Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Urban Heat Island Related Abstracts

18 Assessing the Effects of Land Use Spatial Structure on Urban Heat Island Using New Launched Remote Sensing in Shenzhen, China

Authors: Kai Liua, Hongbo Sua, Weimin Wangb, Hong Liangb

Abstract:

Urban heat island (UHI) has attracted attention around the world since they profoundly affect human life and climatological. Better understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the ecological security and sustainability of cities. This study aims to investigate how landscape composition and configuration would affect UHI in Shenzhen, China, based on the analysis of land surface temperature (LST) in relation landscape metrics, mainly with the aid of three new satellite sensors launched by China. HJ-1B satellite system was utilized to estimate surface temperature and comprehensively explore the urban thermal spatial pattern. The landscape metrics of the high spatial resolution remote sensing satellites (GF-1 and ZY-3) were compared and analyzed to validate the performance of the new launched satellite sensors. Results show that the mean LST is correlated with main landscape metrics involving class-based metrics and landscape-based metrics, suggesting that the landscape composition and the spatial configuration both influence UHI. These relationships also reveal that urban green has a significant effect in mitigating UHI in Shenzhen due to its homogeneous spatial distribution and large spatial extent. Overall, our study not only confirm the applicability and effectiveness of the HJ-1B, GF-1 and ZY-3 satellite system for studying UHI but also reveal the impacts of the urban spatial structure on UHI, which is meaningful for the planning and management of the urban environment.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, shenzhen, new remote sensing sensor, remote sensing satellites

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17 CFD Simulations to Study the Cooling Effects of Different Greening Modifications

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chih-Yung Wen, Chiang-Ho Cheng and Yu-Hsuan Juan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to conduct computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for evaluating the cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a public park in the Taipei, Taiwan. To probe the impacts of park renewal by means of adding three pavilions and supplementary green areas on urban microclimates, the simulated results have revealed that the park having a higher percentage of green coverage ratio (GCR) tended to experience a better cooling effect. These findings can be used to explore the effects of different greening modifications on urban environments for achieving an effective thermal comfort in urban public spaces.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, CFD simulations, Green Coverage Ratio, Urban Public Park

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16 A Comparative Study on the Effects of Different Clustering Layouts and Geometry of Urban Street Canyons on Urban Heat Island in Residential Neighborhoods of Kolkata

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Roshmi Sen, Subrata Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Urbanization during the second half of the last century has created many serious environment related issues leading to global warming and climate change. India is not an exception as the country is also facing the problems of global warming and urban heat islands (UHI) in all the major metropolises. This paper discusses the effect of different housing cluster layouts, site geometry, and geometry of urban street canyons on the urban heat island profile. The study is carried out using the three dimensional microclimatic computational fluid dynamics model ENVI-met version 3.1. Simulation models are done for a typical summer day of 21st June, 2015 in four different residential neighborhoods in the city of Kolkata which predominantly belongs to Warm-Humid Monsoon Climate. The results show the changing pattern of urban heat island profile with respect to different clustering layouts, geometry, and morphology of urban street canyons. The comparison between the four neighborhoods shows that different microclimatic variables are strongly dependant on the neighborhood layout pattern and geometry. The inferences obtained from this study can be indicative towards the formulation of neighborhood design by-laws that will attenuate the urban heat island effect.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Urban Heat Island, ENVI-met, neighborhood morphology, site microclimate

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15 Implication of Built-Up Area, Vegetation, and Motorized Vehicles to Urban Microclimate in Bandung City Center

Authors: Ira Irawati, Muhammad Rangga Sururi

Abstract:

