Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Urban Related Abstracts

45 Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Modeling of Civic Facilities Using GIS Applications: A Case Study of F-11, Islamabad

Authors: Khalid Mahmood, Asma Shaheen Hashmi, Omer Riaz, Fahad Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad

Abstract:

The urban landscapes are being change with the population growth and advancements in new technologies. The urban sprawl pattern and utilizes are related to the local socioeconomic and physical condition. Urban policy decisions are executed mostly through spatial planning. A decision support system (DSS) is very powerful tool which provides flexible knowledge base method for urban planning. An application was developed using geographical information system (GIS) for urban planning. A scenario based DSS was developed to integrate the hierarchical muti-criteria data of different aspects of urban landscape. These were physical environment, the dumping site, spatial distribution of road network, gas and water supply lines, and urban watershed management, selection criteria for new residential, recreational, commercial and industrial sites. The model provided a framework to incorporate the sustainable future development. The data can be entered dynamically by planners according to the appropriate criteria for the management of urban landscapes.

Keywords: Urban, Spatial, GIS, criteria

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44 Urban Resilince and Its Prioritised Components: Analysis of Industrial Township Greater Noida

Authors: N. Mehrotra, V. Ahuja, N. Sridharan

Abstract:

Resilience is an all hazard and a proactive approach, require a multidisciplinary input in the inter related variables of the city system. This research based to identify and operationalize indicators for assessment in domain of institutions, infrastructure and knowledge, all three operating in task oriented community networks. This paper gives a brief account of the methodology developed for assessment of Urban Resilience and its prioritized components for a target population within a newly planned urban complex integrating Surajpur and Kasna village as nodes. People’s perception of Urban Resilience has been examined by conducting questionnaire survey among the target population of Greater Noida. As defined by experts, Urban Resilience of a place is considered to be both a product and process of operation to regain normalcy after an event of disturbance of certain level. Based on this methodology, six indicators are identified that contribute to perception of urban resilience both as in the process of evolution and as an outcome. The relative significance of 6 R’ has also been identified. The dependency factor of various resilience indicators have been explored in this paper, which helps in generating new perspective for future research in disaster management. Based on the stated factors this methodology can be applied to assess urban resilience requirements of a well planned town, which is not an end in itself, but calls for new beginnings.

Keywords: System, Disaster, Urban, Resilience

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43 The Impact of Women on Urban Sustainability (Case Study: Three Districts of Tehran)

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malekabadi, Leila Jalalabadi, Zahra Kiyani Ghaleh No

Abstract:

Today, systems of management and urban planning, attempt to reach more sustainable development through monitoring developments, urban development and development plans. Monitoring of changes in the urban places and sustainable urban development accounted a base for the realization of worthy goals urban sustainable development. The importance of women in environmental protection programs is high enough that in 21 agenda has been requested from all countries to allocate more shares to women in their policies. On the other hand, urban waste landfill has become one of the environmental concerns in modern cities. This research assumes that the impact of women on recycling, reduction and proper waste landfill is much more than men. For this reason, three districts; Yousef Abad, Heshmatieh and Nezam Abad are gauged through questionnaire and using the analytical research hypothesis model. This research will be categorized as functional research. The results have shown that noticing the power of women, their participation towards realization of the development objectives and programs can be used in solving their problems.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental, Urban, Solid Waste, citizens, Tehran

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42 Heuristic Approaches for Injury Reductions by Reduced Car Use in Urban Areas

Authors: Stig H. Jørgensen, Trond Nordfjærn, Øyvind Teige Hedenstrøm, Torbjørn Rundmo

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to estimate and forecast road traffic injuries in the coming 10-15 years given new targets in urban transport policy and shifts of mode of transport, including injury cross-effects of mode changes. The paper discusses possibilities and limitations in measuring and quantifying possible injury reductions. Injury data (killed and seriously injured road users) from six urban areas in Norway from 1998-2012 (N= 4709 casualties) form the basis for estimates of changing injury patterns. For the coming period calculation of number of injuries and injury rates by type of road user (categories of motorized versus non-motorized) by sex, age and type of road are made. A prognosticated population increase (25 %) in total population within 2025 in the six urban areas will curb the proceeded fall in injury figures. However, policy strategies and measures geared towards a stronger modal shift from use of private vehicles to safer public transport (bus, train) will modify this effect. On the other side will door to door transport (pedestrians on their way to/from public transport nodes) imply a higher exposure for pedestrians (bikers) converting from private vehicle use (including fall accidents not registered as traffic accidents). The overall effect is the sum of these modal shifts in the increasing urban population and in addition diminishing return to the majority of road safety countermeasures has also to be taken into account. The paper demonstrates how uncertainties in the various estimates (prediction factors) on increasing injuries as well as decreasing injury figures may partly offset each other. The paper discusses road safety policy and welfare consequences of transport mode shift, including reduced use of private vehicles, and further environmental impacts. In this regard, safety and environmental issues will as a rule concur. However pursuing environmental goals (e.g. improved air quality, reduced co2 emissions) encouraging more biking may generate more biking injuries. The study was given financial grants from the Norwegian Research Council’s Transport Safety Program.

