Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Urban Planning Related Abstracts

62 Urban Planning Compilation Problems in China and the Corresponding Optimization Ideas under the Vision of the Hyper-Cycle Theory

Authors: Hong Dongchen, Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang

Abstract:

Systematic science reveals the complex nonlinear mechanisms of behaviour in urban system. However, in China, when the current city planners face with the system, most of them are still taking simple linear thinking to consider the open complex giant system. This paper introduces the hyper-cycle theory, which is one of the basis theories of systematic science, based on the analysis of the reasons why the current urban planning failed, and proposals for optimization ideas that urban planning compilation should change, from controlling quantitative to the changes of relationship, from blueprint planning to progressive planning based on the nonlinear characteristics and from management control to dynamically monitor feedback.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Management, systematic science, hyper-cycle theory

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61 Air Dispersion Modeling for Prediction of Accidental Emission in the Atmosphere along Northern Coast of Egypt

Authors: Moustafa Osman

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Modeling of air pollutants from the accidental release is performed for quantifying the impact of industrial facilities into the ambient air. The mathematical methods are requiring for the prediction of the accidental scenario in probability of failure-safe mode and analysis consequences to quantify the environmental damage upon human health. The initial statement of mitigation plan is supporting implementation during production and maintenance periods. In a number of mathematical methods, the flow rate at which gaseous and liquid pollutants might be accidentally released is determined from various types in term of point, line and area sources. These emissions are integrated meteorological conditions in simplified stability parameters to compare dispersion coefficients from non-continuous air pollution plumes. The differences are reflected in concentrations levels and greenhouse effect to transport the parcel load in both urban and rural areas. This research reveals that the elevation effect nearby buildings with other structure is higher 5 times more than open terrains. These results are agreed with Sutton suggestion for dispersion coefficients in different stability classes.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Health Effect, GIS, Air Pollutants, dispersion modeling

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60 A Novel Solution Methodology for Transit Route Network Design Problem

Authors: Ghada Moussa, Mamoud Owais

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Transit Route Network Design Problem (TrNDP) is the most important component in Transit planning, in which the overall cost of the public transportation system highly depends on it. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel solution methodology for the TrNDP, which goes beyond pervious traditional sophisticated approaches. The novelty of the solution methodology, adopted in this paper, stands on the deterministic operators which are tackled to construct bus routes. The deterministic manner of the TrNDP solution relies on using linear and integer mathematical formulations that can be solved exactly with their standard solvers. The solution methodology has been tested through Mandl’s benchmark network problem. The test results showed that the methodology developed in this research is able to improve the given network solution in terms of number of constructed routes, direct transit service coverage, transfer directness and solution reliability. Although the set of routes resulted from the methodology would stand alone as a final efficient solution for TrNDP, it could be used as an initial solution for meta-heuristic procedures to approach global optimal. Based on the presented methodology, a more robust network optimization tool would be produced for public transportation planning purposes.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transportation, Integer Programming, transit route design

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59 Beyond Possibilities: Re-Reading Republican Ankara

Authors: Zelal Çınar

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This paper aims to expose the effects of the ideological program of Turkish Republic on city planning, through the first plan of Ankara. As the new capital, Ankara was planned to be the ‘showcase’ of modern Turkey. It was to represent all new ideologies and the country’s cultural similarities with the west. At the same time it was to underline the national identity and independence of Turkish republic. To this end, a new plan for the capital was designed by German city planner Carl Christopher Lörcher. Diametrically opposed with the existing fabric of the city, this plan was built on the basis of papers and plans, on ideological aims. On the contrary, this paper argues that the city is a machine of possibilities, rather than a clear, materialized system.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Architecture, Ideology, modernization

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58 Comprehensive Approach to Enhance Green Buildings in Urban Areas

