Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Urban Structure Related Abstracts

4 Transportation and Urban Land-Use System for the Sustainability of Cities, a Case Study of Muscat

Authors: Bader Eddin Al Asali, N. Srinivasa Reddy


Cities are dynamic in nature and are characterized by concentration of people, infrastructure, services and markets, which offer opportunities for production and consumption. Often growth and development in urban areas is not systematic, and is directed by number of factors like natural growth, land prices, housing availability, job locations-the central business district (CBD’s), transportation routes, distribution of resources, geographical boundaries, administrative policies, etc. One sided spatial and geographical development in cities leads to the unequal spatial distribution of population and jobs, resulting in high transportation activity. City development can be measured by the parameters such as urban size, urban form, urban shape, and urban structure. Urban Size is the city size and defined by the population of the city, and urban form is the location and size of the economic activity (CBD) over the geographical space. Urban shape is the geometrical shape of the city over which the distribution of population and economic activity occupied. And Urban Structure is the transport network within which the population and activity centers are connected by hierarchy of roads. Among the urban land-use systems transportation plays significant role and is one of the largest energy consuming sector. Transportation interaction among the land uses is measured in Passenger-Km and mean trip length, and is often used as a proxy for measurement of energy consumption in transportation sector. Among the trips generated in cities, work trips constitute more than 70 percent. Work trips are originated from the place of residence and destination to the place of employment. To understand the role of urban parameters on transportation interaction, theoretical cities of different size and urban specifications are generated through building block exercise using a specially developed interactive C++ programme and land use transportation modeling is carried. The land-use transportation modeling exercise helps in understanding the role of urban parameters and also to classify the cities for their urban form, structure, and shape. Muscat the capital city of Oman underwent rapid urbanization over the last four decades is taken as a case study for its classification. Also, a pilot survey is carried to capture urban travel characteristics. Analysis of land-use transportation modeling with field data classified Muscat as a linear city with polycentric CBD. Conclusions are drawn suggestion are given for policy making for the sustainability of Muscat City.

Keywords: Urban Structure, land-use transportation, transportation modeling urban form, urban rule parameters

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3 Investigation of Tourism and Development in Santo Domingo City

Authors: Mary Cruz


Founded from 1496 to 1502, Santo Domingo is the oldest European settlement in the Americas, inhabited without any discontinuity and was the first seat of Spanish power in the new world. Capital of the country since 1932.In this text, we discover Santo Domingo as an international tourist center, Urban Structure, Eco-tourism, Contamination and other issues related to tourism and development of this city. Founded from 1496 to 1502, Santo Domingo is the oldest European settlement in the Americas, inhabited without any discontinuity and was the first seat of Spanish power in the new world. Capital of the country since 1932. Encouraged by the United Nations and the World Bank, many Caribbean governments have encouraged tourism from the 1950s to boost their Third World economies. In this text, we discover Santo Domingo as an international tourist center, Urban Structure, Eco-tourism, Contamination and challenges of the first tourist destination in the Caribbean.

Keywords: Development, Contamination, Urban Structure, Eco-Tourism

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2 Closed Urban Block versus Open Housing Estates Structures: Sustainability Surveys in Brno, Czech Republic

Authors: M. Wittmann, G. Kopacik, A. Leitmannova


A prominent place in the spatial arrangement of Czech as well as other post-socialist, Central European cities belongs to 19th century closed urban blocks and the open concrete panel housing estates which were erected during the socialism era in the second half of 20th century. The characteristics of these two fundamentally diverse types of residential structures have, as we suppose, a different impact on the sustainable development of the urban area. The characteristics of these residential structures may influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also, e.g., the prices of real estates. These and many other phenomena indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicates degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. The survey results are reflected in the overall sustainability index and in the residents’ satisfaction index. The paper analyses the residential structures in the Central European city of Brno, Czech Republic. The case studies of the urban blocks near the city centre and of the housing estate Brno - Vinohrady are compared. The results imply that a considerable positive impact on the sustainable development of the area should be ascribed to the closed urban blocks near the city centre.

Keywords: Urban Structure, City of Brno, closed urban block, open housing estate

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1 Comparative Study of Urban Structure between an Island-Type and a General-Type City

Authors: Tomoya Oshiro, Hiroko Ono


Japan's aging population is increasing due to the decrease in birthrate. It causes various problems like the decrease in the gross domestic product of the country. The reason is why the local government of Japan has been on the way to a sustainable city recently. Then it is essential to get control of an urban structure to make the compact city successful. There are many kinds of paper about the compact city; however, the paper about a compact city of the island-type city is less. The purpose of this study is to clarify difference of urban structure between an island-type and a general city type. The method which has conducted in this research has two steps. First of all, by using evaluation indexes in the handbook, we evaluated the urban structures among each same -population-class cities from 50,000 to 100,000 people. Next, to clear the difference about the urban structure and feature between island-type and general-type cities compare the radar chart which is composed with each evaluation indexes of urban structure. Moreover, in order to clarify the relationship between evaluation indexes and the place of residence by using GIS software to show up population density on the map. As a result of this research, the management of local government and the local economy in evaluation indexes are indicated to be negative point in comparison of island-type cities with general cities. However, evaluation indexes of safety/security and low-carbon/energy are proved to be positive point. The research to find the difference features of the island-type of urban structure proves that the management of local government or the local economy is negative point in these island-type cities. In addition, the public transportation coverage in Miyako Island, Sado Island, and Amakusa Island show low value compare with other islands and average value. Relationship between evaluation indexes of an urban structure and the place of residence prove that the place of residence is related to public transportation coverage. If the place of residence is spread out, the public transportation coverage will be decreased. The results of this research reveal that the finances in island-type cities are negative point compare to general cities. This problem is caused by declining population. In addition, the place of residence is related to the public transportation coverage. Even though, it needs a much money to increase the public transportation coverage. It is possibly to cause other problems furthermore the aspect of finance is influenced by that as well. The conclusion in this research suggests that it is important for creating the compact city in island-type cities that we first need to address solving the problems about the management of local government and the local economy.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Sustainable City, Urban Structure, Comparative Analysis

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