Keywords: Forecasting, Urban, road injuries, reduced private care use, Norway

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41 Eco-Infrastructures: A Multidimensional System Approach for Urban Ecology

Authors: T. A. Mona M. Salem, Ali F. Bakr

Abstract:

Given the potential devastation associated with future climate change related disasters, it is vital to change the way we build and manage our cities, through new strategies to reconfigure them and their infrastructures in ways that help secure their reproduction. This leads to a kaleidoscopic view of the city that recognizes the interrelationships of energy, water, transportation, and solid waste. These interrelationships apply across sectors and with respect to the built form of the city. The paper aims at a long-term climate resilience of cities and their critical infrastructures, and sets out an argument for including an eco-infrastructure-based approach in strategies to address climate change. As these ecosystems have a critical role to play in building resilience and reducing vulnerabilities in cities, communities and economies at risk, the enhanced protection and management of ecosystems, biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and cities strive to adapt to climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Ecosystem, Ecology, Infrastructure, Urban

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40 Differences in Nutritional Awareness Among Urban Semi Urban and Rural Girls of South India

Authors: N. R. Ramkumar

Abstract:

The foremost aim of physical education has been to inculcate a healthy mind in a healthy body. The aim of this study was to find out the differences in nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls of South India. The investigator administered a nutritional awareness questionnaire consisting of 25 statements among 100 rural; 100 semi urban and 100 urban girls studying in different schools in South India. The filled up questionnaire were scored and the total scores for all the twenty five statements were considered as the nutritional awareness level of the subjects. The differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls were tested for statistical significance using ANOVA. In all cases 0.05 level was fixed to test the significance. The results proved that there were significant differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls (P<0.05). The paired mean comparisons proved that urban girls were having highest nutritional awareness (M: 86.86), followed by semi urban girls (M: 81.86) and then by rural girls (M: 79.48). The differences between urban and semi urban girls and urban and rural girls were significant and there was no significant differences between semi urban and rural girls. The findings of this study proved that rural girls were significantly having lesser nutritional awareness and hence the study recommends the strong need of nutritional education for rural girls in South India.

Keywords: Nutrition, Urban, awareness, semi urban, rural girls

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39 Indicators of Regional Development, Case Study: Bucharest-Ilfov Region

Authors: Dan Cristian Popescu

Abstract:

The new territorial identities and global dynamics have determined a change of policies of economics, social and cultural development from a vertical to a horizontal approach, which is based on cooperation networks between institutional actors, economic operators or civil society representatives. The European integration has not only generated a different patterns of competitiveness, economic growth, concentration of attractive potential, but also disparities among regions of this country, or even in the countryside within a region. To a better understanding of the dynamics of regional development and the impact of this concept on Romania, I chose as a case study the region Bucharest-Ilfov which is analyzed on the basis of predetermined indicators and of the impact of European programs.

Keywords: Regional Development, Rural, Urban, regional competition

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38 The Change of Urban Land Use/Cover Using Object Based Approach for Southern Bali

Authors: I. Gusti A. A. Rai Asmiwyati, Robert J. Corner, Ashraf M. Dewan

Abstract:

Change on land use/cover (LULC) dominantly affects spatial structure and function. It can have such impacts by disrupting social culture practice and disturbing physical elements. Thus, it has become essential to understand of the dynamics in time and space of LULC as it can be used as a critical input for developing sustainable LULC. This study was an attempt to map and monitor the LULC change in Bali Indonesia from 2003 to 2013. Using object based classification to improve the accuracy, and change detection, multi temporal land use/cover data were extracted from a set of ASTER satellite image. The overall accuracies of the classification maps of 2003 and 2013 were 86.99% and 80.36%, respectively. Built up area and paddy field were the dominant type of land use/cover in both years. Patch increase dominantly in 2003 illustrated the rapid paddy field fragmentation and the huge occurring transformation. This approach is new for the case of diverse urban features of Bali that has been growing fast and increased the classification accuracy than the manual pixel based classification.