Authors: M. Pena, J. Shin, H. Park

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The main objective of any engineering activity is the development of a system that fulfills the specific economic, social or environmental needs. Green growth policies, as a system, targets to satisfy two main needs: economic and environmental growth. Cities are complex systems composed of varied characteristics such as differences in socio-environmental conditions and local affordability, among others. Thus, commissioned policies are required to address these differences and to ensure green development. A more maintainable and justifiable, resource-efficient green growth can be obtained in urban areas if multi-criteria framework of policies relevant to green buildings is designed. Reason is that, this approach fits to target the differences and unique conditions of urban areas. By following the principles of axiomatic design, this paper urges to derive a framework for the application of green buildings policies in urban areas with distinctive socio-economic and environmental characteristics. Functional requirements defined as principles to ensure green growth and design parameters are identified in each set of conditions. Design matrices are constructed for each group of urban areas. Thus, the understanding of the needs and differences for each group of urban areas and the methodology to ensure green buildings is achieved.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Urban Planning, Green Growth, Axiomatic Design

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57 Spatial Information and Urbanizing Futures

Authors: Mohammad Talei, Neda Ranjbar Nosheri, Reza Kazemi Gorzadini

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Today municipalities are searching for the new tools for increasing the public participation in different levels of urban planning. This approach of urban planning involves the community in planning process using participatory approaches instead of the long traditional top-down planning methods. These tools can be used to obtain the particular problems of urban furniture form the residents’ point of view. One of the tools that is designed with this goal is public participation GIS (PPGIS) that enables citizen to record and following up their feeling and spatial knowledge regarding main problems of the city, specifically urban furniture, in the form of maps. However, despite the good intentions of PPGIS, its practical implementation in developing countries faces many problems including the lack of basic supporting infrastructure and services and unavailability of sophisticated public participatory models. In this research we develop a PPGIS using of Web 2 to collect voluntary geodataand to perform spatial analysis based on Spatial OnLine Analytical Processing (SOLAP) and Spatial Data Mining (SDM). These tools provide urban planners with proper informationregarding the type, spatial distribution and the clusters of reported problems. This system is implemented in a case study area in Tehran, Iran and the challenges to make it applicable and its potential for real urban planning have been evaluated. It helps decision makers to better understand, plan and allocate scarce resources for providing most requested urban furniture.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Spatial Information, PPGIS, urbanizing futures

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56 Revolutions and Cyclic Patterns in Chinese Town Planning: The Case-Study of Shenzhen

Authors: Domenica Bona

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Colin Chant and David Goodman argue that historians of Chinese pre-industrial cities tend to underestimate revolutions and overestimate cyclic patterns: periods of peace and prosperity in the earl part of each d nast , followed b peasants’ rebellions and upheavals. Boyd described these cyclic patterns as part of the background of Chinese town planning and architecture. Thus old ideals of city planning-square plan, southward orientation and a palace along the central axis - are revived again and again in the ascendant phases of several d nastic c cles (e.g. Chang’an, Kaifen, and Beijing). Along this line of thought, m paper questions the relationship between the “magic square rule” and modern Chinese urban- planning. As a matter of fact, the classical theme of “cosmic Taoist urbanism” is still a reference for planning cities and new urban developments, whenever there is the intention to express nationalist ideals and “cultural straightforwardness.” Besides, some case studies can be related to “modern d nasties”: the first Republic under the Kuo Min Tang, the red People’s Republic and the post-Maoist open country of Deng Xiao Ping. Considering the project for the new capital of Nanjing in the Thirties, Beijing’s Tianan Men area in the ifties, and Shenzhen’s utian CBD in late 20th century, I argue that cyclic patterns are still in place, though with deformations related to westernization, private interests and lack of spirituality. How far new Chinese cities are - or simply seem to be - westernized? Symbolism, invisible frameworks, repeating features and behavioural patterns make urban China just “superficiall” western. This can be well noticed in cities previousl occupied b foreigners, like Hong Kong, or in newly founded ones, like Shenzhen, where both Asians and non-Asian people can feel the gender-shift from New-York-like landscapes to something else. Current planning in main metropolitan areas shows a blurred relationship between public policies and private investments: two levels of decisions and actions, one addressing the larger scale and infrastructures, the other concerning the micro scale and development of single plots. While zoning is instrumental in this process, master plans are often laid out over a very poor cartography, so much that any relation between the formal characters of new cities and the centuries-old structure of the related territory gets lost.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, China, contemporary cities, shenzhen

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55 The Environment in Urban Planning and Management

