Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Urbanization Related Abstracts

74 Challenges of Peri-Urban Agriculture in Cities of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nairobi City Peri-Urban Area

Authors: Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo


Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, and also for various other urban uses. This land is not available within cities but in peri-urban areas. The expansion of the cities into the peri-urban areas is creating direct and indirect impacts with those living there facing new challenges and opportunities in meeting their life needs and accommodating the by-products of urbanization. Although urbanization of these areas provides opportunities for employment, better housing, education, knowledge and technology transfer, and ready markets for the agricultural products, increase in population places enormous stress on natural resources and existing social services and infrastructure, therefore causing environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is affecting agriculture for those still holding onto their farms for agricultural purposes. This paper, using a multiple theoretical framework and qualitative research approach, attempts to describe the positive and adverse effects of urbanization on peri-urban agriculture, using the Town Council of Karuri within Nairobi peri-urban areas as a case study.

Keywords: Planning, Land Use, Environmental Degradation, Urbanization, peri-urban agriculture

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73 Land Management Framework: A Case of Kolkata

Authors: Alokananda Nath


Land is an important issue anywhere in the world as it is one of the fundamental elements in human settlements. Since the urban areas are considered to be the drivers of economy for any country across the world and the phenomenon of ‘urbanization’ happening everywhere, there is always a greater pressure on urban land and its management. Many states in India have realized the importance of land as a valuable resource and have implemented certain framework for managing and developing land. But in West Bengal no such statutory framework has been formulated till now and a very out dated model of land acquisition for public purpose is practiced. Due to the lop-sided character of urban growth in the entire eastern region of India, the city of Kolkata continues to bear the burden of excessive growth of population and consequent urbanization of the adjoining areas at a rapid pace. This research tries to look into these conflicts with respect to the present pattern of development in the context of Kolkata and suggest a system for land management in order to implement the planning processes. For this purpose, five case study areas were taken up within the Kolkata Metropolitan Area and subsequent analysis of their present land management and development techniques was done. The findings reveal that there is a lack of political will as well as administrative inefficiency on part of both the development authority and the local bodies. Mostly the local bodies lack the financial resources and technical expertise to work out any kind of land management framework or work out any kind of model in order to manage the development that is happening. All these place undue strain on city infrastructure systems and reduce the potential of cities to contribute as engines of economic growth. The focus of reforms, therefore, ought to be on streamlining the urban planning process, judicious and optimal land use, efficient plan implementation mechanisms, improvement of titling and registration processes.

Keywords: Land Development, Urbanization, land management framework, policy reforms, land-use planning processes

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72 A Comprehensive Metamodel of an Urbanized Information System: Experimental Case

Authors: Leila Trabelsi


The urbanization of Information Systems (IS) is an effective approach to master the complexity of the organization. It strengthens the coherence of IS and aligns it with the business strategy. Moreover, this approach has significant advantages such as reducing Information Technologies (IT) costs, enhancing the IS position in a competitive environment and ensuring the scalability of the IS through the integration of technological innovations. Therefore, the urbanization is considered as a business strategic decision. Thus, its embedding becomes a necessity in order to improve the IS practice. However, there is a lack of experimental cases studying meta-modelling of Urbanized Information System (UIS). The aim of this paper addresses new urbanization content meta-model which permits modelling, testing and taking into consideration organizational aspects. This methodological framework is structured according to two main abstraction levels, a conceptual level and an operational level. For each of these levels, different models are proposed and presented. The proposed model for has been empirically tested on company. The findings of this paper present an experimental study of urbanization meta-model. The paper points out the significant relationships between dimensions and their evolution.

Keywords: Information Systems, Urbanization, Enterprise Architecture‎, meta-model

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71 A Comparative Study of Localized Rainfall and Air Pollution between the Urban Area of Sungai Penchala with Sub-Urban and Green Area in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd N. Ahmad, Lariyah Mohd Sidek


The study had shown that Sungai Penchala (urban) was experiencing localized rainfall and hazardous air pollution due to urbanization. The high rainfall that partly added by localized rain had been seen as a threat of causing the flash floods and water quality deterioration in the area. The air pollution that consisted of mainly particulate matter (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) gave an alarming air pollution index (API) to the surrounding area. Comparison among urban area (Sungai Penchala), sub-urban (Gombak), and green areas (Jerantut plus Temerloh) with respect to the rainfall parameters and air pollutants, it was found that the degree of intensities of the parameters was positively related with the urbanization. The air pollutants especially NO2, SO2, and CO were in tandem with the increase of the rainfall. Specifically, if the water catchment area is physically near to the urban area, then the authorities need to look into related urban development program by considering the management of emitted pollutants with respect to the ecological setting of the urban area.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Urbanization, green area localized rainfall, sub-urban area

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70 Effective Environmental Planning Management (EPM) as Panacea to Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Jegede Kehinde Jacob, Ola Akeem Bayonle, Adewale Yemi Yekeen


The rapid rate of urban growth in most developing countries of the world in recent times is alarming. Mass movement of people from rural areas to the urban centres, the consequence of the uncontrolled rapid urbanisation resulting to many un-conforming environmental challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, land, water and air pollution, poor environmental sanitation, poor and inadequate housing, urban degradation, sprawl and slums, urban violence, crime, robbery and prostitution as well as many other social vices that make the cities unsustainable. The resultant effects of all these are abysmal failure in the management of cities on the part of the governing authorities and other relevant stakeholders as well as unconducive and unwholesome condition of living of the people. This paper attempts to examine holistically the issue of environmental planning management (EPM) process development and management concept with a view for dynamic and interactive approach for various stakeholders as partners in achieving sustainable cities of our dream. The areas of discussion including conceptual and contextual issues, sustainable cities concept, good urban governance including literature review. The paper goes further to examine opportunities and challenges of built environment generally, the nature and context of environmental problems in particular, the role and duties of environmental planning and management (EPM) process in sustainable urban development. The paper further reviewed briefly the various levels of institutionalisation of EPM process with a typical case study of sustainable Ibadan project (SIP). The paper concludes with a list of recommendations to ensure effective and lasting solutions to cities problems through initiation of EPM process achievable in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: Environmental Planning, Sustainable Development, Built Environment, Sustainable Cities, Urbanization