Keywords: Urban, ASTER, land use/cover, Bali

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37 Migration, Food Security, Rapid Urbanization and Population Rise in Nigeria: A Wake-Up Call to Policy-Makers

Authors: A. E. Obayelu, S. O. Olubiyo

Abstract:

Food is different from other commodities because everybody needs food for survival. This has led to a shift in focus to food security in the global policy arena. However, there is paucity of studies on the interactions between food security, migration, urbanization and population rise. This paper therefore look at the linkages between migration and food security in the context of rapid urbanization and population rise of Nigeria. The study obtained data and information from both secondary sources and primary method through the voice of some selected Nigerians through telephone interview. The findings revealed that, the primary factor for the rapid urbanization in Nigeria is migration; most foods are still produced by peasant farmers who are scattered all over the rural areas and not multinational companies who produce on large scale. The country is still characterized with inadequate infrastructural facilities and services to cater for growing population. There are no protective policies enforced by the Nigeria government. In most cases, the migrants are left entirely on mercy of what they can find to due for survival. The most common coping mechanisms by migrants from rural to urban areas are changing food intake in terms of quantity, quality, diversity and frequency and prioritizing children. Policies that address urban food security need to consider the complex relationship between rapid population rise and migration and appropriate transformations that will be able to manage urbanization. With increasing rate of urbanization, the focus of food security should no longer be that of rural only

Keywords: Food Security, Urban, Urbanization, agricultural commercialization, agricultural transformation

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36 The Impact of Karst Structures on the Urban Environment in Semi-Arid Area

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Chaffai Hicham

Abstract:

Urban development is often dependent on adequate land for expansion, except that sometimes these areas have vulnerability. This is the case of karst regions characterized by carbonate geological formations marked by the presence of cavities and cracks. The impact of climate variability in Cheria area marked by a growing shortage of rainfall, the impact resulted in the development of the vulnerability of these structures. This vulnerability has led to the appearance of collapse phenomena as well in both agricultural and urban areas. Two phenomena have emerged to explain the collapses, the first is assigned a filling process in the cavities, and the second is due to a weakening of the resistance that collapses limestone slab shear phenomenon. In urban areas, the weight of the buildings has increased the load on the limestone slab and accelerated the collapse. The analysis of the environmental process is in the context of our modest work, after which we indicate the appropriate methods for management policy of urban expansion. This management more preventive (upstream), much less expensive than remedial solutions (downstream) needed after the event and sometimes ineffective.

Keywords: Management, Urban, Climate Variability, extension, chéria, vulnerability karst collapse

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35 Urban Transformation as a Process for Inner-City Slums in Turkey the Experience of Gaziantep City, Turkey

Authors: Samer Katerji, Mustafa Ozakça, Esra Demircioğlu

Abstract:

The inner-city slums become a global phenomenon problem. It is widely distributed in separate zones through the urban textures, threatens cities in physical, economic and social aspects. It often has illegal settlements with unsafe and unhealthy conditions. By the time, it grown up rapidly followed by growing in its problems. According to United Nations, in some cities, up to 80 percent of the population lives in slums. Fifty-five million new slum dwellers have been added to the global population since 2000. Both developed and developing countries started to figure out mechanics to find solutions, which is suitable to solve the inner-city slums problems. In turn, the planning agenda of Turkey has been focused on urban transformation as a solution for inner-city slums problems since the 2000s. The current laws after 2004 changed all of the statements on the urban transformation of the country. This paper come to explain the urban transformation approach as qualified presses in dealing with inner-city slums problems of turkey. After that, it highlights one of the earliest ongoing transformation projects in Gaziantep city, which is adopted by the local municipalities. The study includes assessment of the pros and cons of pursuing the project and identifying the potential consequences. This is more likely to keep up with the efforts of Gaziantep Municipality in developing and transforming slum areas.

Keywords: Urban, Transformation, slums, Gaziantep

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34 Exploring Communities of Practice through Public Health Walks for Nurse Education

Authors: Jacqueline P. Davies

Abstract:

Introduction: Student nurses must develop skills in observation, communication and reflection as well as public health knowledge from their first year of training. This paper will explain a method developed for students to collect their own findings about public health in urban areas. These areas are both rich in the history of old public health that informs the content of many traditional public health walks, but are also locations where new public health concerns about chronic disease are concentrated. The learning method explained in this paper enables students to collect their own data and write original work as first year students. Examples of their findings will be given. Methodology: In small groups, health care students are instructed to walk in neighbourhoods near to the hospitals they will soon attend as apprentice nurses. On their walks, they wander slowly, engage in conversations, and enter places open to the public. As they drift, they observe with all five senses in the real three dimensional world to collect data for their reflective accounts of old and new public health. They are encouraged to stop for refreshments and taste, as well as look, hear, smell, and touch while on their walk. They reflect as a group and later develop an individual reflective account in which they write up their deep reflections about what they observed on their walk. In preparation for their walk, they are encouraged to look at studies of quality of Life and other neighbourhood statistics as well as undertaking a risk assessment for their walk. Findings: Reflecting on their walks, students apply theoretical concepts around social determinants of health and health inequalities to develop their understanding of communities in the neighbourhoods visited. They write about the treasured historical architecture made of stone, bronze and marble which have outlived those who built them; but also how the streets are used now. The students develop their observations into thematic analyses such as: what we drink as illustrated by the empty coke can tossed into a now disused drinking fountain; the shift in home-life balance illustrated by streets where families once lived over the shop which are now walked by commuters weaving around each other as they talk on their mobile phones; and security on the street, with CCTV cameras placed at regular intervals, signs warning trespasses and barbed wire; but little evidence of local people watching the street. Conclusion: In evaluations of their first year, students have reported the health walk as one of their best experiences. The innovative approach was commended by the UK governing body of nurse education and it received a quality award from the nurse education funding body. This approach to education allows students to develop skills in the real world and write original work.

Keywords: Education, Innovation, Nursing, Urban

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33 Analysis of Street Utilization Patterns in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: I. D. Mngutyo, T. T. Gyuse, D. S. A. Alaci, J. Atser

Abstract:

Streets are public spaces that are meaningful to all people because of lack of restriction on streets. Studies show that conditions, activities and people contribute to the success of public spaces. Also, self-organization potential in activity patterns offers a prospect for the revitalization of an urban area. This potential is mostly ignored hence many African streets appear disorganized giving African urban areas an unplanned look. Therefore, this study aims to analyze street utilization patterns and explore the relationship between the pattern of street use and condition of streets in Makurdi.These activity patterns form a data base for the revitalization of public space. Three major and minor arterials streets in nine out of the eleven wards that make up the built up part of Makurdi were purposively selected as units for measurement. A street activity audit was done on streets for activities that can be observed. For activities that cannot be easily observed 4 questionnaires were randomly administered on each of the three streets giving a total of 108 questionnaires. Multivariate statistical tools such as factor analysis and regression will be used to show emerging streets activity patterns and spatial variation among the nine wards.

Keywords: urban Design, Urban, developing countries, revitalization, streets, utilization patterns, areas

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32 Tale of Massive Distressed Migration from Rural to Urban Areas: A Study of Mumbai City

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

Migration is the demographic process that links rural to urban areas, generating or spurring the growth of cities. Evidence shows the role of the city as a production processes. It looks the city as a power of centre, and a centre of change. It has been observed that not only the professionals want to settle down in an urban area but rural labourers are also coming to cities for employment. These are the people who are compelled to migrate to metropolises because of lack of employment opportunities in their place of residence. However, the cities also fail to provide adequate employment because of limited job opportunity creation and capital-intensive industrialization. So these masses of incoming migrants are force to take up whatever employment absorption is available to them particularly in urban informal activities. Ultimately with this informal job they are compelled to stay in the slum areas, which is another form of deprived housing colonies. The paper seeks to examine the evidences of poverty induced migration from rural to urban areas (particularly in urban agglomeration). The present paper utilizes an abundant rich source of census migration data (D-Series) of 1991-2001. Result shows that Mumbai remain as the most attractive place to migrate. The migrants are mainly from the major states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Rajasthan. Male dominated migration is related mostly for employment and females due to marriages. The picture of occupational absorption of migrants who moved for employment, cross classified with educational status. Result shows that illiterate males are primarily engaged in low grade production processing work. Illiterate’s females engaged in service sectors; but these are actually very low grade services in urban informal sectors in India like maid servants, domestic help, hawkers, vendors or vegetables sellers. Among the higher educational level, a small percentage of males and females got absorbed in professional or clerical work but the percentage has been increased in the period 1991-2001.

Keywords: Migration, Urban, job, informal

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31 Family Homicide: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities in California

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

This study compares the differences in social dynamics between rural and urban areas in California to explain homicides involving family members. It is hypothesized that rural homicides are better explained by social isolation and lack of intervention resources, whereas urban homicides are attributed to social disadvantage factors. Several critical social dynamics including social isolation, social disadvantages, acculturation, and intervention resources were entered in a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to examine whether county-level factors affect how each specific dynamic performs at the ZIP code level, a proxy measure for communities. Homicide data are from the Supplementary Homicide Report for all 58 counties in California from 1997 to 1999. Predictors at both the county and ZIP code levels are derived from the 2000 US census. Preliminary results from a HLM analysis show that social isolation is a significant but moderate predictor to explain rural family homicide and various social disadvantage factors are significant factors accounting for urban family homicide. Acculturation has little impact. Rurality and urbanity appear to interact with various social dynamics in explaining family homicide. The implications for prevention at both the county and community level as well as directions for future study on the differences between rural and urban locales are explored in the paper.