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Mahmood Salahi

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Increasing urbanization will be one of the defining features of the 21st century. This produces particular environmental challenges, but also creates opportunities for urban development that can contribute to broader goals of improving the quality of life for urban residents while achieving greater levels of global sustainability. Half of the world’s population already lives in urban areas, with a growing number of these people living in towns and cities in low and middle-income countries. As well as being a demographic phenomenon, urbanisation is intricately linked with economic, social and environmental transitions. The increasing proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas has been driven by the growing concentration of new investment and employment opportunities. In general, nations with the most rapid and sustained economic growth have urbanized most.2 Urban centres provide opportunities for a range of social and cultural activities, as well as being critical for innovations in science, technology and education. Indeed, urban areas are of critical importance for social and economic development: as the Cities Alliance recognizes, 'only sustained urban growth has the capacity to lift both rural and urban populations out of poverty'.

Keywords: Management, Urban Planning, Environment, Urbanization

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54 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

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Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, intermediate cities

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53 Dynamic Modelling and Assessment for Urban Growth and Transport in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majid Aldalbahi

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In 2009, over 3.4 billion people in the world resided in urban areas as a result of rapid urban growth. This figure is estimated to increase to 6.5 billion by 2050. This urban growth phenomenon has raised challenges for many countries in both the developing and developed worlds. Urban growth is a complicated process involving the spatiotemporal changes of all socio-economic and physical components at different scales. The socio-economic components of urban growth are related to urban population growth and economic growth, while physical components of urban growth and economic growth are related to spatial expansion, land cover change and land use change which are the focus of this research. The interactions between these components are complex and no-linear. Several factors and forces cause these complex interactions including transportation and communication, internal and international migrations, public policies, high natural growth rates of urban populations and public policies. Urban growth has positive and negative consequences. The positive effects relates to planned and orderly urban growth, while negative effects relate to unplanned and scattered growth, which is called sprawl. Although urban growth is considered as necessary for sustainable urbanization, uncontrolled and rapid growth cause various problems including consumption of precious rural land resources at urban fringe, landscape alteration, traffic congestion, infrastructure pressure, and neighborhood conflicts. Traditional urban planning approaches in fast growing cities cannot accommodate the negative consequences of rapid urban growth. Microsimulation programme, and modelling techniques are effective means to provide new urban development, management and planning methods and approaches. This paper aims to use these techniques to understand and analyse the complex interactions for the case study of Riyadh city, a fast growing city in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Growth, Policy Implications, Traffic Congestion, Suadi Arabia, Riyadh

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52 Applications Using Geographic Information System for Planning and Development of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Living for Smart-Cities

Authors: Javed Mohammed

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As urbanization process has been and will be happening in an unprecedented scale worldwide, strong requirements from academic research and practical fields for smart management and intelligent planning of cities are pressing to handle increasing demands of infrastructure and potential risks of inhabitants agglomeration in disaster management. Geo-spatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS) are essential components for building smart cities in a basic way that maps the physical world into virtual environment as a referencing framework. On higher level, GIS has been becoming very important in smart cities on different sectors. In the digital city era, digital maps and geospatial databases have long been integrated in workflows in land management, urban planning and transportation in government. People have anticipated GIS to be more powerful not only as an archival and data management tool but also as spatial models for supporting decision-making in intelligent cities. The purpose of this project is to offer observations and analysis based on a detailed discussion of Geographic Information Systems( GIS) driven Framework towards the development of Smart and Sustainable Cities through high penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Urban Planning, Smart Cities, Geographic Information System, Digital Maps, geo-spatial

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51 The Role of the Urban Renewal Projects on the Reshaping of the Cities in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Sibel Ecemiş Kiliç, Neslihan Karatas