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69 Plant Genetic Diversity in Home Gardens and Its Contribution to Household Economy in Western Part of Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse


Home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practice is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihood. High levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity are preserved in home gardens. Plant diversity is threatened by rapid and unplanned urbanization, which increases environmental problems such as heating, pollution, loss of habitats and ecosystem disruption. Tropical home gardens have played a significant role in conserving plant diversity while providing substantial benefits to households. This research aimed to understand the relationship between household characteristics and plant diversity in western Ethiopia home gardens and the contributions of plants to the household economy. Plant diversity and different uses of plants were studied in a random sample of 111 suburban home gardens in the Ilu Ababora, Jima and Wellega suburban area, western Ethiopia, based on complete garden inventories followed by household surveys on socio-economic status during 2012. A total of 261 species of plants were observed, of which 41% were ornamental plants, 36% food plants, and 22% medicinal plants. Of these 16% were sold commercially to produce income. Avocado, bananas, and other fruits produced in excess. Home gardens contributed the equivalent of 7% of total annual household income in terms of food and commercial sales. Multiple regression analysis showed that education, time spent in gardening, land for cultivation, household expenses, primary conservation practices, and uses of special techniques explained 56% of the total plant diversity. Food, medicinal and commercial plant species had significant positive relationships with time spent gardening and land area for gardening. Education and conservation practices significantly affected food and medicinal plant diversity. Special techniques used in gardening showed significant positive relations with ornamental and commercial plants. Reassessments in different suburban and urban home gardens and proper documentation using same methodology is essential to build a firm policy for enhancing plant diversity and related values to households and surroundings.

Keywords: Urbanization, Ethiopia, plant genetic diversity, suburban home gardens

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68 The Environment in Urban Planning and Management

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Mahmood Salahi


Increasing urbanization will be one of the defining features of the 21st century. This produces particular environmental challenges, but also creates opportunities for urban development that can contribute to broader goals of improving the quality of life for urban residents while achieving greater levels of global sustainability. Half of the world’s population already lives in urban areas, with a growing number of these people living in towns and cities in low and middle-income countries. As well as being a demographic phenomenon, urbanisation is intricately linked with economic, social and environmental transitions. The increasing proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas has been driven by the growing concentration of new investment and employment opportunities. In general, nations with the most rapid and sustained economic growth have urbanized most.2 Urban centres provide opportunities for a range of social and cultural activities, as well as being critical for innovations in science, technology and education. Indeed, urban areas are of critical importance for social and economic development: as the Cities Alliance recognizes, 'only sustained urban growth has the capacity to lift both rural and urban populations out of poverty'.

Keywords: Management, Urban Planning, Environment, Urbanization

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67 Impact of Urbanization on Natural Drainage Pattern in District of Larkana, Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi


During past few years, several floods have adversely affected the areas along lower Indus River. Besides other climate related anomalies, rapidly increasing urbanization and blockage of natural drains due to siltation or encroachments are two other critical causes that may be responsible for these disasters. Due to flat topography of river Indus plains and blockage of natural waterways, drainage of storm water takes time adversely affecting the crop health and soil properties of the area. Government of Sindh is taking a keen interest in revival of natural drainage network in the province and has initiated this work under Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority. In this paper, geospatial techniques are used to analyze landuse/land-cover changes of Larkana district over the past three decades (1980-present) and their impact on natural drainage system. Satellite derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and topographic sheets (recent and 1950) are used to delineate natural drainage pattern of the district. The urban landuse map developed in this study is further overlaid on drainage line layer to identify the critical areas where the natural floodwater flows are being inhibited by urbanization. Rainfall and flow data are utilized to identify areas of heavy flow, whereas, satellite data including Landsat 7 and Google Earth are used to map previous floods extent and landuse/cover of the study area. Alternatives to natural drainage systems are also suggested wherever possible. The output maps of natural drainage pattern can be used to develop a decision support system for urban planners, Sindh development authorities and flood mitigation and management agencies.

Keywords: Flood, Urbanization, Satellite Data, geospatial techniques, natural drainage

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66 Impacts of Ibeju - Lekki New Town on Neighbouring Residents of Ibeju, Lagos Nigeria

Authors: Abolade Olajoke, Adigun Folasade Oyenike, Odunjo Oluronke Omolola Olaleye, Babajide Rotimi