The expansion of built-up areas in many cities, particularly, as the consequences of urbanization process, is a common phenomenon in our contemporary world. As happened in many cities in developing world, this horizontal expansion let only a handful size of the area left for green open spaces, creating an extreme unbalance between built-up and green spaces. Combined with the high density and variety of human activities with its transportation modes; a process of urban heat island will occur, resulting in an increase in air temperature. This is one of the indicators of decreasing of the quality of urban microclimate. This paper will explore the effect of several variables of built-up areas and open spaces to the increase of air temperature using multiple linear regression analysis. We selected 11 zones within the radius of 1 km in Inner Bandung city center, and each zones measured within 300 m radius to represent the variety of land use, as well as the composition of buildings and green open spaces. By using a quantitative method which is multiple linear regression analysis, six dependent variables which are a) tree density-x1, b) shade level of tree-x2, c) surface area of buildings’ side which are facing west and east-x3, d) surface area of building side material-x4, e) surface area of pathway material, and f) numbers of motorized vehicles-x6; are calculated to find those influence to the air temperature as an independent variable-y. Finally, the relationship between those variables shows in this equation: y = 30.316 - 3.689 X1 – 6.563 X2 + 0.002 X3 – 2,517E6 X4 + 1.919E-9 X5 + 1.952E-4 X6. It shows that the existence of vegetation has a great impact on lowering temperature. In another way around, built up the area and motorized vehicles would increase the temperature. However, one component of built up area, the surface area of buildings’ sides which are facing west and east, has different result due to the building material is classified in low-middle heat capacity.

Keywords: Vehicles, Vegetation, Microclimate, Urban Heat Island, built-up area

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14 A Study on Vulnerability of Alahsa Governorate to Generate Urban Heat Islands

Authors: Ilham S. M. Elsayed

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The purpose of this study is to investigate Alahsa Governorate status and its vulnerability to generate urban heat islands. Alahsa Governorate is a famous oasis in the Arabic Peninsula including several oil centers. Extensive literature review was done to collect previous relative data on the urban heat island of Alahsa Governorate. Data used for the purpose of this research were collected from authorized bodies who control weather station networks over Alahsa Governorate, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Although, the number of weather station networks within the region is very limited and the analysis using GIS software and its techniques is difficult and limited, the data analyzed confirm an increase in temperature for more than 2 °C from 2004 to 2014. Such increase is considerable whenever human health and comfort are the concern. The increase of temperature within one decade confirms the availability of urban heat islands. The study concludes that, Alahsa Governorate is vulnerable to create urban heat islands and more attention should be drawn to strategic planning of the governorate that is developing with a high pace and considerable increasing levels of urbanization.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, population density, Alahsa Governorate, weather station

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13 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter

Abstract:

Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index

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12 Assessment of Microclimate in Abu Dhabi Neighborhoods: On the Utilization of Native Landscape in Enhancing Thermal Comfort

Authors: Maryam Al Mheiri, Khaled Al Awadi

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Urban population is continuously increasing worldwide and the speed at which cities urbanize creates major challenges, particularly in terms of creating sustainable urban environments. Rapid urbanization often leads to negative environmental impacts and changes in the urban microclimates. Moreover, when rapid urbanization is paired with limited landscape elements, the effects on human health due to the increased pollution, and thermal comfort due to Urban Heat Island effects are increased. Urban Heat Island (UHI) describes the increase of urban temperatures in urban areas in comparison to its rural surroundings, and, as we discuss in this paper, it impacts on pedestrian comfort, reducing the number of walking trips and public space use. It is thus very necessary to investigate the quality of outdoor built environments in order to improve the quality of life incites. The main objective of this paper is to address the morphology of Emirati neighborhoods, setting a quantitative baseline by which to assess and compare spatial characteristics and microclimate performance of existing typologies in Abu Dhabi. This morphological mapping and analysis will help to understand the built landscape of Emirati neighborhoods in this city, whose form has changed and evolved across different periods. This will eventually help to model the use of different design strategies, such as landscaping, to mitigate UHI effects and enhance outdoor urban comfort. Further, the impact of different native plants types and native species in reducing UHI effects and enhancing outdoor urban comfort, allowing for the assessment of the impact of increasing landscaped areas in these neighborhoods. This study uses ENVI-met, an analytical, three-dimensional, high-resolution microclimate modeling software. This micro-scale urban climate model will be used to evaluate existing conditions and generate scenarios in different residential areas, with different vegetation surfaces and landscaping, and examine their impact on surface temperatures during summer and autumn. In parallel to these simulations, field measurement will be included to calibrate the Envi-met model. This research therefore takes an experimental approach, using simulation software, and a case study strategy for the evaluation of a sample of residential neighborhoods. A comparison of the results of these scenarios constitute a first step towards making recommendations about what constitutes sustainable landscapes for Abu Dhabi neighborhoods.