Keywords: Rural, Urban, Communities, Family, Homicide, HLM

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30 Age at Menarche and Menopause among Bidi Workers Women of Sagar District of Central India

Authors: Arun Kumar

Abstract:

For the present study a total of 219 women, from urban and rural areas of Sagar district of central India were selected. The mean age at menarche of rural women was found 13.89±1.17 years and for urban women, it was 13.78±1.12 years. The difference between the mean age at menarche of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.580, p≤0.05). Mean age at menopause among rural women was (47.4±4.92). The difference between the mean of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.739 and p≤0.05). These findings indicate that rural women experience menopause at a later age as compared to their urban counterparts.

Keywords: Rural, Urban, Menopause, menarche, Bidi workers

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29 Sustainability of the Built Environment of Ranchi District

Authors: Vaidehi Raipat

Abstract:

A city is an expression of coexistence between its users and built environment. The way in which its spaces are animated signify the quality of this coexistence. Urban sustainability is the ability of a city to respond efficiently towards its people, culture, environment, visual image, history, visions and identity. The quality of built environment determines the quality of our lifestyles, but poor ability of the built environment to adapt and sustain itself through the changes leads to degradation of cities. Ranchi was created in November 2000, as the capital of the newly formed state Jharkhand, located on eastern side of India. Before this Ranchi was known as summer capital of Bihar and was a little larger than a town in terms of development. But since then it has been vigorously expanding in size, infrastructure as well as population. This sudden expansion has created a stress on existing built environment. The large forest covers, agricultural land, diverse culture and pleasant climatic conditions have degraded and decreased to a large extent. Narrow roads and old buildings are unable to bear the load of the changing requirements, fast improving technology and growing population. The built environment has hence been rendered unsustainable and unadaptable through fastidious changes of present era. Some of the common hazards that can be easily spotted in the built environment are half-finished built forms, pedestrians and vehicles moving on the same part of the road. Unpaved areas on street edges. Over-sized, bright and randomly placed hoardings. Negligible trees or green spaces. The old buildings have been poorly maintained and the new ones are being constructed over them. Roads are too narrow to cater to the increasing traffic, both pedestrian and vehicular. The streets have a large variety of activities taking place on them, but haphazardly. Trees are being cut down for road widening and new constructions. There is no space for greenery in the commercial as well as old residential areas. The old infrastructure is deteriorating because of poor maintenance and the economic limitations. Pseudo understanding of functionality as well as aesthetics drive the new infrastructure. It is hence necessary to evaluate the extent of sustainability of existing built environment of the city and create or regenerate the existing built environment into a more sustainable and adaptable one. For this purpose, research titled “Sustainability of the Built Environment of Ranchi District” has been carried out. In this research the condition of the built environment of Ranchi are explored so as to figure out the problems and shortcomings existing in the city and provide for design strategies that can make the existing built-environment sustainable. The built environment of Ranchi that include its outdoor spaces like streets, parks, other open areas, its built forms as well as its users, has been analyzed in terms of various urban design parameters. Based on which strategies have been suggested to make the city environmentally, socially, culturally and economically sustainable.

Keywords: Sustainability, Urban, adaptable, built-environment

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28 Connectivity: Connecting ActivityRethinking Streets as Public Space under the Six Dimensions of Urban Space Design in the Context of Bangladesh

Authors: Manal Anis, Bin Bakhti Sayeed

Abstract:

With the encroachment of automobile upon our communities for decades and the concomitant urban sprawl resulting in a loss of public place, it was only a matter of time before people, realizing the role of streets in stimulating urban prosperity, would start reclaiming them to rebuild their communities. In order for this restoration of communities to take effect it is imperative that streets be freed from the dominance of motor vehicles. A holistic approach to pedestrian-friendly street environment can help build communities that embody the cities in which they are found. While the developed countries are finding more and more innovative ways to integrate walkable streets to foster communal living, the developing countries still have a long way to go. Since Dhaka is still struggling to balance the growing needs of accommodating automobiles for increased population with the loss of urban community life that comes with it, it is high time that alternate approaches are looked into. This study aims to understand streets as a living corridor through which one discovers and identifies with the city. The research area is chosen to be Manik Mia Avenue, overlooking the South Plaza of the National Parliament Building in Dhaka city. Being the site of supreme power, it is precisely this symbolic importance that the National Parliament Building has in the psyche of Bangladeshis, which has given Manik Mia Avenue a significant place in the country’s history. Above all, being an avenue it is essentially a neutral territory, universally accessible, inclusive and pluralist. The needs of the Avenue’s frequent users are analyzed with the help of a multi-method approach to survey consisting of an empirical study, a questionnaire survey and interview with relevant users. The research then tries to understand the concept of walkability by exploring the different ways in which the built environment influences walking. For this analysis, the six dimensions of Matthew Carmona are taken as a guideline for a holistic approach toward the different interacting facets of an urban public space. Based on the studies, a set of criteria is proposed to evaluate, plan and design streets that are more contextual in nature. The study concludes with how the existing street patterns of Dhaka city can be rethought and redesigned to cater to peoples’ need for a public place. The proposal is meant to be an inspiration for further studies in this respect in the context of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Urban, Walkability, Public space, street, six dimensions