Against the shortfall associated with unprecedented urbanization in most cities of the world, coupled with rapid expansion of outer boundaries, is the resultant birth of the development of new towns. The paper therefore examines the impacts of Ibeju - Lekki New Town on Neighbouring communities of Ibeju Lekki. Random systematic sampling was employed elicit relevant information from a total number of 269 residents at interval of five buildings in four neighbouring communities. Descriptive statistics was employed to test for the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, problems faced by government officials during the implementation and monitoring process. Likert scale was employed to ascertain respondents view on the impact of the new town on neighbouring communities. Result from the findings shows that male (56.9%) are the most dominant occupant in the study area of which most (68.1%) fall within the most the active age group (18-39 and 40-59 years). Results further shows that 36% of the total respondents are traders and majority (32%) earn below government salary wage cap of ₦18000 thus indicating that majority of the respondents are petty traders. Results of findings from development authority reveals that the major problem encountered during monitoring and implementation is harassment of government officials (35%). Result of likert scale further show that new town has brought increase in intensity of land use within neighbouring communities (RAI 3.65), provision of job opportunity (RAI 3.57). This have consequently improve standard of living of the neighbouring community (RAI 3.27). On the contrary some (RAI 1.97) opined that attention should paid to provision of power supply and provision of recreation facilities (RAI I.63). The study recommends that government should make adequate provisions for basic facilities such power supply, adequate health care system, basic education and provision of healthy portable water. This should be given utmost priority to enhance the living condition of residents. To forestall attack from residents’ adequate security measures should be provided as backup for Government official during implementation and monitoring. Appropriate sanction to illegal occupants and demolition of illegal structures should be fully implemented, This will indubitably prevent haphazard development and also promote a liveable environment. Against the shortfall associated with unprecedented urbanization in most cities of the world, coupled with rapid expansion of outer boundaries, is the resultant birth of the development of new towns. The paper therefore examines the impacts of Ibeju - Lekki New Town on Neighbouring communities of Ibeju Lekki. Random systematic sampling was employed elicit relevant information from a total number of 269 residents at interval of five buildings in four neighbouring communities. Descriptive statistics was employed to test for the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, problems faced by government officials during the implementation and monitoring process. Likert scale was employed to ascertain respondents view on the impact of the new town on neighbouring communities. Result from the findings shows that male (56.9%) are the most dominant occupant in the study area of which most (68.1%) fall within the most the active age group (18-39 and 40-59 years). Results further shows that 36% of the total respondents are traders and majority (32%) earn below government salary wage cap of ₦18000 thus indicating that majority of the respondents are petty traders. Results of findings from development authority reveals that the major problem encountered during monitoring and implementation is harassment of government officials (35%) Result of likert scale further show that new town has brought increase in intensity of land use within neighbouring communities (RAI 3.65), provision of job opportunity (RAI 3.57). This have consequently improve standard of living of the neighbouring community (RAI 3.27). On the contrary some (RAI 1.97) opined that attention should paid to provision of power supply and provision of recreation facilities (RAI I.63). The study recommends that government should make adequate provisions for basic facilities such power supply, adequate health care system, basic education and provision of healthy portable water. This should be given utmost priority to enhance the living condition of residents. To forestall attack from residents’ adequate security measures should be provided as backup for Government official during implementation and monitoring. Appropriate sanction to illegal occupants and demolition of illegal structures should be fully implemented, This will indubitably prevent haphazard development and also promote a liveable environment.

Keywords: Urbanization, new town, infrastructure boundary

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65 Migration, Food Security, Rapid Urbanization and Population Rise in Nigeria: A Wake-Up Call to Policy-Makers

Authors: A. E. Obayelu, S. O. Olubiyo


Food is different from other commodities because everybody needs food for survival. This has led to a shift in focus to food security in the global policy arena. However, there is paucity of studies on the interactions between food security, migration, urbanization and population rise. This paper therefore look at the linkages between migration and food security in the context of rapid urbanization and population rise of Nigeria. The study obtained data and information from both secondary sources and primary method through the voice of some selected Nigerians through telephone interview. The findings revealed that, the primary factor for the rapid urbanization in Nigeria is migration; most foods are still produced by peasant farmers who are scattered all over the rural areas and not multinational companies who produce on large scale. The country is still characterized with inadequate infrastructural facilities and services to cater for growing population. There are no protective policies enforced by the Nigeria government. In most cases, the migrants are left entirely on mercy of what they can find to due for survival. The most common coping mechanisms by migrants from rural to urban areas are changing food intake in terms of quantity, quality, diversity and frequency and prioritizing children. Policies that address urban food security need to consider the complex relationship between rapid population rise and migration and appropriate transformations that will be able to manage urbanization. With increasing rate of urbanization, the focus of food security should no longer be that of rural only

Keywords: Food Security, Urban, Urbanization, agricultural commercialization, agricultural transformation

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64 Urban Planning in Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Chala Elhassen


City planning and urban management seem more complex our days compared to past times. The interaction of many factors both endogenous and exogenous made more difficult the urban fact. The city has changed status with the demographic bulge. It passed the primary status meeting limited requirements to a multidisciplinary status marked by the diversity of needs. These increase with the increase in population and living standard. Our era is marked by urbanization, complex phenomenon that develops both in industrialized countries in those of the third world. Human concentrations increasingly have significant multiplier effects on the social and economic structure of a region or a country. On the whole, the issue of urban planning revolved around questions related firstly to the understanding of the phenomena of urbanization; and also in search of the most appropriate ways to ensure control, the efficiency and consistency of the urbanization process. Urban planning remains an ambiguous area that mixes scientific contributions, technical, artistic, administrative and legal in varying proportions. What is the founder of specificity is that it always presupposes the existence of a will to act, itself supported by a thorough knowledge of will.

