Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Usability Related Abstracts

5 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila

Abstract:

Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: Prioritization, WebGIS, Usability, framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
4 A Second Look at Gesture-Based Passwords: Usability and Vulnerability to Shoulder-Surfing Attacks

Authors: Lakshmidevi Sreeramareddy, Komalpreet Kaur, Nane Pothier

Abstract:

For security purposes, it is important to detect passwords entered by unauthorized users. With traditional alphanumeric passwords, if the content of a password is acquired and correctly entered by an intruder, it is impossible to differentiate the password entered by the intruder from those entered by the authorized user because the password entries contain precisely the same character set. However, no two entries for the gesture-based passwords, even those entered by the person who created the password, will be identical. There are always variations between entries, such as the shape and length of each stroke, the location of each stroke, and the speed of drawing. It is possible that passwords entered by the unauthorized user contain higher levels of variations when compared with those entered by the authorized user (the creator). The difference in the levels of variations may provide cues to detect unauthorized entries. To test this hypothesis, we designed an empirical study, collected and analyzed the data with the help of machine-learning algorithms. The results of the study are significant.

Keywords: Authentication, Usability, gesture-based passwords, shoulder-surfing attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
3 Evaluation of Gesture-Based Password: User Behavioral Features Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Lakshmidevi Sreeramareddy, Komalpreet Kaur, Nane Pothier

Abstract:

Graphical-based passwords have existed for decades. Their major advantage is that they are easier to remember than an alphanumeric password. However, their disadvantage (especially recognition-based passwords) is the smaller password space, making them more vulnerable to brute force attacks. Graphical passwords are also highly susceptible to the shoulder-surfing effect. The gesture-based password method that we developed is a grid-free, template-free method. In this study, we evaluated the gesture-based passwords for usability and vulnerability. The results of the study are significant. We developed a gesture-based password application for data collection. Two modes of data collection were used: Creation mode and Replication mode. In creation mode (Session 1), users were asked to create six different passwords and reenter each password five times. In replication mode, users saw a password image created by some other user for a fixed duration of time. Three different duration timers, such as 5 seconds (Session 2), 10 seconds (Session 3), and 15 seconds (Session 4), were used to mimic the shoulder-surfing attack. After the timer expired, the password image was removed, and users were asked to replicate the password. There were 74, 57, 50, and 44 users participated in Session 1, Session 2, Session 3, and Session 4 respectfully. In this study, the machine learning algorithms have been applied to determine whether the person is a genuine user or an imposter based on the password entered. Five different machine learning algorithms were deployed to compare the performance in user authentication: namely, Decision Trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Naive Bayes Classifier, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Gaussian Radial Basis Kernel function, and K-Nearest Neighbor. Gesture-based password features vary from one entry to the next. It is difficult to distinguish between a creator and an intruder for authentication. For each password entered by the user, four features were extracted: password score, password length, password speed, and password size. All four features were normalized before being fed to a classifier. Three different classifiers were trained using data from all four sessions. Classifiers A, B, and C were trained and tested using data from the password creation session and the password replication with a timer of 5 seconds, 10 seconds, and 15 seconds, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier A using five ML algorithms are 72.5%, 71.3%, 71.9%, 74.4%, and 72.9%, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier B using five ML algorithms are 69.7%, 67.9%, 70.2%, 73.8%, and 71.2%, respectively. The classification accuracies for Classifier C using five ML algorithms are 68.1%, 64.9%, 68.4%, 71.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. SVMs with Gaussian Radial Basis Kernel outperform other ML algorithms for gesture-based password authentication. Results confirm that the shorter the duration of the shoulder-surfing attack, the higher the authentication accuracy. In conclusion, behavioral features extracted from the gesture-based passwords lead to less vulnerable user authentication.

Keywords: Authentication, Machine Learning Algorithms, Usability, gesture-based passwords, shoulder-surfing attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2 Evaluation of UI for 3D Visualization-Based Building Information Applications

Authors: Monisha Pattanaik

Abstract:

In scenarios where users have to work with large amounts of hierarchical data structures combined with visualizations (For example, Construction 3d Models, Manufacturing equipment's models, Gantt charts, Building Plans), the data structures have a high density in terms of consisting multiple parent nodes up to 50 levels and their siblings to descendants, therefore convey an immediate feeling of complexity. With customers moving to consumer-grade enterprise software, it is crucial to make sophisticated features made available to touch devices or smaller screen sizes. This paper evaluates the UI component that allows users to scroll through all deep density levels using a slider overlay on top of the hierarchy table, performing several actions to focus on one set of objects at any point in time. This overlay component also solves the problem of excessive horizontal scrolling of the entire table on a fixed pane for a hierarchical table. This component can be customized to navigate through parents, only siblings, or a specific component of the hierarchy only. The evaluation of the UI component was done by End Users of application and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts to test the UI component's usability with statistical results and recommendations to handle complex hierarchical data visualizations.

Keywords: Visualization, Navigation, Building Information Modeling, User Interface, Usability, Digital Twin, UI component

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 Usability Evaluation of a Self-Report Mobile App for COVID-19 Symptoms: Supporting Health Monitoring in the Work Context

Authors: Kevin Montanez, Patricia Garcia

Abstract:

The confinement and restrictions adopted to avoid an exponential spread of the COVID-19 have negatively impacted the Peruvian economy. In this context, Industries offering essential products could continue operating, but they have to follow safety protocols and implement strategies to ensure employee health. In view of the increasing internet access and mobile phone ownership, “Alerta Temprana”, a mobile app, was developed to self-report COVID-19 symptoms in the work context. In this study, the usability of the mobile app “Alerta Temprana” was evaluated from the perspective of health monitors and workers. In addition to reporting the metrics related to the usability of the application, the utility of the system is also evaluated from the monitors' perspective. In this descriptive study, the participants used the mobile app for two months. Afterwards, System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire was answered by the workers and monitors. A Usefulness questionnaire with open questions was also used for the monitors. The data related to the use of the application was collected during one month. Furthermore, descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used. The workers rated the application as good (70.39). In the case of the monitors, usability was excellent (83.0). The most important feature for the monitors were the emails generated by the application. The average interaction per user was 30 seconds and a total of 6172 self-reports were sent. Finally, a statistically significant association was found between the acceptability scale and the work area. The results of this study suggest that Alerta Temprana has the potential to be used for surveillance and health monitoring in any context of face-to-face modality. Participants reported a high degree of ease of use. However, from the perspective of workers, SUS cannot diagnose usability issues and we suggest we use another standard usability questionnaire to improve "Alerta Temprana" for future use.

Keywords: Mobile app, Usability, public health in informatics, self-report

Procedia PDF Downloads 1