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The concept of urban renewal came up with interventions to the urban areas which have social and economic problems aimed at gaining the city. In Turkey after 2000, urban renewal has become a frequent topic on the agenda; regulations have been developed in this regard. Urban renewal project would be a focal point for the formation of the city in the near future. The future of the city is directly related to how to achieve these applications. Urban renewal policies will be decisive in the positive or negative development of the potential of the existing renewal process. Urban renewal is seen as a refreshing new planned action for reshaping unplanned and uncontrolled growth of big cities/metropolitan areas. In this context, Izmir is one of the largest metropolitan areas which came on the agenda of urban renewal application in the recent period. Izmir, which is the third largest city of Turkey, is an important trade and port city. The city, located west of Turkey, is a gate opening to Europe. In particular, continued its development rapidly after the Republican Period, it has become an important big city today. Assessment of the current situation shows that the majority of existing residential areas was formed with squatters and unplanned settlements in Izmir city center. Therefore, an important part of these areas have significant problems in terms of the quality of life, safety, and environmental quality. Legal residential areas which have had developed before 2000 is seen inadequate security in terms of an earthquake. In this study, the central policies in Turkey and local policies in İzmir about urban renewal will be considered. In addition, urban renewal projects that are being implemented or applied in Izmir were discussed and suggestions will be developed in accordance with this policy.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Transformation, Izmir, urban renewal

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50 Urban Planning in Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Chala Elhassen

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City planning and urban management seem more complex our days compared to past times. The interaction of many factors both endogenous and exogenous made more difficult the urban fact. The city has changed status with the demographic bulge. It passed the primary status meeting limited requirements to a multidisciplinary status marked by the diversity of needs. These increase with the increase in population and living standard. Our era is marked by urbanization, complex phenomenon that develops both in industrialized countries in those of the third world. Human concentrations increasingly have significant multiplier effects on the social and economic structure of a region or a country. On the whole, the issue of urban planning revolved around questions related firstly to the understanding of the phenomena of urbanization; and also in search of the most appropriate ways to ensure control, the efficiency and consistency of the urbanization process. Urban planning remains an ambiguous area that mixes scientific contributions, technical, artistic, administrative and legal in varying proportions. What is the founder of specificity is that it always presupposes the existence of a will to act, itself supported by a thorough knowledge of will.

Keywords: Management, Urban Planning, Urbanization, industrialized countries

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49 Planning Urban Sprawl in Mining Areas in Africa: How to Ensure Coherent Development

Authors: Pascal Rey, Anaïs Weber

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Many mining projects are being developed in Africa the last decades. Due to the economic opportunities they offer, these projects result in a massive and rapid influx of migrants to the surrounding area. In areas where central government representation is low and local administration lack financial resources, urban development is often anarchical, beyond all public control. It leads to socio-spatial segregation, insecurity and the risk of social conflicts rising. Aware that their economic development is very correlated with local situation, mining companies get more and more involved in regional planning in setting up tools and Strategic Directions document. One of the commonly used tools in this regard is the “Influx Management Plan”. It consists in looking at the region’s absorption capacities in order to ensure its coherent development and by developing several urban centers than one macrocephalic city. It includes many other measures such as urban governance support, skills transfer, creation of strategic guidelines, financial support (local taxes, mining taxes, development funds etc.) local development projects. Through various examples of mining projects in Guinea, A country that is host to many large mining projects, we will look at the implications of regional and urban planning of which mining companies are key playor as well as public authorities. While their investment capacity offers advantages and accelerates development, their actions raise questions of the unilaterality of interests and local governance. By interfering in public affairs are mining companies not increasing the risk of central and local government shirking their responsibilities in terms of regional development, or even calling their legitimacy into question? Is such public-private collaboration really sustainable for the region as a whole and for all stakeholders?

Keywords: Urban Planning, Mine, Africa, guinea

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48 Seismic Microzoning and Resonant Map for Urban Planning

Authors: F. Tahiri, F. Grajçevci

Abstract:

The cities are coping with permanent demands to extend their residential and economical capacity. The new urban zones are sometimes induced to be developed in more vulnerable environments. This study is aimed to identify and mitigate the seismic hazards in the stage of urban planning for new settlements, including the existing urban environments which initially have not considered the seismic hazard. Seismic microzoning shall study the amplification/attenuation of seismic excitations from the bedrock to the ground surface. Modification of the seismic excitation is governed from the site specific ground conditions, presented on ground surface as mean values of the ratio of maximum accelerations at the surface versus acceleration of subsoil media – presented with dynamic amplification factors (DAF). The values shall be used to create the maps with isolines of DAF and then seismic microzoning with expected maximum mean surface acceleration as a product of DAF with maximum accelerations at bedrock. Development of resonant map shall conglomerate the information’s obtained from seismic microzoning in regard to expected predominant ground periods of seismic excitation and periods of vibrations of designed/built structures. These information’s shall be used as indispensible tool in early stages of urban planning to determine the most optimal zones for construction, the constructive materials, structural systems, range of buildings height, etc. so the resonance of soil media with built structures is avoided. The information’s could be used also for assessment of seismic risk and vulnerability-damageability of existing urban environments.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Mitigation, vulnerable environment, seismic microzoning, resonant map

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47 Transit Network Design Problem Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mahmoud Owais

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Public Transit (P.T) is very important means to reduce traffic congestion, to improve urban environmental conditions and consequently affects people social lives. Planning, designing and management of P.T are the key issues for offering a competitive mode that can compete with the private transportation. These transportation planning, designing and management issues are addressed in the Transit Network Design Problem (TNDP). It deals with a complete hierarchy of decision making process. It includes strategic, tactical and operational decisions. The main body of TNDP is two stages, namely; route design stage and frequency setting. The TNDP is extensively studied in the last five decades; however the research gate is still widely open due to its many practical and modeling challenges. In this paper, a comprehensive background is given to illustrate the issues and challenges related to the TNDP to help in directing the incoming researches towards the untouched areas of the problem.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Network Design, frequency setting, transit planning

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46 Comparative Assessment of a Distributed Model and a Lumped Model for Estimating of Sediments Yielding in Small Urban Areas

Authors: J.Zambrano Nájera, M.Gómez Valentín

Abstract:

Increases in urbanization during XX century, have brought as one major problem the increased of sediment production. Hydraulic erosion is one of the major causes of increasing of sediments in small urban catchments. Such increments in sediment yielding in header urban catchments can caused obstruction of drainage systems, making impossible to capture urban runoff, increasing runoff volumes and thus exacerbating problems of urban flooding. For these reasons, it is more and more important to study of sediment production in urban watershed for properly analyze and solve problems associated to sediments. The study of sediments production has improved with the use of mathematical modeling. For that reason, it is proposed a new physically based model applicable to small header urban watersheds that includes the advantages of distributed physically base models, but with more realistic data requirements. Additionally, in this paper the model proposed is compared with a lumped model, reviewing the results, the advantages and disadvantages between the both of them.

Keywords: Urban Planning, erosion, Urban Runoff, Sediment Modeling, hydrologic modeling, sediment yielding

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45 Conserving Naubad Karez Cultural Landscape – a Multi-Criteria Approach to Urban Planning

Authors: Valliyil Govindankutty

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Human civilizations across the globe stand testimony to water being one of the major interaction points with nature. The interactions with nature especially in drier areas revolve around water, be it harnessing, transporting, usage and management. Many ingenious ideas were born, nurtured and developed for harnessing, transporting, storing and distributing water through the areas in the drier parts of the world. Many methods of water extraction, collection and management could be found throughout the world, some of which are associated with efficient, sustained use of surface water, ground water and rain water. Karez is one such ingenious method of collection, transportation, storage and distribution of ground water. Most of the Karez systems in India were developed during reign of Muslim dynasties with ruling class descending from Persia or having influential connections and inviting expert engineers from there. Karez have strongly influenced the village socio-economic organisations due to multitude of uses they were brought into. These are masterpiece engineering structures to collect groundwater and direct it, through a subsurface gallery with a gradual slope, to surface canals that provide water to settlements and agricultural fields. This ingenious technology, karez was result of need for harnessing groundwater in arid areas like that of Bidar. The study views this traditional technology in historical perspective linked to sustainable utilization and management of groundwater and above all the immediate environment. The karez system is one of the best available demonstration of human ingenuity and adaptability to situations and locations of water scarcity. Bidar, capital of erstwhile Bahmani sultanate with a history of more than 700 years or more is one of the heritage cities of present Karnataka State. The unique water systems of Bidar along with other historic entities have been listed under World Heritage Watch List by World Monument Fund. The Historical or cultural landscape in Bidar is very closely associated to the natural resources of the region, Karez systems being one of the best examples. The Karez systems were the lifeline of Bidar’s historical period providing potable water, fulfilling domestic and irrigation needs, both within and outside the fort enclosures. These systems are still functional, but under great pressure and threat of rapid and unplanned urbanisation. The change in land use and fragmentation of land are already paving way for irreversible modification of the karez cultural and geographic landscape. The Paper discusses the significance of character defining elements of Naubad Karez Landscape, highlights the importance of conserving cultural heritage and presents a geographical approach to its revival.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Groundwater, Karez, traditional water harvesting, cultural heritage landscape