Keywords: Management, Urban Planning, Urbanization, industrialized countries

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63 Transformations of River Zones in Hanoi, Vietnam: Problems of Urban Drainage and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Phong Le Ha


In many cities the entire world, the relationship between cities and rivers is always considered as a fundament of urban history research because of their profound interactions. This kind of relationship makes the river zones become extremely sensitive in many aspects. One of the most important aspect is their roles in the drainage of cities. In this paper we will examine an extraordinary case of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam and Red river zones. This river has contradictory impacts to this city: It is considered as a source of life of the inhabitants who live along its two banks, however, the risk of inundation caused by the complicated hydrology system of this river is always a real threat to the cities that it flows through. Morphologically, Red river was connected to the inner rivers system that made Hanoi a complete form of a river city. This structure combined with the topography of Hanoi helps this city to assure a stable drainage system in which the river zones in the north of Hanoi play some extreme important roles. Nevertheless, in the late 20 years, Hanoi's strong urbanization and the instability of Red river's complicated hydrology make the very remarkable transformations in the relationship river-city and in the river zones: The connection between the river and the city declines; the system of inner lakes are progressively replaced by habitat land; in the river zones, the infrastructure system can't adapt to the transformations of the new quarters which have the origin of the agricultural villages. These changes bring out many chances for the urban development, but also many risks and problems, particularly in the environment and technical sides. Among these, pluvial and used water evacuation is one of the most severe problems. The disappear of inner-city lakes, the high dike and the topographical changes of Hanoi blow up the risk of inundation of this city. In consequences, the riverine zones, particularly in the north of Hanoi, where the two most important water evacuation rivers of Hanoi meet each other, are burdened with the drainage pressure. The unique water treatment plant in this zone seems to be overcharged in receiving each day about 40000m3 of used water (not include pluvial water). This kind of problem leads also to another risk related to the environmental pollution (water pollution and air pollution). So, in order to better understand the situation and to propose the solutions to resolve the problems, an interdisciplinary research covering many different fields such urban planning, architecture, geography, and especially drainage and environment has been carried out. In general, this paper will analyze an important part of the research : the process of urban transformation of Hanoi (changes in urban morphology, infrastructure system, evolution of the dike system, ...) and the hydrological changes of Red river which cause the drainage and environmental problems. The conclusions of these analyses will be the solid base of the following researches focusing on the solutions of a sustainable development.

Keywords: Environment, Infrastructure, Urbanization, Drainage, Hanoi, red rivers

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62 Groundwater Geophysical Studies in the Developed and Sub-Urban BBMP Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, South India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju, G. Venkatesha, Urs Samarth, Arun Kumar Sharma


The projection for Groundwater states that the total domestic water demand for greater Bangalore would increase from 1,170 MLD in 2010 to 1,336 MLD in 2016. Dependence on groundwater is ever increasing due to rapid Industrialization & Urbanization. It is estimated that almost 40% of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater. Due to the unscientific disposal of domestic and industrial waste generated, groundwater is getting highly polluted in the city. The scale of this impact will depend mainly upon the water-service infrastructure, the superficial geology and the regional setting. The quality of ground water is equally important as that of quantity. Jointed and fractured granites and gneisses constitute the major aquifer system of BBMP area. Two new observatory Borewells were drilled and lithology report has been prepared. Petrographic Analysis (XRD/XRF) and Water quality Analysis were carried out as per the standard methods. Petrographic samples were analysed by collecting chip of rock from the borewell for every 20ft depth, most of the samples were similar and samples were identified as Biotite-Gneiss, Schistose Amphibolite. Water quality analysis was carried out for individual chemical parameters for two borewells drilled. 1st Borewell struck water at 150ft (Total depth-200ft) & 2nd struck at 740ft (Total depth-960ft). 5 water samples were collected till end of depth in each borewell. Chemical parameter values such as, Total Hardness (360-348, 280-320) mg/ltr, Nitrate (12.24-13.5, 45-48) mg/ltr, Chloride (104-90, 70-70)mg/ltr, Fe (0.75-0.09, 1.288-0.312)mg/ltr etc. are calculated respectively. Water samples were analysed from various parts of BBMP covering 750 sq kms, also thematic maps (IDW method) of water quality is generated for these samples for Post-Monsoon season. The study aims to explore the sub-surface Lithological layers and the thickness of weathered zone, which indirectly helps to know the Groundwater pollution source near surface water bodies, dug wells, etc. The above data are interpreted for future ground water resources planning and management.

Keywords: Pollution, Urbanization, petrographic, lithology

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61 The Management of Urban Facilities in the City of Chlef

Authors: Belakhdar Salah Brahim


The Urban management is a major element of social control of public space and thus the functioning of society. As such, it is a key element of a social conception of sustainable development. Also, it is a cross-cutting sector that relies on land management, infrastructure management, habitat management, management of social services, the management of economic development, etc. This study aims to study how urban management focusing on the study of problems related to urban waste management in developing countries. It appears from the study that the city management is to improve infrastructure and urban services in order to increase the city's development and improve living conditions in cities. It covers various aspects including management of urban space, economic management, administrative management, asset management or infrastructure and finally waste management. Environmental management is important because it solves the pollution problems of life and preserve resources for future generations. Changing perceptions of waste has led to the definition of new policies for integrated waste management requirements appropriate to the urban site.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Waste Management, Urban Management, Urbanization

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60 Runoff Estimates of Rapidly Urbanizing Indian Cities: An Integrated Modeling Approach

