain the challenges affecting utilisation of ante-natal care services and suggest strategies to improve efficiency in ante-natal service delivery and utilisation of same services. Data were collected from 110 respondents using a questionnaire and through the use of the interview. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings revealed that ante-natal care services are available in the study area, but access to such services is hindered by several factors, which include religious and traditional beliefs, cost of services and poor attitudes of health care workers which has an adverse effect on people’s desire to visit ante-natal centres. The study recommended that Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) need to be trained on how to handle pregnancy-related complications. It is also recommended that essential ante-natal drugs and services should be subsidised or made free by the government, and this must be closely monitored to ensure efficiency. Finally, human relation training should be organised for nurses and midwives to improve their attitudes towards patients during ante-natal visits.

Keywords: Utilisation, Religion, traditional birth attendant, ante-natal

Procedia PDF Downloads 1