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44 Identification of Parameters for Urban and Regional Level Infrastructure Development - A Theoretical Perspective: Case Study – Rail Based Mass Transit in Indian Cities

Authors: Chitresh Kumar, Santanu Gupta

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The research work intends to understand the process of initiation, planning and development of capital-intensive urban area level infrastructure development in East Asian Cities (specific to Indian Cities). With the onset of emphasis on sustainable urban transport, self-financed urban local bodies, it has become of utmost important to identify infrastructure and projects on a priority basis, which provide optimal utility to the urban area. Through identification of Spatial, Demographic and Socio-Economic and Political Instability Parameters and their trends for the past 60 years at the urban area and state level, the paper attempts to identify the most suitable time period when initiation of the project would become economically and demographically viable for the city.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Regional Planning, Spatial planning, Infrastructure Development, mass transit

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43 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Arid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

The aim of sustainable architecture is to design buildings with the least adverse effects on the environment and provide better conditions for people. What building forms make the best use of land? This question was addressed in the late 1960s at the center of Land Use and Built Form Studies in Cambridge. This led to a number of influential papers which had a great influence on the practice of urban design. This paper concentrates on the results of sustainability caused by climatic conditions in Iranian traditional architecture in hot-arid regions. As people spent a significant amount of their time in houses, it was very important to have such houses to fulfill their needs physically and spiritually as well as satisfying their cultural and religious aspects of their lifestyles. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones, traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. These solutions have been able to response to the environmental problems for a long period of time. As a result, by considering the experience in traditional architecture of hot–arid climate in Iran, it is possible to attain sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Iran, hot-arid climate, sustainable traditional architecture

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42 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot–Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hot-humid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Iran, hot-humid climate, sustainable traditional architecture

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41 Advancing Urban Sustainability through the Integration of Planning Evaluation Methodologies

Authors: Natalie Rosales

Abstract:

Based on an ethical vision which recognizes the vital role of human rights, shared values, social responsibility and justice, and environmental ethics, planning may be interpreted as a process aimed at reducing inequalities and overcoming marginality. Seen from this sustainability perspective, planning evaluation must utilize critical-evaluative and narrative receptive models which assist different stakeholders in their understanding of urban fabric while trigger reflexive processes that catalyze wider transformations. In this paper, this approach servers as a guide for the evaluation of Mexico´s urban planning systems, and postulates a framework to better integrate sustainability notions into planning evaluation. The paper is introduced by an overview of the current debate on evaluation in urban planning. The state of art presented includes: the different perspectives and paradigms of planning evaluation and their fundamentals and scope, which have focused on three main aspects; goal attainment (did planning instruments do what they were supposed to?); performance and effectiveness of planning (retrospective analysis of planning process and policy analysis assessment); and the effects of process-considering decision problems and contexts rather than the techniques and methods. As well as, methodological innovations and improvements in planning evaluation. This comprehensive literature review provides the background to support the authors’ proposal for a set of general principles to evaluate urban planning, grounded on a sustainability perspective. In the second part the description of the shortcomings of the approaches to evaluate urban planning in Mexico set the basis for highlighting the need of regulatory and instrumental– but also explorative- and collaborative approaches. As a response to the inability of these isolated methods to capture planning complexity and strengthen the usefulness of evaluation process to improve the coherence and internal consistency of the planning practice itself. In the third section the general proposal to evaluate planning is described in its main aspects. It presents an innovative methodology for establishing a more holistic and integrated assessment which considers the interdependence between values, levels, roles and methods, and incorporates different stakeholders in the evaluation process. By doing so, this piece of work sheds light on how to advance urban sustainability through the integration of evaluation methodologies into planning.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Sustainability, evaluation methodologies, innovative approaches