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27 Impacts of Land Cover Changes over the Last Three Decades in Capital City of Pakistan Islamabad with the Perspective of Urbanization

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Sohail, Li Jiangfeng

Abstract:

This study aimed at characterizing land cover dynamics for about three decades in capital city of Pakistan Islamabad. The specific objectives were identifying and map the major land cover types in 1993, 2002 and 2014 and check the reduction of greenery and urbanization rate and its some environments aspects. The study showed that overall grasslands decreased in the prescribed period. The key hotspots of these changes were distributed in all directions of the study area, but at different times. Urbanization is increasing every year in this city but the policies for this number of people are not sufficient to meet their living standard requirements. Apart from it, there is also an impact of urbanization on environmental related problems. Underground water is going down and down, traffic related issue and other associated problems are part of this research. Therefore, policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems with enhancement of agricultural productivity are strongly recommended. This will ensure environmental sustainability and socio-economic well-being in the area. Future research needs to address the problems related to urbanization and need to clarify the problems and solve it on high priority.

Keywords: Water, Urban, land, Islamabad

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26 Succession and Rural vs. Urban Habitat Differences of Coleoptera Species Attracted to Pig Carrions in Eskişehir Province, Turkey

Authors: Cansu Kılıç, Ferhat Altunsoy

Abstract:

In this study, a total of 82 species belonging to the families Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae within Coleptera were detected which are collected from 24 pig carrion for a duration of one year. While 12 of the carrions have been placed in rural areas, other 12 have been placed in urban areas in Eskişehir province. The distribution of these species according to months and the period that they exist on different stages of decomposition were determined. Furthermore, Coleoptera species attracted to the pig carrions both in rural and urban areas were detected and their similarities and differences were presented.

Keywords: Turkey, Rural, Urban, Forensic Entomology, Coleoptera, succession

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25 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

Abstract:

In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: Geography, Urban, Agricultural Production Systems, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban

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24 Changing Governance and the Role of People's Involvement in Municipal Solid Waste Management: Study of Two Municipal Corporations in Kerala

Authors: Prathibha Ganesan

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This paper discusses discontents of inhabitants in the landfills and its culmination into resistance against centralised waste disposal during the last three decades in Kerala. The study is based on a sample survey of 175 households located in the landfill sites and city limits of two Municipal Corporations viz. Thrissur and Cochin. The study found that waste is dumped in the periphery of the urban area where economically and socially vulnerable people are densely populated. Moreover, landfill sites are unscientifically managed to cause severe socio-economic and health issues to the local people, finally leading to their mobilisation and persistent struggle. The struggles often culminate in the closure of landfills or forced relocation or abandonment of the region by the community. The study concluded that persistent people’s struggles compel the local state to either find alternatives to centralised solid waste management system or use political power to subsume the local resistance. The persistence of the struggles determined the type waste governance adopted by the local governments.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Urban, Kerala, municipal corporation, resistance movements

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23 Sustainable Urban Landscape Practices: A New Concept to Reduce Ecological Degradation

Authors: Manjari Rai

Abstract:

Urbanization is an inevitable process of development of human society and an outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress. While urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage majorly due to the increase in urban population density and heavy migration rate, traffic congestion, and environmental pollution. All this have however led to a major ecological degradation and imbalance. As lands are used for the rapid and unplanned urbanization, the green lands are diminished, and severe pollution is created by waste products. Plastic, the most alarming waste at landfill sites, is yet uncontrolled. Therefore, initiatives must be taken to reduce plastic mediated pollution and increase green application. However, increasing green land is not possible due to the landfill by urban structures. In order to create a harmonious environment, sustainable development in the urban landscape becomes a matter of prime focus. This paper thus discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design, green landscape design on urban structures and sustainable development through the use of recyclable waste materials which is also a low costing approach of urban landscape design.