Authors: Rupesh S. Gundewar, Kanchan C. Khare


Runoff contribution from urban areas is generally from manmade structures and few natural contributors. The manmade structures are buildings; roads and other paved areas whereas natural contributors are groundwater and overland flows etc. Runoff alleviation is done by manmade as well as natural storages. Manmade storages are storage tanks or other storage structures such as soakways or soak pits which are more common in western and European countries. Natural storages are catchment slope, infiltration, catchment length, channel rerouting, drainage density, depression storage etc. A literature survey on the manmade and natural storages/inflow has presented percentage contribution of each individually. Sanders in their research have reported that a vegetation canopy reduces runoff by 7% to 12%. Nassif et el in their research have reported that catchment slope has an impact of 16% on bare standard soil and 24% on grassed soil on rainfall runoff. Infiltration being a pervious/impervious ratio dependent parameter is catchment specific. But a literature survey has presented a range of 15% to 30% loss of rainfall runoff in various catchment study areas. Catchment length and channel rerouting too play a considerable role in reduction of rainfall runoff. Ground infiltration inflow adds to the runoff where the groundwater table is very shallow and soil saturates even in a lower intensity storm. An approximate percent contribution through this inflow and surface inflow contributes to about 2% of total runoff volume. Considering the various contributing factors in runoff it has been observed during a literature survey that integrated modelling approach needs to be considered. The traditional storm water network models are able to predict to a fair/acceptable degree of accuracy provided no interaction with receiving water (river, sea, canal etc), ground infiltration, treatment works etc. are assumed. When such interactions are significant then it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extent using the traditional discrete modelling approach. As a result the correct flooding situation is very rarely addressed accurately. Since the development of spatially distributed hydrologic model the predictions have become more accurate at the cost of requiring more accurate spatial information.The integrated approach provides a greater understanding of performance of the entire catchment. It enables to identify the source of flow in the system, understand how it is conveyed and also its impact on the receiving body. It also confirms important pain points, hydraulic controls and the source of flooding which could not be easily understood with discrete modelling approach. This also enables the decision makers to identify solutions which can be spread throughout the catchment rather than being concentrated at single point where the problem exists. Thus it can be concluded from the literature survey that the representation of urban details can be a key differentiator to the successful understanding of flooding issue. The intent of this study is to accurately predict the runoff from impermeable areas from urban area in India. A representative area has been selected for which data was available and predictions have been made which are corroborated with the actual measured data.

Keywords: Urbanization, Flooding, runoff, impermeable response

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59 The Extent to Which Social Factors Affect Urban Functional Mutations and Transformations

Authors: Skirmante Mozuriunaite


Contemporary metropolitan areas and large cities are dynamic, rapidly growing and continuously changing. Thus, urban transformations and mutations are not a new phenomenon, but rather a continuous process. Basic factors of urban transformation are related to development of technologies, globalisation, lifestyle, etc., which, in combination with local factors, have generated an extremely great variety of urban development conditions. This article discusses the main urbanisation processes in Lithuania during last 50 year period and social factors affecting urban functional mutations.

Keywords: Urbanization, Dispersion, social factors, functional mutations, urban mutations

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58 Urbanization and Water Supply in Lagos State, Nigeria: The Challenges in a Climate Change Scenario

Authors: Amidu Owolabi Ayeni


Studies have shown that spatio-temporal distribution and variability of climatic variables, urban land use, and population have had substantial impact on water supply. It is based on these facts that the impacts of climate, urbanization, and population on water supply in Lagos State Nigeria remain the focus of this study. Population and water production data on Lagos State between 1963 and 2006 were collected, and used for time series and projection analyses. Multi-temporal land-sat images of 1975, 1995 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 were used for land use change analysis. The population of Lagos State increased by about 557.1% between 1963 and 2006, correspondingly, safe water supply increased by 554%. Currently, 60% of domestic water use in urban areas of Lagos State is from groundwater while 75% of rural water is from unsafe surface water. Between 1975 and 2007, urban land use increased by about 235.9%. The 46years climatic records revealed that temperature and evaporation decreased slightly while rainfall and Relatively Humidity (RH) decreased consistently. Based on these trends, the Lagos State population and required water are expected to increase to about 19.8millions and 2418.9ML/D respectively by the year 2026. Rainfall is likely to decrease by -6.68mm while temperature will increase by 0.950C by 2026. Urban land use is expected to increase by 20% with expectation of serious congestion in the suburb areas. With these results, over 50% of the urban inhabitants will be highly water poor in future if the trends continue unabated.

Keywords: Climate Change, Challenges, Water supply, Urbanization

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57 The Impact of Urbanisation on Sediment Concentration of Ginzo River in Katsina City, Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed A. Lugard, Mohammed A. Aliyu


This paper studied the influence of urban development and its accompanied land surface transformation on sediment concentration of a natural flowing Ginzo river across the city of Katsina. An opposite twin river known as Tille river, which is less urbanized, was used to compare the result of the sediment concentration of the Ginzo River in order to ascertain the consequences of the urban area on impacting the sediment concentration. An instrument called USP 61 point integrating cable way sampler described by Gregory and walling (1973), was used to collect the suspended sediment samples in the wet season months of June, July, August and September. The result obtained in the study shows that only the sample collected at the peripheral site of the city, which is mostly farmland areas resembles the results in the four sites of Tille river, which is the reference stream in the study. It was found to be only + 10% different from one another, while at the other three sites of the Ginzo which are highly urbanized the disparity ranges from 35-45% less than what are obtained at the four sites of Tille River. In the generalized assessment, the t-distribution result applied to the two set of data shows that there is a significant difference between the sediment concentration of urbanized River Ginzo and that of less urbanized River Tille. The study further discovered that the less sediment concentration found in urbanized River Ginzo is attributed to concretization of surfaced, tarred roads, concretized channeling of segments of the river including the river bed and reserved open grassland areas, all within the catchments. The study therefore concludes that urbanization affect not only the hydrology of an urbanized river basin, but also the sediment concentration which is a significant aspect of its geomorphology. This world certainly affects the flood plain of the basin at a certain point which might be a suitable land for cultivation. It is recommended here that further studies on the impact of urbanization on River Basins should focus on all elements of geomorphology as it has been on hydrology. This would make the work rather complete as the two disciplines are inseparable from each other. The authorities concern should also trigger a more proper environmental and land use management policies to arrest the menace of land degradation and related episodic events.