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40 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Mahmud Gungor, Suat Tasdelen

Abstract:

The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: Urban Planning, seismic data, Denizli, Gokpinar Damp

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39 Cultural Heritage, Urban Planning and the Smart City in Indian Context

Authors: Paritosh Goel

Abstract:

The conservation of historic buildings and historic Centre’s over recent years has become fully encompassed in the planning of built-up areas and their management following climate changes. The approach of the world of restoration, in the Indian context on integrated urban regeneration and its strategic potential for a smarter, more sustainable and socially inclusive urban development introduces, for urban transformations in general (historical centers and otherwise), the theme of sustainability. From this viewpoint, it envisages, as a primary objective, a real “green, ecological or environmental” requalification of the city through interventions within the main categories of sustainability: mobility, energy efficiency, use of sources of renewable energy, urban metabolism (waste, water, territory, etc.) and natural environment. With this the concept of a “resilient city” is also introduced, which can adapt through progressive transformations to situations of change which may not be predictable, behavior that the historical city has always been able to express. Urban planning on the other hand, has increasingly focused on analyses oriented towards the taxonomic description of social/economic and perceptive parameters. It is connected with human behavior, mobility and the characterization of the consumption of resources, in terms of quantity even before quality to inform the city design process, which for ancient fabrics, and mainly affects the public space also in its social dimension. An exact definition of the term “smart city” is still essentially elusive, since we can attribute three dimensions to the term: a) That of a virtual city, evolved based on digital networks and web networks b) That of a physical construction determined by urban planning based on infrastructural innovation, which in the case of historic Centre’s implies regeneration that stimulates and sometimes changes the existing fabric; c) That of a political and social/economic project guided by a dynamic process that provides new behavior and requirements of the city communities that orients the future planning of cities also through participation in their management. This paper is a preliminary research into the connections between these three dimensions applied to the specific case of the fabric of ancient cities with the aim of obtaining a scientific theory and methodology to apply to the regeneration of Indian historical Centre’s. The Smart city scheme if contextualize with heritage of the city it can be an initiative which intends to provide a transdisciplinary approach between various research networks (natural sciences, socio-economics sciences and humanities, technological disciplines, digital infrastructures) which are united in order to improve the design, livability and understanding of urban environment and high historical/cultural performance levels.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Smart Cities, historical cities regeneration, sustainable restoration, cultural heritage development strategies

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38 Analysis of Subjective Indicators of Quality of Life in Makurdi

Authors: Irene Doosuur Mngutyo

Abstract:

The preliminary stages in the development of human communities are the formation of a correct understanding of people’s needs. However, perception of human needs is highly subjective and difficult to aggregate. Quality of life measurements are an appropriate means for achieving an understanding of Human needs. Hence this study endeavors to measure quality of life in Makurdi using subjective indices to measure three aspects of subjective wellbeing. A sample of 400 respondents achieved by applying the Taro Yamane formula to Makurdi’s projected population. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to residents of nine wards in Makurdi. Findings from a pilot study( N=100) demonstrated that among the 2 aspects of overall quality of life investigated,22% had a mean low overall assessment of quality of life now being3on the scale and an even poorer assessment for projected quality in the next five years by 17%(3)although an equal percentage are hopeful for a better life(10)in the next five years.60% of the respondents record very rare positive feelings while only 10% have positive feelings always on the eudaimonic scale69%strongly agree that they have a purposeful and meaningful life. Findings indicate good social ties as a strong indicator for perceived good feelings and even though quality of life is perceived as low there is optimism for the future.