Keywords: Ecological, Landscape, Urban, degradation sustainable

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22 Chongqing, a Megalopolis Disconnected with Its Rivers: An Assessment of Urban-Waterside Disconnect in a Chinese Megacity and Proposed Improvement Strategies, Chongqing City as a Case Study

Authors: Jaime E. Salazar Lagos

Abstract:

Chongqing is located in southwest China and is becoming one of the most significant cities in the world. Its urban territories and metropolitan-related areas have one of the largest urban populations in China and are partitioned and shaped by two of the biggest and longest rivers on Earth, the Yangtze and Jialing Rivers, making Chongqing a megalopolis intersected by rivers. Historically, Chongqing City enjoyed fundamental connections with its rivers; however, current urban development of Chongqing City has lost effective integration of the riverbanks within the urban space and structural dynamics of the city. Therefore, there exists a critical lack of physical and urban space conjoined with the rivers, which diminishes the economic, tourist, and environmental development of Chongqing. Using multi-scale satellite-map site verification the study confirmed the hypothesis and urban-waterside disconnect. Collected data demonstrated that the Chongqing urban zone, an area of 5292 square-kilometers and a water front of 203.4 kilometers, has only 23.49 kilometers of extension (just 11.5%) with high-quality physical and spatial urban-waterside connection. Compared with other metropolises around the world, this figure represents a significant lack of spatial development along the rivers, an issue that has not been successfully addressed in the last 10 years of urban development. On a macro scale, the study categorized the different kinds of relationships between the city and its riverbanks. This data was then utilized in the creation of an urban-waterfront relationship map that can be a tool for future city planning decisions and real estate development. On a micro scale, we discovered there are three primary elements that are causing the urban-waterside disconnect: extensive highways along the most dense areas and city center, large private real estate developments that do not provide adequate riverside access, and large industrial complexes that almost completely lack riverside utilization. Finally, as part of the suggested strategies, the study concludes that the most efficient and practical way to improve this situation is to follow the historic master-planning of Chongqing and create connective nodes in critical urban locations along the river, a strategy that has been used for centuries to handle the same urban-waterside relationship. Reviewing and implementing this strategy will allow the city to better connect with the rivers, reducing the various impacts of disconnect and urban transformation.

Keywords: Urban, nodes, Chongqing City, megalopolis, riverbanks disconnection

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21 Urban Art as an Identity Branding of Kampong Ketandan Surabaya

Authors: R. A. Retno Hastijanti, David Agus Sagita, Arum Lintang Cahyani, Tectona Radike, Andreas Suluh Putra

Abstract:

Surabaya, is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia. Most of the old quarter city of Surabaya is an ancient Kampong. Ketandan is one ancient Kampong in the center of Surabaya, surrounded by a thriving trade area. These conditions make Kampong vulnerably degraded of environmental quality and tended to lose their cultural identity. Norms and values eroded by the rapid development of its local surroundings. Through Kampong conservation programs, Surabaya city government established Ketandan as one of the urban heritage. To achieve the ideal condition of urban heritage, public participation is required. One thing that can generate a motivation for Kampong Ketandan community participation is to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. This research aims to explore the appropriate method to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. Through qualitative research methods, based on observations and focus group discussions, it was concluded that mural mentoring program was the best method that can be accepted by the Kampong community to rediscover their identity. Mural as one of the urban art form, able to motivate Kampong community to express their self and bring an icon to their Kampong. The benefits of this research are to provide input to the city government and the private sector to preserve urban heritage, moreover, to transform an urban heritage into a productive space in urban areas in order to enhance city revenues.

Keywords: Urban, Urban Heritage, Kampong, Kampong Ketandan, mural, Surabaya, urban art

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20 Infection Risk of Fecal Coliform Contamination in Drinking Water Sources of Urban Slum Dwellers: Application of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment

Authors: Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, Deni Kurniadi Sunjaya, Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

Abstract:

Water is one of the fundamental basic needs for human life, particularly drinking water sources. Although water quality is getting better, fecal-contamination of water is still found around the world, especially in the slum area of mid-low income countries. Drinking water source contamination in urban slum dwellers increases the risk of water borne diseases. Low level of sanitation and poor drinking water supply known as risk factors for diarrhea, moreover bacteria-contaminated drinking water source is the main cause of diarrhea in developing countries. This study aimed to assess risk infection due to Fecal Coliform contamination in various drinking water sources in urban area by applying Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in a period of August to October 2015. Water samples were taken by simple random sampling from households in Cikapundung river basin which was one of urban slum area in the center of Bandung city, Indonesia. About 379 water samples from 199 households and 15 common wells were tested. Half of the households used treated drinking water from water gallon mostly refill water gallon which was produced in drinking water refill station. Others used raw water sources which need treatment before consume as drinking water such as tap water, borehole, dug well and spring water source. Annual risk to get infection due to Fecal Coliform contamination from highest to lowest risk was dug well (1127.9 x 10-5), spring water (49.7 x 10-5), borehole (1.383 x 10-5) and tap water (1.121 x 10-5). Annual risk infection of refill drinking water was 1.577 x 10-5 which is comparable to borehole and tap water. Household water treatment and storage to make raw water sources drinkable is essential to prevent risk of water borne diseases. Strong regulation and intense monitoring of refill water gallon quality should be prioritized by the government; moreover, distribution of tap water should be more accessible and affordable especially in urban slum area.