Keywords: Environment, Urbanization, infiltration, river

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56 Can Urbanisation Be the Cause for Increasing Urban Poverty: An Exploratory Analysis for India

Authors: Sarmistha Singh


An analysis of trend of urbanization and urban poverty in recent decades is showing that a distinctly reducing rural poverty and increasing in urban areas. It can be argued that the higher the urbanization fuelled by the urban migration to city, which is picking up people from less skilled, education so they faced obstacle to enter into the mainstream economy of city. The share of workforce in economy is higher; in contrast it remains as negligence. At the same time, less wages, absence of social security, social dialogue make them insecure. The vulnerability in their livelihood found. So the paper explores the relation of urbanization and urban poverty in the city, in other words how the urbanization process affecting the urban space in creating the number of poor people in the city. The central focus is the mobility of people with less education and skilled with motive of job search and better livelihood. In many studies found the higher the urbanization and higher the urban poverty in city. In other words, poverty is the impact of urbanization. The strategy of urban inequality through ‘dispersal of concentration’ by the World Bank and others, need to be examined.

Keywords: Mobility, Urbanization, Urban poverty, informal settlements, informal worker

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55 Collective Efficacy and Rural Migration in Urban China—Social Determinants on Urbanization, Social Integration and Civic Engagement

Authors: Ziwei Qi


This paper focuses on issues on Urbanization, Rural Migration and Neighborhood Collective Efficacy in urban China. The urbanization and migration trend and policies in China will be discussed and the various mechanisms through which social structures affect economic action and the consequent of social disequilibrium due to urbanization will be discussed. The positive and negative propositions on urbanization will also be highlighted. The primary methodologies applied in the paper will be the theoretical application and empirical implication on urbanization in developing countries. Western sociological theories, including theories in urban criminology /sociology including social disorganization, theories of social capital and collective efficacy will be applied and analyzed to test the market society in Chinese economic and cultural setting.

Keywords: civic engagement, Urbanization, Collective Efficacy, rural migration

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54 Study of Parking Demand for Offices – Case Study: Kolkata

Authors: Sanghamitra Roy


In recent times, India has experienced the phenomenal rise in the number of registered vehicles and vehicular trips, particularly intra-city trips in most of its urban areas. The increase in vehicle ownership and use have increased parking demand immensely and accommodating the same is now a matter of big concern. Most cities do not have adequate off-street parking facilities thus forcing people to park on the streets. This has resulted in decreased carrying capacity, decreased traffic speed, increased congestion, and increased environmental problems. While integrated multi-modal transportation system is the answer to such problems, parking issues will continue to exist. In Kolkata, only 6.4% land is devoted for roads. The consequences of this huge crunch in road spaces coupled with increased parking demand are severe particularly in the CBD and major commercial areas, making the role of off-street parking facilities in Kolkata even more critical. To meaningfully address parking issues, it is important to identify the factors that influence parking demand so that it can be assessed and comprehensive parking policies and plans for the city can be formulated. This paper aims at identifying the factors that contribute towards parking demand for offices in Kolkata and their degree of correlation with parking demand. The study is limited to home-to-work trips located within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) where parking related issues are most pronounced. The data for the study is collected through personal interviews, questionnaires and direct observations from offices across the wards of KMC. SPSS is used for classification of the data and analyses of the same. The findings of this study will help in re-assessment of the parking requirements specified in The Kolkata Municipal Corporation Building Rules as a step towards alleviating parking related issues in the city.

Keywords: Urbanization, building rules, office spaces, parking demand

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53 Challenges, Responses and Governance in the Conservation of Forest and Wildlife: The Case of the Aravali Ranges, Delhi NCR

Authors: Shashi Mehta, Krishan Kumar Yadav


This paper presents an overview of issues pertaining to the conservation of the natural environment and factors affecting the coexistence of the forest, wildlife and people. As forests and wildlife together create the basis for economic, cultural and recreational spaces for overall well-being and life-support systems, the adverse impacts of increasing consumerism are only too evident. The IUCN predicts extinction of 41% of all amphibians and 26% of mammals. The major causes behind this threatened extinction are Deforestation, Dysfunctional governance, Climate Change, Pollution and Cataclysmic phenomena. Thus the intrinsic relationship between natural resources and wildlife needs to be understood in totality, not only for the eco-system but for humanity at large. To demonstrate this, forest areas in the Aravalis- the oldest mountain ranges of Asia—falling in the States of Haryana and Rajasthan, have been taken up for study. The Aravalis are characterized by extreme climatic conditions and dry deciduous forest cover on intermittent scattered hills. Extending across the districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Mahendergarh, Rewari and Bhiwani, these ranges - with village common land on which the entire economy of the rural settlements depends - fall in the state of Haryana. Aravali ranges with diverse fauna and flora near Alwar town of state of Rajasthan also form part of NCR. Once, rich in biodiversity, the Aravalis played an important role in the sustainable co-existence of forest and people. However, with the advent of industrialization and unregulated urbanization, these ranges are facing deforestation, degradation and denudation. The causes are twofold, i.e. the need of the poor and the greed of the rich. People living in and around the Aravalis are mainly poor and eke out a living by rearing live-stock. With shrinking commons, they depend entirely upon these hills for grazing, fuel, NTFP, medicinal plants and even drinking water. But at the same time, the pressure of indiscriminate urbanization and industrialization in these hills fulfils the demands of the rich and powerful in collusion with Government agencies. The functionaries of federal and State Governments play largely a negative role supporting commercial interests. Additionally, planting of a non- indigenous species like prosopis juliflora across the ranges has resulted in the extinction of almost all the indigenous species. The wildlife in the area is also threatened because of the lack of safe corridors and suitable habitat. In this scenario, the participatory role of different stakeholders such as NGOs, civil society and local community in the management of forests becomes crucial not only for conservation but also for the economic wellbeing of the local people. Exclusion of villagers from protection and conservation efforts - be it designing, implementing or monitoring and evaluating could prove counterproductive. A strategy needs to be evolved, wherein Government agencies be made responsible by putting relevant legislation in place along with nurturing and promoting the traditional wisdom and ethics of local communities in the protection and conservation of forests and wild life in the Aravali ranges of States of Haryana and Rajasthan of the National Capital Region, Delhi.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Governance, Deforestation, Urbanization