Keywords: Development, Urban Planning, Quality of Life, subjective indicators

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37 The Proposal of a Shared Mobility City Index to Support Investment Decision Making for Carsharing

Authors: S. Murr, S. Phillips

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges entering a market with a carsharing or any other shared mobility (SM) service is sound investment decision-making. To support this process, the authors think that a city index evaluating different criteria is necessary. The goal of such an index is to benchmark cities along a set of external measures to answer the main two challenges: financially viability and the understanding of its specific requirements. The authors have consulted several shared mobility projects and industry experts to create such a Shared Mobility City Index (SMCI). The current proposal of the SMCI consists of 11 individual index measures: general data (demographics, geography, climate and city culture), shared mobility landscape (current SM providers, public transit options, commuting patterns and driving culture) and political vision and goals (vision of the Mayor, sustainability plan, bylaws/tenders supporting SM). To evaluate the suitability of the index, 16 cities on the East Coast of North America were selected and secondary research was conducted. The main sources of this study were census data, organisational records, independent press releases and informational websites. Only non-academic sources where used because the relevant data for the chosen cities is not published in academia. Applying the index measures to the selected cities resulted in three major findings. Firstly, density (city area divided by number of inhabitants) is not an indicator for the number of SM services offered: the city with the lowest density has five bike and carsharing options. Secondly, there is a direct correlation between commuting patterns and how many shared mobility services are offered. New York, Toronto and Washington DC have the highest public transit ridership and the most shared mobility providers. Lastly, except one, all surveyed cities support shared mobility with their sustainability plan. The current version of the shared mobility index is proving a practical tool to evaluate cities, and to understand functional, political, social and environmental considerations. More cities will have to be evaluated to refine the criteria further. However, the current version of the index can be used to assess cities on their suitability for shared mobility services and will assist investors deciding which city is a financially viable market.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transportation, carsharing, shared mobility city index

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36 The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

Authors: Jens-Phillip Petersen

Abstract:

The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper, the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Sustainable Cities, renewable energies, Energy planning

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35 Mining Multicity Urban Data for Sustainable Population Relocation

Authors: Xu Du, Aparna S. Varde

Abstract:

In this research, we propose to conduct diagnostic and predictive analysis about the key factors and consequences of urban population relocation. To achieve this goal, urban simulation models extract the urban development trends as land use change patterns from a variety of data sources. The results are treated as part of urban big data with other information such as population change and economic conditions. Multiple data mining methods are deployed on this data to analyze nonlinear relationships between parameters. The result determines the driving force of population relocation with respect to urban sprawl and urban sustainability and their related parameters. Experiments so far reveal that data mining methods discover useful knowledge from the multicity urban data. This work sets the stage for developing a comprehensive urban simulation model for catering to specific questions by targeted users. It contributes towards achieving sustainability as a whole.

Keywords: Data Mining, Urban Planning, Sustainability, Environmental Modeling

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34 Physical Planning Antidote to Urban Malice

Authors: Adelayo Akeem Jolaoye

Abstract:

Historically urban centers serve as the fulcrum upon which significant complex social and economic development rest. Despite their fixed geographical locations, though in different degree, cities generate self-sustenance and multiplier effects in all aspects of life. They also house inestimable human capital, which serves as a power house for future generation transformation requirements. Unfortunately, the untamed global urbanization process has resulted in an unimaginable damage to the urban social structure as well as urban environmental value. The preceding has caused cities failure in performing their expected roles worst still becoming a regional burden and national liabilities. This paper briefly discusses the ecological concept of urban settlements and reviews the world historical urban evolution and growth. Also, given the above-mentioned anomalies, the paper also raised conceptual principles of urban planning as well as administrative policies for its strategic management.

Keywords: Urban Planning, City, Urbanization, urban malice

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33 Reducing Accidents Using Text Stops

Authors: Benish Chaudhry

Abstract:

Most of the accidents these days are occurring because of the ‘text-and-drive’ concept. If we look at the structure of cities in UAE, there are great distances, because of which it is impossible to drive without using or merely checking the cellphone. Moreover, if we look at the road structure, it is almost impossible to stop at a point and text. With the introduction of TEXT STOPs, drivers will be able to stop different stops for a maximum of 1 and a half-minute in order to reply or write a message. They can be introduced at a distance of 10 minutes of driving on the average speed of the road, so the drivers can look forward to a stop and can reply to a text when needed. A user survey indicates that drivers are willing to NOT text-and-drive if they have such a facility available.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transport, accidents, road planning

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