Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

urine Related Abstracts

7 Effect of Phthalates on Male Infertility: Myth or Truth?

Authors: Rashmi Tomar, A. Srinivasan, Nayan K. Mohanty, Arun K. Jain


Phthalates have been used as additives in industrial products since the 1930s, and are universally considered to be ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, as well as diet and medical treatments. Animal studies showing the existence of an association between some phthalates and testicular toxicity have generated public and scientific concern about the potential adverse effects of environmental changes on male reproductive health. Unprecedented declines in fertility rates and semen quality have been reported during the last half of the 20th century in developed countries and increasing interest exists on the potential relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants, including phthalates, and human male reproductive health Studies. Phthalates may be associated with altered endocrine function and adverse effects on male reproductive development and function, but human studies are limited. The aim of the present study was detection of phthalate compounds, estimation of their metabolites in infertile & fertile male. Blood and urine samples were collected from 150 infertile patients & 75 fertile volunteers recruited through Department of Urology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Blood have been collected in separate glass tubes from the antecubital vein of the patients, serum have been separate and estimate the phthalate level in serum samples by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry using NIOSH / OSHA detailed protocol. Urine of Infertile & Fertile Subjects was collected & extracted using solid phase extraction method, analysis by HPLC. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge the present study based on human is first to show the presence of phthalate in human serum samples and their metabolites in urine samples. Significant differences were observed between several phthalates in infertile and fertile healthy individuals.

Keywords: Toxicity, Male Infertility, HPLC, Gas Chromatography, phthalates, serum, urine

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6 Partition of Nonylphenol between Different Compartment for Mother-Fetus Pairs and Health Effects of Newborns

Authors: Chun-Hao Lai, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Meng-Han Lin, Mei-Lien Chen


Nonylphenol (NP) is a degradation product of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs). It is a well-known endocrine disruptor which may cause estrogenic effects. The growing fetus and infants are more vulnerable to exposure to NP than adults. It is important to know the levels and influences of prenatal exposure to NP. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the levels of prenatal exposure among Taiwanese, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for the infants who were breastfed and exposed to NP through the milk. (3) To investigate the correlation between birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to NP. We analyzed thirty one pairs of maternal urines, placentas, first month’ breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detector. The questionnaire included socio- demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history. Information about the birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. The daily intake of NP from breast milk was calculated using deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in placenta, and breast milk in the first month were 31.2 (1.8) ng/g, 17.2 (1.6) ng/g, respectively. The medium of daily intake NP in breast milk was 1.33 μg/kg-bw/day in the first month. We found negative association between NP levels of placenta and birth height. And we observed negative correlation between maternal urine NP levels and birth weight. In this study, we could provide the NP exposure profile among Taiwan pregnant women and the daily intake of NP in Taiwan infants. Prenatal exposure to higher levels of NP may increase the risk of lower birth weight and shorter birth height.

Keywords: urine, breast milk, nonylphenol, mother, fetus, placenta

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5 Simultaneous Determination of p-Phenylenediamine, N-Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine and N,N-Diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

Authors: Khaled M. Mohamed


Background: P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is used in the manufacture of hair dyes and skin decoration. In some developing countries, suicidal, homicidal and accidental cases by PPD were recorded. In this work, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of PPD and its metabolites N-acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N,N-diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD) in human urine has been developed and validated. Methods: PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were extracted from urine by methylene chloride at alkaline pH. Acetanilide was used as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were separated on an Eclipse XDB- C18 column (150 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1% formic acid in gradient elution. Detection was performed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray positive ionization under multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The transition ions m/z 109 → 92, m/z 151 → 92, m/z 193 → 92, and m/z 136 → 77 were selected for the quantification of PPD, MAPPD, DAPPD, and IS, respectively. Results: Calibration curves were linear in the range 10–2000 ng/mL for all analytes. The mean recoveries for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were 57.62, 74.19 and 50.99%, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were within 1.58–9.52% and 5.43–9.45% respectively for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD. Inter-assay accuracies were within -7.43 and 7.36 for all compounds. PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were stable in urine at –20 degrees for 24 hours. Conclusions: The method was successfully applied to the analysis of PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD in urine samples collected from suicidal cases.