Keywords: Landscape, Native Plants, Thermal comfort, Microclimate, Urban Heat Island, sustainable neighborhoods

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11 Reducing the Urban Heat Island Effect by Urban Design Strategies: Case Study of Aksaray Square in Istanbul

Authors: Busra Ekinci

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Urban heat island term becomes one of the most important problem in urban areas as a reflection of global warming in local scale last years. Many communities and governments are taking action to reduce heat island effects on urban areas where the half of the world's population live today. At this point, urban design turned out to be an important practice and research area for providing an environmentally sensitive urban development. In this study, mitigating strategies of urban heat island effects by urban design are investigated in Aksaray Square and surroundings in Istanbul. Aksaray is an important historical and commercial center of Istanbul, which has an increasing density due to be the node of urban transportation. Also, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality prepared an urban design project to respond the needs of growing population in the area for 2018. The purpose of the study is emphasizing the importance of urban design objectives and strategies that are developed to reduce the heat island effects on urban areas. Depending on this, the urban heat island effect of the area was examined based on the albedo (reflectivity) parameter which is the most effective parameter in the formation of the heat island effect in urban areas. Albedo values were calculated by Albedo Viewer web application model that was developed by Energy and Environmental Engineering Department of Kyushu University in Japan. Albedo parameter had examined for the present situation and the planned situation with urban design project. The results show that, the current area has urban heat island potential. With the Aksaray Square Project, the heat island effect on the area can be reduced, but would not be completely prevented. Therefore, urban design strategies had been developed to reduce the island effect in addition to the urban design project of the area. This study proves that urban design objectives and strategies are quite effective to reduce the heat island effects, which negatively affect the social environment and quality of life in urban areas.

Keywords: urban Design, Sustainable Design, Urban Heat Island, albedo

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10 Assessing the Effect of Urban Growth on Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Conakry Guinea

Authors: Arafan Traore, Teiji Watanabe

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Conakry, the capital city of the Republic of Guinea, has experienced a rapid urban expansion and population increased in the last two decades, which has resulted in remarkable local weather and climate change, raise energy demand and pollution and treating social, economic and environmental development. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of the land surface temperature (LST) is retrieved to characterize the effect of urban growth on the thermal environment and quantify its relationship with biophysical indices, a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built up Index (NDBI). Landsat data TM and OLI/TIRS acquired respectively in 1986, 2000 and 2016 were used for LST retrieval and Land use/cover change analysis. A quantitative analysis based on the integration of a remote sensing and a geography information system (GIS) has revealed an important increased in the LST pattern in the average from 25.21°C in 1986 to 27.06°C in 2000 and 29.34°C in 2016, which was quite eminent with an average gain in surface temperature of 4.13°C over 30 years study period. Additionally, an analysis using a Pearson correlation (r) between (LST) and the biophysical indices, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built-up Index (NDBI) has revealed a negative relationship between LST and NDVI and a strong positive relationship between LST and NDBI. Which implies that an increase in the NDVI value can reduce the LST intensity; conversely increase in NDBI value may strengthen LST intensity in the study area. Although Landsat data were found efficient in assessing the thermal environment in Conakry, however, the method needs to be refined with in situ measurements of LST in the future studies. The results of this study may assist urban planners, scientists and policies makers concerned about climate variability to make decisions that will enhance sustainable environmental practices in Conakry.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Urban Heat Island, geography information system, land surface temperature, Conakry, land use/cover change

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9 Assessment of Urban Heat Island through Remote Sensing in Nagpur Urban Area Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Satellite Images

Authors: Meenal Surawar, Rajashree Kotharkar

Abstract:

Urban Heat Island (UHI) is found more pronounced as a prominent urban environmental concern in developing cities. To study the UHI effect in the Indian context, the Nagpur urban area has been explored in this paper using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. This paper intends to study the effect of LU/LC pattern on daytime Land Surface Temperature (LST) variation, contributing UHI formation within the Nagpur Urban area. Supervised LU/LC area classification was carried to study urban Change detection using ENVI 5. Change detection has been studied by carrying Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to understand the proportion of vegetative cover with respect to built-up ratio. Detection of spectral radiance from the thermal band of satellite images was processed to calibrate LST. Specific representative areas on the basis of urban built-up and vegetation classification were selected for observation of point LST. The entire Nagpur urban area shows that, as building density increases with decrease in vegetation cover, LST increases, thereby causing the UHI effect. UHI intensity has gradually increased by 0.7°C from 2000 to 2006; however, a drastic increase has been observed with difference of 1.8°C during the period 2006 to 2013. Within the Nagpur urban area, the UHI effect was formed due to increase in building density and decrease in vegetative cover.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Urban Heat Island, land use/land cover, land surface temperature

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8 Thermal Behavior of Green Roof: Case Study at Seoul National University Retentive Green Roof

Authors: Theresia Gita Hapsari

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There has been major concern about urban heating as urban clusters emerge and population migration from rural to urban areas continues. Green roof has been one of the main practice for urban heat island mitigation for the past decades, thus, this study was conducted to predict the cooling potential of retentive green roof in mitigating urban heat island. Retentive green roof was developed by Han in 2010. It has 320 mm height of retention wall surrounding the vegetation and 65mm depth of retention board underneath the soil, while most conventional green roof doesn’t have any retention wall and only maximum of 25 mm depth of drainage board. Seoul National University retentive green roof significantly reduced sensible heat movement towards the air by 0.5 kWh/m2, and highly enhanced the evaporation process as much as 0.5 – 5.4 kg/m2 which equals to 0.3 – 3.6 kWh/m2 of latent heat flux. These results indicate that with design enhancement, serving as a viable alternate for conventional green roof, retentive green roof contributes to overcome the limitation of conventional green roof which is the main solution for mitigating urban heat island.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, Thermal Behavior, green roof, low impact development, retention board

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7 Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada

Authors: Santhosh Kumar Sathi

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In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, retrofitting, Urban Heat Island, Green roofs

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6 A Simple Approach to Establish Urban Energy Consumption Map Using the Combination of LiDAR and Thermal Image

Authors: Yu-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Feng-Yi Lin, Chih-Yu Chen

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Due to the urban heat island effect caused by highly development of city, the heat stress increased in recent year rapidly. Resulting in a sharp raise of the energy used in urban area. The heat stress during summer time exacerbated the usage of air conditioning and electric equipment, which caused more energy consumption and anthropogenic heat. Therefore, an accurate and simple method to measure energy used in urban area can be helpful for the architectures and urban planners to develop better energy efficiency goals. This research applies the combination of airborne LiDAR data and thermal imager to provide an innovate method to estimate energy consumption. Owing to the high resolution of remote sensing data, the accurate current volume and total floor area and the surface temperature of building derived from LiDAR and thermal imager can be herein obtained to predict energy used. In the estimate process, the LiDAR data will be divided into four type of land cover which including building, road, vegetation, and other obstacles. In this study, the points belong to building were selected to overlay with the land use information; therefore, the energy consumption can be estimated precisely with the real value of total floor area and energy use index for different use of building. After validating with the real energy used data from the government, the result shows the higher building in high development area like commercial district will present in higher energy consumption, caused by the large quantity of total floor area and more anthropogenic heat. Furthermore, because of the surface temperature can be warm up by electric equipment used, this study also applies the thermal image of building to find the hot spots of energy used and make the estimation method more complete.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Energy Consumption, Lidar, Urban Heat Island, thermal imager

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5 The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Amany Haridy, Ahmed Elseragy, Fahd Omar

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The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, ENVI-met, urban microclimate, green building envelope

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4 Urban Heat Islands Analysis of Matera, Italy Based on the Change of Land Cover Using Satellite Landsat Images from 2000 to 2017

