Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Urban Flooding Related Abstracts

6 Urban Flood Risk Mapping–a Review

Authors: Sherly M. A., Subhankar Karmakar, Terence Chan, Christian Rau


Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing widespread devastation, economic damage and threat to human lives. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and intensification of urbanization are two root causes of increased flood occurrences, and recent research trends are oriented towards understanding these aspects. Due to rapid urbanization, population of cities across the world has increased exponentially leading to improperly planned developments. Climate change due to natural and anthropogenic activities on our environment has resulted in spatiotemporal changes in rainfall patterns. The combined effect of both aggravates the vulnerability of urban populations to floods. In this context, an efficient and effective flood risk management with its core component as flood risk mapping is essential in prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Urban flood risk mapping involves zoning of an urban region based on its flood risk, which depicts the spatiotemporal pattern of frequency and severity of hazards, exposure to hazards, and degree of vulnerability of the population in terms of socio-economic, environmental and infrastructural aspects. Although vulnerability is a key component of risk, its assessment and mapping is often less advanced than hazard mapping and quantification. A synergic effort from technical experts and social scientists is vital for the effectiveness of flood risk management programs. Despite an increasing volume of quality research conducted on urban flood risk, a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach towards flood risk mapping still remains neglected due to which many of the input parameters and definitions of flood risk concepts are imprecise. Thus, the objectives of this review are to introduce and precisely define the relevant input parameters, concepts and terms in urban flood risk mapping, along with its methodology, current status and limitations. The review also aims at providing thought-provoking insights to potential future researchers and flood management professionals.

Keywords: flood risk, flood hazard, Urban Flooding, Flood Modeling, Flood Vulnerability, urban flood risk mapping

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5 Coupling Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with Storm Water Management Model for Site Selection of Appropriate Adaptive Measures

Authors: Amin Sarang, Negin Binesh, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan


Best Management Practices (BMPs) are considered as one of the most important structural adaptive measures to climate change and urban development challenges in recent decades. However, not every location is appropriate for applying BMPs in the watersheds. In this paper, location prioritization of two kinds of BMPs was done: Pourous pavement and Detention pond. West Flood-Diversion (WFD) catchment in northern parts of Tehran, Iran, was considered as the case study. The methodology includes integrating the results of Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) into Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method using Geographic Information System (GIS). The results indicate that mostly suburban areas of the watershed in northern parts are appropriate for applying detention basin, and downstream high-density urban areas are more suitable for using permeable pavement.

Keywords: Urban Flooding, adaptive measures, BMPs, location prioritization

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4 Sustainable Water Supply: Rainwater Harvesting as Flood Reduction Measures in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Omolara Lade, David Oloke


Ibadan City suffers serious water supply problems; cases of dry taps are common in virtually every part of the City. The scarcity of piped water has made communities find alternative water sources; groundwater sources being a ready source. These wells are prone to pollution due to the close proximity of septic tanks to wells, disposal of solid or liquid wastes in pits, abandoned boreholes or even stream channels and landfills. Storms and floods in Ibadan have increased with consequent devastating effects claiming over 120 lives and displacing 600 people on August 2011 alone. In this study, an analysis of the water demand and sources of supply for the city was carried out through questionnaire survey and collection of data from City’s main water supply - Water Corporation of Oyo State (WCOS), groundwater sources were explored and 30 years rainfall data were collected from Meteorological station in Ibadan. 1067 questionnaire were administered at household level with a response rate of 86.7 %. A descriptive analysis of the survey revealed that 77.1 % of the respondents did not receive water at all from WCOS while 83.8 % depend on groundwater sources. Analysis of data from WCOS revealed that main water supply is inadequate as < 10 % of the population water demand was met. Rainfall intensity is highest in June with a mean value of 188 mm, which can be harvested at community—based level and used to complement the population water demand. Rainwater harvesting if planned, and managed properly will become a valuable alternative source of managing urban flood and alleviating water scarcity in the city.

Keywords: Urban Flooding, Rainwater Harvesting, ibadan, sustainable water

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3 Mitigating Urban Flooding through Spatial Planning Interventions: A Case of Bhopal City

