Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Urban Landscape Related Abstracts

8 The Appearance of Identity in the Urban Landscape by Enjoying the Natural Factors

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Mehrdad Karimi

Abstract:

This study has examined the appearance of identity in the urban landscape and its effects on the natural factors. For this purpose, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place dependence and social bond which totally constitute place attachment, measures it in three domains of cognitive (place identity), affective (emotional attachment) and behavioral (place dependence and social bond). In order to measure the natural factors, three components of the absolute elements, living entities, natural elements have been measured. The study is descriptive and the statistical population has been Yasouj, a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results in two level of descriptive and inferential statistics have been investigated. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. In this study, the variable of identity is in high level and the natural factors are also in high level. These results indicate a positive relationship between place identity and natural factors. Development of environment and reaching the quality level of the personality or identity will develop the individual and society.

Keywords: Identity, Landscape, Urban Landscape, Landscaping, Place Identity

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7 The Effects of Architectural Anatomy on Improving the Quality of Place Identity: Case Study of Shiraz Opera Hall

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Shamsoddin Hashemi

Abstract:

This study has examined the effects of the architectural anatomy of opera hall on improving the quality of place identity. By measuring the effects of place identity on the inner aspects of human which are influenced by the physical and social environments it has investigated the results of a balance between internal and external environment. To assess the anatomical effects of urban landscape, two components of subjective landscape including perception and diversity and the component of objective landscape including form and order have been measured. The current survey is descriptive and the statistical population has been Shiraz which is a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results have been investigated in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. The results of this study indicate that between the dimensions of landscape, the component of the subjective landscape has the highest impact on the place identity and in the second place, an objective landscape has the impact on the place identity. Anatomical effects have an important role on improving the quality of place identity of Shiraz citizens and in order to enhance the place identity in the urban landscape it is also required that they will be inspired and operated.

Keywords: Perception, Identity, Urban Landscape, Place Identity, architectural anatomy

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6 Assessing the Impacts of Frugivorous Birds on Dispersal and Recruitment of Invasive Phytolacca Americana in an Urban Landscape

Authors: Ning Li, Yaner Yan, Yajun Qiao, Shu-qing An

Abstract:

Although seed dispersal is considered to be a key process determining the spatial structure and spread of invasive plant populations, few studies have explicitly addressed the link between dispersal vector behaviour, and seedling recruitment to gain insight into the process of exotic species invasion within a urban landscape. The present study tests the effects of native bird species on the dispersal and recruitment of invasive Phytolacca Americana in an urban garden. We found the invasive population of American pokeweed attracted both generalist species and specialist species to forage and disperse its seeds, with generalists Pycnonotus sinensis and Urocissa erythrorhyncha being by far the most important dispersers. Seedling numbers of P. Americana was strongly affected by perching behavior of bird dispersers. Moreover, two main disperser species, P. sinensis and U. erythrorhyncha govern a high quality dispersal service for P. Americana. Our results highlight the ability of invasive P. americana to recruit seed dispersal agents in urban habitats. However, if the newly recruited species could use the seedling safe site for perching shelter, the invasive plants will get a high regenerate rate in the invasive new habitats thus enhancing their invasive ability.

Keywords: Urban Landscape, Seed dispersal, frugivorous birds, phytolacca americana

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5 Urban Landscape Sustainability Between Past and Present: Toward a Future Vision

Authors: Dina Salem

Abstract:

A variety of definitions and interpretations for sustainable development has been offered since the widely known definition of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, the perspectives have ranged from deep ecology to better life quality for people. Sustainable landscape is widely understood as a key contributor to urban sustainability for the fact that all landscapes has a social, economic, cultural and ecological function for the community’s well-being and urban development, that was evident even before the emergence of sustainability concept. In this paper, the concepts of landscape planning and sustainable development are briefly reviewed; visions for landscape sustainability are demonstrated and classified. Challenges facing sustainable landscape planning are discussed. Finally, the paper investigates how our future urban open space could be sustainable and how does this contribute to urban sustainability, by creating urban landscapes that takes into account the social and cultural values of users of urban open space besides the ecological balance of urban open spaces as an integrated network.