Authors: Vito Telesca, Giuseppina Anna Giorgio, Angela Lorusso, Maria Ragosta

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Climate change is a major public health threat due to the effects of extreme weather events on human health and on quality of life in general. In this context, mean temperatures are increasing, in particular, extreme temperatures, with heat waves becoming more frequent, more intense, and longer lasting. In many cities, extreme heat waves have drastically increased, giving rise to so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. In an urban centre, maximum temperatures may be up to 10° C warmer, due to different local atmospheric conditions. UHI occurs in the metropolitan areas as function of the population size and density of a city. It consists of a significant difference in temperature compared to the rural/suburban areas. Increasing industrialization and urbanization have increased this phenomenon and it has recently also been detected in small cities. Weather conditions and land use are one of the key parameters in the formation of UHI. In particular surface urban heat island is directly related to temperatures, to land surface types and surface modifications. The present study concern a UHI analysis of Matera city (Italy) based on the analysis of temperature, change in land use and land cover, using Corine Land Cover maps and satellite Landsat images. Matera, located in Southern Italy, has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot and humid summers. Moreover, Matera has been awarded the international title of the 2019 European Capital of Culture. Matera represents a significant example of vernacular architecture. The structure of the city is articulated by a vertical succession of dug layers sometimes excavated or partly excavated and partly built, according to the original shape and height of the calcarenitic slope. In this study, two meteorological stations were selected: MTA (MaTera Alsia, in industrial zone) and MTCP (MaTera Civil Protection, suburban area located in a green zone). In order to evaluate the increase in temperatures (in terms of UHI occurrences) over time, and evaluating the effect of land use on weather conditions, the climate variability of temperatures for both stations was explored. Results show that UHI phenomena is growing in Matera city, with an increase of maximum temperature values at a local scale. Subsequently, spatial analysis was conducted by Landsat satellite images. Four years was selected in the summer period (27/08/2000, 27/07/2006, 11/07/2012, 02/08/2017). In Particular, Landsat 7 ETM+ for 2000, 2006 and 2012 years; Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS for 2017. In order to estimate the LST, Mono Window Algorithm was applied. Therefore, the increase of LST values spatial scale trend has been verified, in according to results obtained at local scale. Finally, the analysis of land use maps over the years by the LST and/or the maximum temperatures measured, show that the development of industrialized area produces a corresponding increase in temperatures and consequently a growth in UHI.

Keywords: Climate Variability, Urban Heat Island, land surface temperature, LANDSAT images

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3 Informed Urban Design: Minimizing Urban Heat Island Intensity via Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Luis Guilherme Resende Santos, Ido Nevat, Leslie Norford

Abstract:

The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is characterized by increased air temperatures in urban areas compared to undeveloped rural surrounding environments. With urbanization and densification, the intensity of UHI increases, bringing negative impacts on livability, health and economy. In order to reduce those effects, it is required to take into consideration design factors when planning future developments. Given design constraints such as population size and availability of area for development, non-trivial decisions regarding the buildings’ dimensions and their spatial distribution are required. We develop a framework for optimization of urban design in order to jointly minimize UHI intensity and buildings’ energy consumption. First, the design constraints are defined according to spatial and population limits in order to establish realistic boundaries that would be applicable in real life decisions. Second, the tools Urban Weather Generator (UWG) and EnergyPlus are used to generate outputs of UHI intensity and total buildings’ energy consumption, respectively. Those outputs are changed based on a set of variable inputs related to urban morphology aspects, such as building height, urban canyon width and population density. Lastly, an optimization problem is cast where the utility function quantifies the performance of each design candidate (e.g. minimizing a linear combination of UHI and energy consumption), and a set of constraints to be met is set. Solving this optimization problem is difficult, since there is no simple analytic form which represents the UWG and EnergyPlus models. We therefore cannot use any direct optimization techniques, but instead, develop an indirect “black box” optimization algorithm. To this end we develop a solution that is based on stochastic optimization method, known as the Cross Entropy method (CEM). The CEM translates the deterministic optimization problem into an associated stochastic optimization problem which is simple to solve analytically. We illustrate our model on a typical residential area in Singapore. Due to fast growth in population and built area and land availability generated by land reclamation, urban planning decisions are of the most importance for the country. Furthermore, the hot and humid climate in the country raises the concern for the impact of UHI. The problem presented is highly relevant to early urban design stages and the objective of such framework is to guide decision makers and assist them to include and evaluate urban microclimate and energy aspects in the process of urban planning.