Authors: Rama Umesh Pandey, Jyoti Yadav


Flooding is one of the waterborne disasters that causes extensive destruction in urban areas. Developing countries are at a higher risk of such damage and more than half of the global flooding events take place in Asian countries including India. Urban flooding is more of a human-induced disaster rather than natural. This is highly influenced by the anthropogenic factors, besides metrological and hydrological causes. Unplanned urbanization and poor management of cities enhance the impact manifold and cause huge loss of life and property in urban areas. It is an irony that urban areas have been facing water scarcity in summers and flooding during monsoon. This paper is an attempt to highlight the factors responsible for flooding in a city especially from an urban planning perspective and to suggest mitigating measures through spatial planning interventions. Analysis has been done in two stages; first is to assess the impacts of previous flooding events and second to analyze the factors responsible for flooding at macro and micro level in cities. Bhopal, a city in Central India having nearly two million population, has been selected for the study. The city has been experiencing flooding during heavy rains in monsoon. The factors responsible for urban flooding were identified through literature review as well as various case studies from different cities across the world and India. The factors thus identified were analyzed for both macro and micro level influences. For macro level, the previous flooding events that have caused huge destructions were analyzed and the most affected areas in Bhopal city were identified. Since the identified area was falling within the catchment of a drain so the catchment area was delineated for the study. The factors analyzed were: rainfall pattern to calculate the return period using Weibull’s formula; imperviousness through mapping in ArcGIS; runoff discharge by using Rational method. The catchment was divided into micro watersheds and the micro watershed having maximum impervious surfaces was selected to analyze the coverage and effect of physical infrastructure such as: storm water management; sewerage system; solid waste management practices. The area was further analyzed to assess the extent of violation of ‘building byelaws’ and ‘development control regulations’ and encroachment over the natural water streams. Through analysis, the study has revealed that the main issues have been: lack of sewerage system; inadequate storm water drains; inefficient solid waste management in the study area; violation of building byelaws through extending building structures ether on to the drain or on the road; encroachments by slum dwellers along or on to the drain reducing the width and capacity of the drain. Other factors include faulty culvert’s design resulting in back water effect. Roads are at higher level than the plinth of houses which creates submersion of their ground floors. The study recommends spatial planning interventions for mitigating urban flooding and strategies for management of excess rain water during monsoon season. Recommendations have also been made for efficient land use management to mitigate water logging in areas vulnerable to flooding.

Keywords: Urban Flooding, mitigating strategies, spatial planning interventions, violation of development control regulations

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2 The Willingness to Pay of People in Taiwan for Flood Protection Standard of Regions

Authors: Takahiro Katayama, Hsueh-Sheng Chang


Due to the global climate change, it has increased the extreme rainfall that led to serious floods around the world. In recent years, urbanization and population growth also tend to increase the number of impervious surfaces, resulting in significant loss of life and property during floods especially for the urban areas of Taiwan. In the past, the primary governmental response to floods was structural flood control and the only flood protection standards in use were the design standards. However, these design standards of flood control facilities are generally calculated based on current hydrological conditions. In the face of future extreme events, there is a high possibility to surpass existing design standards and cause damages directly and indirectly to the public. To cope with the frequent occurrence of floods in recent years, it has been pointed out that there is a need for a different standard called FPSR (Flood Protection Standard of Regions) in Taiwan. FPSR is mainly used for disaster reduction and used to ensure that hydraulic facilities draining regional flood immediately under specific return period. FPSR could convey a level of flood risk which is useful for land use planning and reflect the disaster situations that a region can bear. However, little has been reported on FPSR and its impacts to the public in Taiwan. Hence, this study proposes a quantity procedure to evaluate the FPSR. This study aimed to examine FPSR of the region and public perceptions of and knowledge about FPSR, as well as the public’s WTP (willingness to pay) for FPSR. The research is conducted via literature review and questionnaire method. Firstly, this study will review the domestic and international research on the FPSR, and provide the theoretical framework of FPSR. Secondly, CVM (Contingent Value Method) has been employed to conduct this survey and using double-bounded dichotomous choice, close-ended format elicits households WTP for raising the protection level to understand the social costs. The samplings of this study are citizens living in Taichung city, Taiwan and 700 samplings were chosen in this study. In the end, this research will continue working on surveys, finding out which factors determining WTP, and provide some recommendations for adaption policies for floods in the future.

Keywords: Climate Change, Urban Flooding, CVM (Contingent Value Method), FPSR (Flood Protection Standard of Regions)

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1 A Deep Learning Based Integrated Model For Spatial Flood Prediction

Authors: Vinayaka Gude Divya Sampath


The research introduces an integrated prediction model to assess the susceptibility of roads in a future flooding event. The model consists of deep learning algorithm for forecasting gauge height data and Flood Inundation Mapper (FIM) for spatial flooding. An optimal architecture for Long short-term memory network (LSTM) was identified for the gauge located on Tangipahoa River at Robert, LA. Dropout was applied to the model to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predictions. The estimates are then used along with FIM to identify the spatial flooding. Further geoprocessing in ArcGIS provides the susceptibility values for different roads. The model was validated based on the devastating flood of August 2016. The paper discusses the challenges for generalization the methodology for other locations and also for various types of flooding. The developed model can be used by the transportation department and other emergency response organizations for effective disaster management.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Deep learning, Urban Flooding, flood prediction

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