Keywords: Urban, drinking water, slum, quantitative microbiological risk assessment

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19 A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Juanita, B. Kombaitan, Iwan Pratoyo Kusumantoro

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The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.

Keywords: Sustainable, Transportation, Urban, traditional mode

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18 An Unusual Manifestation of Spirituality: Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki

Authors: Emine Umran Topcu

Abstract:

In both urban design and architecture, the primary goal is considered to be looking for ways in which people feel and think about space and place. Humans, in general, see a place as security and space as freedom and feel attached to place and long for space. Contemporary urban design manifests itself by addressing basic physical and psychological human needs. Not much attention is paid to transcendence. There seems to be a gap in the hierarchy of human needs. Usually, social aspects of public space are addressed through urban design. More personal and intimately scaled needs of an individual are neglected. How does built form contribute to an individual’s growth, contemplation, and exploration? In other words, a greater meaning in the immediate environment. Architects love to talk about meaning, poetics, attachment and other ethereal aspects of space that are not visible attributes of places. This paper aims at describing spirituality through built form with a personal experience of Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki. Experience covers various modes through which a person unfolds or constructs reality. Perception, sensation, emotion, and thought can be counted as for these modes. To experience is to get to know. What can be known is a construct of experience. Feelings and thoughts about space and place are very complex in human beings. They grow out of life experiences. The author had the chance of visiting Kamppi Chapel in April 2017, out of which the experience grew. The Kamppi Chapel is located on the South side of the busy Narinnka Square in central Helsinki. It offers a place to quiet down and compose oneself in a most lively urban space. With its curved wooden facade, the small building looks more like a museum than a chapel. It can be called a museum for contemplation. With its gently shaped interior, it embraces visitors and shields them from the hustle bustle of the city outside. Places of worship in all faiths signify sacred power. The author, having origins in a part of the world where domes and minarets dominate the cityscape, was impressed by the size and the architectural visibility of the Chapel. Anyone born and trained in such a tradition shares the inherent values and psychological mechanisms of spirituality, sacredness and the modest realities of their environment. Spirituality in all cultural traditions has not been analyzed and reinterpreted in new conceptual frameworks. Fundamentalists may reject this positivist attitude, but Kamppi Chapel as it stands does not look like it has a say like “I’m a model to be followed”. It just faces the task of representing a religious facility in an urban setting largely shaped by modern urban planning, which seems to the author as looking for a new definition of individual status. The quest between the established and the new is the demand for modern efficiency versus dogmatic rigidity. The architecture here has played a very promising and rewarding role for spirituality. The designers have been the translators for human desire for better life and aesthetic environment for an optimal satisfaction of local citizens and the visitors alike.

Keywords: Architecture, Urban, Spirituality, Kamppi Chapel

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17 Architectural Design Strategies: Enhance Train Station Performance as the Catalyst of Transit Oriented Development in Jakarta, Case Study of Beos Commuter Line Station

Authors: Shinta Ardiana Sari, Dini Puti Angelia

Abstract:

A high number of urban population in Jakarta has been a substantial issue for mobility strategy. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) becomes one of the strategies to improve community livability based on the design of transit place and the system of its context. TOD principle is trying to win over pedestrian motorization habit, makes people would rather transit and travel more than using private vehicle. Train station takes the main role as the catalyst to emerge TOD, in Jakarta this role will be taken by Commuter line and the future MRT. For advancing its development, architectural design perspective is needed to perform evaluation while seeking for the strategies between accessibility transportation modes with convenience and safety for increasing human behavioral intention. This paper discovers design strategy for transit place that appropriates with Jakarta condition use the basic theories of liminal space and transit-oriented development goal. This paper use evidence-based approach with typology method to analyze the present condition of Commuter Line station in Jakarta and precedent of Asian Cities, Tokyo and Seoul, as the secondary sources, and also with numbers of valid questionnaires. Furthermore, the result of this paper aims to the emerging of a transit-oriented community by giving design requirements and suggestion transportation policies preparing for the operational of MRT in the future Jakarta and other similar cities.

Keywords: Urban, station design, transit place, transit-oriented development

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16 In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai

Authors: Ashok kumar, Anjali Sharma

Abstract:

As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.

Keywords: Urban, Policy, Redevelopment, informal settlements

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