Keywords: Validation, Metabolites, LC-MS/MS, urine, p-Phenylenediamine

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4 Electrochemical Behavior and Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Dianabol Steroid in Urine at Bare Glassy Carbon Paste Electrode

Authors: N. Al-Orfi, M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh


The electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive and selective determination of dianabol steroid (DS) in phosphate, Britton-Robinson (B-R) and HEPES buffers of pH 2.0 - 11, 2.0 - 11 and 6.2 - 8.0, respectively using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) at bare GCE was studied. The dependence of the CV response of the developed cathodic peak potential (Ep, c), peak current (ip, c) and the current function (ip, c / υ1/2) on the scan rate (υ) at the bare GCE revealed the occurrence of electrode coupled chemical reaction of EC type mechanism. The selectivity of the proposed method was assessed in the presence of high concentrations of major interfering species e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and ions Na+, K+, PO4-3, NO3- and SO42-. The recovery of the method was not significant where t(critical)=2.20 > texp=1.81-1.93 at 95% confidence. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in biological fluids as urine was investigated. The results were demonstrated as recovery percentages in the range 95±2.5-97±4.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-1.5%.

Keywords: determination, urine, modified electrode, dianabol

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3 Nafion Multiwalled Carbon Nano Tubes Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Sensor for the Voltammetric Estimation of Dianabol Steroid in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids

Authors: M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh, Nouf M. Al-Ourfi


The redox behavior of dianabol steroid (DS) on Nafion Multiwalled Carbon nano -tubes (MWCNT) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in various buffer solutions was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) and successfully compared with the results at non modified bare GCE. The Nafion-MWCNT composite film modified GCE exhibited the best electrochemical response among the two electrodes for the electro reduction of DS that was inferred from the EIS, CV and DP-CSV. The modified sensor showed a sensitive, stable and linear response in the concentration range of 5 – 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.08 nM. The selectivity of the proposed sensor was assessed in the presence of high concentration of major interfering species. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids (urine) was determined and the results demonstrated acceptable recovery and RSD of 5%. Statistical treatment of the results of the proposed method revealed no significant differences in the accuracy and precision. The relative standard deviations for five measurements of 50 and 300 ng mL−1 of DS were 3.9 % and 1.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: determination, urine, dianabol steroid, modified GCE

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2 Evaluation of Feasibility of Ecological Sanitation in Central Nepal

Authors: K. C. Sharda


Introduction: In the world, almost half of the population are lacking proper access to improved sanitation services. In Nepal, large number of people are living without access to any sanitation facility. Ecological sanitation toilet which is defined as water conserving and nutrient recycling system for use of human urine and excreta in agriculture would count a lot to utilize locally available resources, to regenerate soil fertility, to save national currency and to achieve the goal of elimination open defecation in country like Nepal. The objectives of the research were to test the efficacy of human urine for improving crop performance and to evaluate the feasibility of ecological sanitation in rural area of Central Nepal. Materials and Methods: The field investigation was carried out at Palung Village Development Committee (VDC) of Makawanpur District, Nepal from March – August, 2016. Five eco-san toilets in two villages (Angare and Bhot Khoriya) were constructed and questionnaire survey was carried out. During the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked about socio-economic parameters, farming practices, awareness of ecological sanitation and fertilizer value of human urine and excreta in agriculture. In prior to a field experiment, soil was sampled for analysis of basic characteristics. In the field experiment, cauliflower was cultivated for a month in the two sites to compare the fertilizer value of urine with chemical fertilizer and no fertilizer with three replications. The harvested plant samples were analyzed to understand the nutrient content in plant with different treatments. Results and Discussion: Eighty three percent respondents were engaged in agriculture growing mainly vegetables, which may raise the feasibility of ecological sanitation. In the study area, water deficiencies in dry season, high demand of chemical fertilizer, lack of sanitation awareness were found to be solved. The soil at Angare has sandier texture and lower nitrogen content compared to that in Bhot Khoriya. While the field experiment in Angare showed that the aboveground biomass of cauliflower in the urine fertilized plot were similar with that in the chemically fertilized plot and higher than those in the non-fertilized plots, no significant difference among the treatments were found in Bhot Khoriya. The more distinctive response of crop growth to the three treatments in the former might be attributed to the poorer soil productivity, which in turn could be caused by the poorer inherent soil fertility and the poorer past management by the farmer in Angare. Thus, use of urine as fertilizer could help poor farmers with low quality soil. The significantly different content of nitrogen and potassium in the plant samples among three treatments in Bhot Khoriya would require further investigation. When urine is utilized as a fertilizer, the productivity could be increased and the money to buy chemical fertilizer would be utilized in other livelihood activities. Ecological sanitation is feasible in the area with similar socio-economic parameter.