Keywords: urban Design, stochastic optimization, Urban Heat Island, building energy consumption, urban weather generator

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2 Analysis of Extreme Case of Urban Heat Island Effect and Correlation with Global Warming

Authors: Kartikey Gupta

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Global warming and environmental degradation are at their peak today, with the years after 2000A.D. giving way to 15 hottest years in terms of average temperatures. In India, much of the standard temperature measuring equipment are located in ‘developed’ urban areas, hence showing us an incomplete picture in terms of the climate across many rural areas, which comprises most of the landmass. This study showcases data studied by the author since 3 years at Vatsalya’s Children’s village, in outskirts of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; in the midst of semi-arid topography, where consistently huge temperature differences of up to 15.8 degrees Celsius from local Jaipur weather only 30 kilometers away, are stunning yet scary at the same time, encouraging analysis of where the natural climatic pattern is heading due to rapid unrestricted urbanization. Record-breaking data presented in this project enforces the need to discuss causes and recovery techniques. This research further explores how and to what extent we are causing phenomenal disturbances in the natural meteorological pattern by urban growth. Detailed data observations using a standardized ambient weather station at study site and comparing it with closest airport weather data, evaluating the patterns and differences, show striking differences in temperatures, wind patterns and even rainfall quantity, especially during high-pressure zone days. Winter-time lows dip to 8 degrees below freezing with heavy frost and ice, while only 30 kms away minimum figures barely touch single-digit temperatures. Human activity is having an unprecedented effect on climatic patterns in record-breaking trends, which is a warning of what may follow in the next 15-25 years for the next generation living in cities, and a serious exploration into possible solutions is a must.

Keywords: Climate Change, Meteorology, Urbanization, Urban Heat Island

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1 Mapping of Urban Micro-Climate in Lyon (France) by Integrating Complementary Predictors at Different Scales into Multiple Linear Regression Models

Authors: Lucille Alonso, Florent Renard

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The characterizations of urban heat island (UHI) and their interactions with climate change and urban climates are the main research and public health issue, due to the increasing urbanization of the population. These solutions require a better knowledge of the UHI and micro-climate in urban areas, by combining measurements and modelling. This study is part of this topic by evaluating microclimatic conditions in dense urban areas in the Lyon Metropolitan Area (France) using a combination of data traditionally used such as topography, but also from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, Landsat 8 satellite observation and Sentinel and ground measurements by bike. These bicycle-dependent weather data collections are used to build the database of the variable to be modelled, the air temperature, over Lyon’s hyper-center. This study aims to model the air temperature, measured during 6 mobile campaigns in Lyon in clear weather, using multiple linear regressions based on 33 explanatory variables. They are of various categories such as meteorological parameters from remote sensing, topographic variables, vegetation indices, the presence of water, humidity, bare soil, buildings, radiation, urban morphology or proximity and density to various land uses (water surfaces, vegetation, bare soil, etc.). The acquisition sources are multiple and come from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel satellites, LiDAR points, and cartographic products downloaded from an open data platform in Greater Lyon. Regarding the presence of low, medium, and high vegetation, the presence of buildings and ground, several buffers close to these factors were tested (5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500m). The buffers with the best linear correlations with air temperature for ground are 5m around the measurement points, for low and medium vegetation, and for building 50m and for high vegetation is 100m. The explanatory model of the dependent variable is obtained by multiple linear regression of the remaining explanatory variables (Pearson correlation matrix with a |r| < 0.7 and VIF with < 5) by integrating a stepwise sorting algorithm. Moreover, holdout cross-validation is performed, due to its ability to detect over-fitting of multiple regression, although multiple regression provides internal validation and randomization (80% training, 20% testing). Multiple linear regression explained, on average, 72% of the variance for the study days, with an average RMSE of only 0.20°C. The impact on the model of surface temperature in the estimation of air temperature is the most important variable. Other variables are recurrent such as distance to subway stations, distance to water areas, NDVI, digital elevation model, sky view factor, average vegetation density, or building density. Changing urban morphology influences the city's thermal patterns. The thermal atmosphere in dense urban areas can only be analysed on a microscale to be able to consider the local impact of trees, streets, and buildings. There is currently no network of fixed weather stations sufficiently deployed in central Lyon and most major urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to use mobile measurements, followed by modelling to characterize the city's multiple thermal environments.

Keywords: Lidar, Urban Heat Island, Air Temperature, surface temperature, multiple linear regression

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