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52 Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Suryapet Town in Nalgonda District of Telangana State, a Geoinformatic Approach

Authors: Ashok Kumar Lonavath, V. Sathish Kumar


Urban sprawl is the uncontrolled and uncoordinated outgrowth of towns and cities. The process of urban sprawl can be described by change in pattern over time, like proportional increase in built-up surface to population leading to rapid urban spatial expansion. Significant economic and livelihood opportunities in the urban areas results in lack of basic amenities due to the unplanned growth The patterns, processes, dynamic causes and consequences of sprawl can be explored and designed with the help of spatial planning support system. In India context the urban area is defined as the population more than 5000, density more than 400 persons per sq. km and 75% of the population is involved in non-agricultural occupations. India’s urban population is increasing at the rate of 2.35% pa. The class I town’s population of India according to 2011 census is 18.8% that accounts for 60.4% of total unban population. Similarly in Erstwhile Andhra Pradesh it is 22.9% which accounts for 68.8% of total urban population. Suryapet town has historical recognition as ‘Gate Way of Telangana’ in the Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. The Municipality was constituted in 1952 as Grade-III, later upgraded into Grade-II in 1984 and to Grade-I in 1998. The area is 35 Sq.kms. Three major tanks located in three different directions and Musi River is flowing from a distance of 8 kms. The average ground water table is about 50m below ground. It is a fast growing town with a population of 1, 06,805 and 25,448 households. Density is 3051pp sq km, It is a Class I city as per population census. It secured the ISO 14001-2004 certificate for establishing and maintaining an environment-friendly system for solid waste disposal. It is the first municipality in the country to receive such a certificate. It won HUDCO award under environment management, award of appreciation and cash from Ministry of Housing and Poverty Elevation from Government of India and undivided Andhra Pradesh under UN Human Settlement Programme, Greentech Excellance award, Supreme Courts appreciation for solid waste management. Foreign delegates from different countries and also from various other states of India visited Suryapet municipality for study tour and training programs as part of their official visit Suryapet is located at 17°5’ North Latitude and 79°37’ East Longitude. The average elevation is 266m, annual mean temperature is 36°C and average rainfall is 821.0 mm. The people of this town are engaged in Commercial and agriculture activities hence the town has become a centre for marketing and stocking agricultural produce. It is also educational centre in this region. The present paper on urban sprawl is a theoretical framework to analyze the interaction of planning and governance on the extent of outgrowth and level of services. The GIS techniques, SOI Toposheet, satellite imageries and image analysis techniques are extensively used to explore the sprawl and measure the urban land-use. This paper concludes outlining the challenges in addressing urban sprawl while ensuring adequate level of services that planning and governance have to ensure towards achieving sustainable urbanization.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, urban sprawl, GIS, Urbanization

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51 Measuring Fragmentation Index of Urban Landscape: A Case Study on Kuala Lumpur City

Authors: Shagufta Tazin Shathy, Mohammad Imam Hasan Reza


Fragmentation due to urbanization and agricultural expansion has become the main reason for destruction of forest area and loss of biodiversity particularly in the developing world. At present, the world is experiencing the largest wave of urban growth in human history, and it is estimated that this influx will be mainly taking place in developing world. Therefore, study on urban fragmentation is vital for a sustainable urban development. Landscape fragmentation is one of the most important conservation issues in the last few decades. Habitat fragmentation due to landscape alteration has caused habitat isolation, destruction in ecosystem pattern and processes. Thus, this research analyses the spatial and temporal extent of urban fragmentation using landscape indices in the Kuala Lumpur (KL) – the capital and most populous city in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to examine the urban fragmentation index in KL city. Fragmentation metrics used in the study are: a) Urban landscape ratio (the ratio of urban landscape area and build up area), b) Infill (development that occurred within urbanized open space), and c) Extension (development of exterior open space). After analyzing all three metrics, these are calculated for the combined urban fragmentation index (UFI). In this combined index, all three metrics are given an equal weight. Land cover/ land use maps of the year 1996 and 2005 have been developed from the Landsat TM 30 m resolution satellite image. The year 1996 is taken as a reference year to analyze the changes. The UFI calculated for the year of 1996 and2005 found that the KL city has undergone rapid landscape changes destructing forest ecosystem adversely. Increasing UFI for the year of 1996 compared to 2005 indicates that the developmental activities have been occupying open spaces and fragmenting natural lands and forest. This index can be implemented in other unplanned and rapidly urbanizing Asian cities for example Dhaka and Delhi to calculate the urban fragmentation rate. The findings from the study will help the stakeholders and urban planners for a sustainable urban management planning in this region.

Keywords: GIS, Urbanization, index, sustainable urban management

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50 Physical Planning Antidote to Urban Malice

Authors: Adelayo Akeem Jolaoye


Historically urban centers serve as the fulcrum upon which significant complex social and economic development rest. Despite their fixed geographical locations, though in different degree, cities generate self-sustenance and multiplier effects in all aspects of life. They also house inestimable human capital, which serves as a power house for future generation transformation requirements. Unfortunately, the untamed global urbanization process has resulted in an unimaginable damage to the urban social structure as well as urban environmental value. The preceding has caused cities failure in performing their expected roles worst still becoming a regional burden and national liabilities. This paper briefly discusses the ecological concept of urban settlements and reviews the world historical urban evolution and growth. Also, given the above-mentioned anomalies, the paper also raised conceptual principles of urban planning as well as administrative policies for its strategic management.