Keywords: Ecological Sanitation, urine, Nepal, cauliflower, chemical fertilizer

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1 Proposals for the Practical Implementation of the Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure for Antineoplastic Drugs

Authors: Antoine Villa, Mireille Canal-Raffin, Nadege Lepage


Context: Most antineoplastic drugs (AD) have a potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or reprotoxic effect and are classified as 'hazardous to handle' by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Their handling increases with the increase of cancer incidence. AD contamination from workers who handle AD and/or care for treated patients is, therefore, a major concern for occupational physicians. As part of the process of evaluation and prevention of chemical risks for professionals exposed to AD, Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure (BMOE) is the tool of choice. BMOE allows identification of at-risk groups, monitoring of exposures, assessment of poorly controlled exposures and the effectiveness and/or wearing of protective equipment, and documenting occupational exposure incidents to AD. This work aims to make proposals for the practical implementation of the BMOE for AD. The proposed strategy is based on the French good practice recommendations for BMOE, issued in 2016 by 3 French learned societies. These recommendations have been adapted to occupational exposure to AD. Results: AD contamination of professionals is a sensitive topic, and the BMOE requires the establishment of a working group and information meetings within the concerned health establishment to explain the approach, objectives, and purpose of monitoring. Occupational exposure to AD is often discontinuous and 2 steps are essential upstream: a study of the nature and frequency of AD used to select the Biological Exposure Indice(s) (BEI) most representative of the activity; a study of AD path in the institution to target exposed professionals and to adapt medico-professional information sheet (MPIS). The MPIS is essential to gather the necessary elements for results interpretation. Currently, 28 urinary specific BEIs of AD exposure have been identified, and corresponding analytical methods have been published: 11 BEIs were AD metabolites, and 17 were AD. Results interpretation is performed by groups of homogeneous exposure (GHE). There is no threshold biological limit value of interpretation. Contamination is established when an AD is detected in trace concentration or in a urine concentration equal or greater than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytical method. Results can only be compared to LOQs of these methods, which must be as low as possible. For 8 of the 17 AD BEIs, the LOQ is very low with values between 0.01 to 0.05µg/l. For the other BEIs, the LOQ values were higher between 0.1 to 30µg/l. Results restitution by occupational physicians to workers should be individual and collective. Faced with AD dangerousness, in cases of workers contamination, it is necessary to put in place corrective measures. In addition, the implementation of prevention and awareness measures for those exposed to this risk is a priority. Conclusion: This work is a help for occupational physicians engaging in a process of prevention of occupational risks related to AD exposure. With the current analytical tools, effective and available, the (BMOE) to the AD should now be possible to develop in routine occupational physician practice. The BMOE may be complemented by surface sampling to determine workers' contamination modalities.

Keywords: Antineoplastic Drugs, urine, occupational exposure, biological monitoring of occupational exposure, biological exposure indice

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