Keywords: Resilience, Urban Landscape, open spaces, Urban Sustainability

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4 Achievement of Livable and Healthy City through the Design of Green and Blue Infrastructure: A Case Study on City of Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

due to towards the rapid urbanization, cities throughout the world faced to rapid growth through gray infrastructure. Therefore designing cities based on green and blue infrastructure can offer the best solution to support healthy urban environment. This conformation with a wide range of ecosystem service has a positive impact on the regulation of air temperature, noise reduction, air quality, and also create a pleasant environment for humans activities. Research mainly focuses on the concept and principles of green and blue infrastructure in the city of Esfahan at the center of Iran in order to create a livable and healthy environment. Design principles for green and blue infrastructure are classified into two different but interconnect evaluations. Healthy green infrastructure assessing based on; volume, shape, location, dispersion, and maintenance. For blue infrastructure there are three aspects of water and ecosystem which are; the contribution of water on medical health, the contribution of water on mental health, and creating possibilities to exercise.

Keywords: Urban Landscape, livability, healthy cities, green and blue infrastructure

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3 Surface Temperature of Asphalt Pavements with Colored Cement-Based Grouting Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder and Zeolite

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, S. Tsukuma, M. Kawanishi

Abstract:

The heat island phenomenon and extremely hot summer climate are becoming environmental problems in Japan. Cool pavements reduce the surface temperature compared to conventional asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate and improve the thermal environment in the urban area. The authors have studied cement–based grouting materials poured into voids in porous asphalt pavements to reduce the road surface temperature. For the cement–based grouting material, cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite were used. This cement–based grouting material developed reduced the road surface temperature by 20 °C or more in the hot summer season. Considering the urban landscape, this study investigates the effect of surface temperature reduction of colored cement–based grouting materials containing pigments poured into voids in porous asphalt pavements by measuring the surface temperature of asphalt pavements outdoors. The yellow color performed the same as the original cement–based grouting material containing no pigment and was thermally better performance than the other color. However, all the tested cement–based grouting materials performed well for reducing the surface temperature and for creating the urban landscape.

Keywords: Urban Landscape, asphalt pavement, ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature

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2 Riverine Urban Heritage: A Basis for Green Infrastructure

Authors: Ioanna H. Lioliou, Despoina D. Zavraka

Abstract:

The radical reformation that Greek urban space, has undergone over the last century, due to the socio-historical developments, technological development and political–geographic factors, has left its imprint on the urban landscape. While the big cities struggle to regain urban landscape balance, small towns are considered to offer high quality lifescapes, ensuring sustainable development potential. However, their unplanned urbanization process led to the loss of significant areas of nature, lack of essential infrastructure, chaotic built environment, incompatible land uses and urban cohesiveness. Natural environment reference points, such as springs, streams, rivers, forests, suburban greenbelts, and etc.; seems to be detached from urban space, while the public, open and green spaces, unequally distributed in the built environment, they are no longer able to offer a complete experience of nature in the city. This study focuses on Greek mainland, a small town Elassona, and aims to restore spatial coherence between the city’s homonymous river and its urban space surroundings. The existence of a linear aquatic ecosystem, is considered a precious greenway, also referred as blueway, able to initiate natural penetrations and ecosystems empowering. The integration of disconnected natural ecosystems forms the basis of a strategic intervention scheme, where the river becomes the urban integration tool / feature, constituting the main urban corridor and an indispensible part of a wider green network that connects open and green spaces, ensuring the function of all the established networks (transportation, commercial, social) of the town. The proposed intervention, introduces a green network highlighting the old stone bridge at the ‘entrance’ of the river in the town and expanding throughout the town with strategic uses and activities, providing accessibility for all the users. The methodology used, is based on the collection of design tools used in related urban river-design interventions around the world. The reinstallation/reactivation of the balance between natural and urban landscape, besides the environmental benefits, contributes decisively to the illustration/projection of urban green identity and re-enhancement of the quality of lifescape qualities and social interaction.

Keywords: Urban Landscape, urban streams, green network, rehabilitation scheme

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1 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: Urban Landscape, Urban Morphology, urban intensification, character areas

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