Keywords: Urban Planning, City, Urbanization, urban malice

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49 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India

Authors: Mohan V. Khire, Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod


Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Urbanization, stream flow, land use/land cover

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48 Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics of Soil pH around the Balikesir City, Turkey

Authors: Çağan Alevkayali, Şermin Tağil


Determination of soil pH surface distribution in urban areas is substantial for sustainable development. Changes on soil properties occur due to functions on performed in agriculture, industry and other urban functions. Soil pH is important to effect on soil productivity which based on sensitive and complex relation between plant and soil. Furthermore, the spatial variability of soil reaction is necessary to measure the effects of urbanization. The objective of this study was to explore the spatial variation of soil pH quality and the influence factors of human land use on soil Ph around Balikesir City using data for 2015 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). For this, soil samples were taken from 40 different locations, and collected with the method of "Systematic Random" from the pits at 0-20 cm depths, because anthropologic sourced pollutants accumulate on upper layers of soil. The study area was divided into a grid system with 750 x 750 m. GPS was used to determine sampling locations, and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was used to analyze the spatial distribution of pH in the study area and to predict the variable values of un-exampled places with the help from the values of exampled places. Natural soil acidity and alkalinity depend on interaction between climate, vegetation, and soil geological properties. However, analyzing soil pH is important to indirectly evaluate soil pollution caused by urbanization and industrialization. The result of this study showed that soil pH around the Balikesir City was neutral, in generally, with values were between 6.5 and 7.0. On the other hand, some slight changes were demonstrated around open dump areas and the small industrial sites. The results obtained from this study can be indicator of important soil problems and this data can be used by ecologists, planners and managers to protect soil supplies around the Balikesir City.

Keywords: GIS, Urbanization, IDW, spatial variability, Balikesir, soil pH

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47 Spatial Variation of Trace Elements in Suspended Sediments from Urban River

Authors: Daniel Macedo Neto, Sandro Froehner, Juan Sanez


Suspended sediments (SS) are an environmental constituent able to represent the effects of land use changes on watersheds. One important consideration of land use change is its implication on trace element loading. Water bodies have the capacity to retain trace elements. Spatial variation in trace elements concentrations can be associated with land occupation and sources of pollution. In this work, the spatial variation of trace elements in suspended sediments from an urban river was assessed. Time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples were installed in three different sites of Barigui River. The suspend solids were collected every 30 days, from May 2015 to August 2015 (total samples 12). Site P1 covers 44 km2 drainage area and has low land occupation, whilst P2 cover an area of 87 km2 and it is totally urban as P3, which area is higher than 130 km2. Trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn) were analysed by ICP-ES. All elements analyzed showed a similar pattern, i.e., the concentration raise with the urbanization, exception for As (P1=7.75; P2=5.75; P3=5.60mg/kg). There was increase in concentration for Cd (P1=0.75; P2=0.78; P3=1.45mg/kg), Cr (P1=59.50; P2=101.75; P3=102.00 mg/kg), Zn (P1=142.25; P2=152.50; P3=223.00mg/kg), P (P1=937.50; P2=1,545.00; P3=2,355.00 mg/kg) and for Pb (P1=31.25; P2=32.75; P3=39.17±2.56 mg/kg). The variation in concentrations were as follow -27.74% (As), +93.33% (Cd), +71.43% (Cr), +151.20% (P), +25.33% (Pb) e +56.77% (Zn). Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn presented a clear trend of increasing the concentration from upstream to downstream. Such variation is more notorious for P, Cd and Cr, possibly due the urbanization.

Keywords: Urbanization, erosion, Trace Elements, suspended sediments

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46 Practicing Spectacular Urbanism in China: Mega-Events, the City of the Spectacle, and Spatialization of State Power

Authors: George Lin


This study examines a practice in which Chinese municipal governments actively pursue momentary and spectacular urbanism through the hosting of mega-events as an instrument to reproduce urban space for the enhancement of place competitiveness and advancement of political career. Practicing event-driven spectacular urbanism is found to have a short-term impact upon the economy and an effect upon the career advancement of the party secretary more than the mayor. Hosting mega-events has been used as a means to create “a harmonious society” and unified social space whereby grievance and discontents are grossed over, ignored, excluded and marginalized. Geographically, a new urban space has been created for the central city to reassert/consolidate its leading competitive position in the regional and national economy at the expense of the disadvantaged and marginalized. Findings of this research call for a critical re-evaluation of the sophisticated state-space inter-relations in the ongoing processes of planetary urbanization and global urban revolution in which China has taken an important part.

Keywords: Urbanism, Urbanization, Mega Events, Chinese cities

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45 Planning for a Smart Sustainable Cities: A Case Study

Authors: Ajaykumar Kambekar, Nikita Kalantri


Due to faster urbanization; developing nations will have to look forward towards establishing new planned cities those are environmentally friendly. Due to growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is evident that the rise of smart cities is witnessed as a promising trend for future growth; however, technology alone cannot make a city as a smart city. Cities must use smart systems to enhance the quality of life of its citizens and to achieve sustainable growth. Recent trends in technology may offer some indication towards harnessing our cities potential as the new engines of sustainable growth. To overcome the problems of mega-urbanization, new concept of smart cities has been introduced. The current research aims to reduce the knowledge gap in urban planning by exploring the concept of smart cities considering sustainability as a major focus. The aim of this paper is to plan for an entire smart city. The paper analyses sustainable development and identifies the key factors for the creation of future smart cities. The study also emphasizes the use of advanced planning and scheduling software such as Microsoft Project (MSP).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Urbanization, Sustainable Growth, planned cities

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