Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

uptake Related Abstracts

7 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi


A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: Molybdenum, uptake, Rice, Phosphorus

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6 Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon and Some Heavy Metal Polluted Wastewater Effluent of a Typical Refinery

Authors: M. Yusuf, S. Abdulsalam, A. D. I. Suleiman, N. M. Musa


Environment free of pollutants should be the concern of every individual but with industrialization and urbanization it is difficult to achieve. In view of achieving a pollution limited environment at low cost, a study was conducted on the use of bioremediation technology to remediate hydrocarbons and three heavy metals namely; copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) from a typical petroleum refinery wastewater in a closed system. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics on the wastewater sample revealed that it was polluted with the aforementioned pollutants. Isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the wastewater sample revealed the presence of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bioremediation experiments carried out on five batch reactors with different compositions but at same environmental conditions revealed that treatment T5 (boosted with the association of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) gave the best result in terms of oil and grease content removal (i.e. 67% in 63 days). In addition, these microorganisms were able of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in the sample. Treatments T5, T3 (boosted with Bacillus subtilis only) and T4 (boosted with Micrococcus luteus only) gave optimum percentage uptakes of 65, 75 and 25 for Cu, Zn and Fe respectively.

Keywords: Bioremediation, wastewater, uptake, aeration, boosted, closed system

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5 Studies on Bioaccumulation of 51Cr by Ulva sp. and Ruppia maritima

Authors: Clarissa L. de Araujo, Kátia N. Suzuki, Wilson T. V. Machado, Luis F. Bellido, Alfredo V.B. Bellido


This study aims at contributing to the characterization of the process of biological incorporation of chromium by two benthonic species, the macroalgae Ulva sp. and the aquatic macrophyte Ruppia maritima, to subsidize future activities of monitoring the contamination of aquatic biota. This study is based on laboratory experiments to characterize the incorporation kinetics of the radiotracer 51Cr in two oxidation states (III and VI), under different salinities (7, 15, and 21 ‰). Samples of two benthonic species were collected on the margins of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acclimated in the laboratory and subsequently subjected to experiments. In tests with 51Cr (III and IV), it was observed that accumulation of the metal in Ulva sp. has inverse relationship with salinity, while for R. maritima, the maximum accumulation occurs in salinity 21‰. In experiments with Cr(III), increases in the uptake of ion by both species were verified. The activity of Cr(III) was up to 19 times greater than the Cr(VI). As regards the potential for accumulation of metals, a better sensitivity of Ulva sp. for any chromium tri or hexavalent forms was verified, while for the Cr(VI) it will require low salinities and longer exposure (>24h). For R. maritima, the results showed the uptake of Cr(VI) increase along with time (>20h), because this species is more resistant for the hexavalent form and useful for any salinity as well.

Keywords: Chromium, uptake, macroalgae, Cr-51, macrophyte

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4 Findings from an Access Improvement Project for Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake through Traditional Birth Attendants at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Afolayan, Christina Olawepo, Francis Olowookanga, Nguhemen Tingir, Olawale Fadare, John Oko


In Nigeria, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can play an important role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, their role in improving access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. Catholic Caritas Foundation of Nigeria (Caritas Nigeria) is an implementing agency supporting increased access to HIV testing and treatment services in Lagos state through health facilities including Mother Theresa Hospital. Despite intra-facility testing and community outreaches, ART uptake at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos was low with 6 individuals on antiretroviral drugs 3 months post-activation. This study explored improving access to ART through linkages with TBAs for ART uptake at the facility. Plan-Do-Study-Act model was used. The goal was to improve uptake of ART from 6 to 80 in 5 months (end of project year). Scanning revealed a network of 15 TBAs with potential as satellites for HIV testing. Caritas Nigeria linked the facility with 15 TBAs who were provided with HIV test kits and trained on HIV testing services for provider-initiated testing and outreaches. Weekly reports and referrals of positives were received, tracked and feedback given on testing yield. These TBAs serve individuals of various age and gender at their trado-medical centres. At the end of 5 months, HIV testing increased by 10,575 (78% from TBAs) and HIV positives obtained improved by 77 (44.2% from TBAs). 55 new individuals were enrolled and commenced on ART (61.8% from TBAs). There was a successful linkage of all clients with escort services due to incentives. Total uptake of ART was 61 (76.3% of target). Structured partnerships between TBAs and HIV care and treatment centers should be strengthened to improve access to ART.

Keywords: uptake, antiretroviral therapy, access improvement, traditional birth attendants

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3 Factors Affecting the Uptake of Modern Contraception Services in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Magbagbeola Dairo, Ikeoluwapo Ajayi


Contraception has proven to be an effective way of controlling fertility and spacing births. Studies have shown that contraception can avert the high-risk pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal deaths up to 32%. Uptake of modern contraception is promoted as a mechanism to address the reproductive health needs of men and women, as well as the crucial challenge of rapid population increase. A cross- sectional descriptive study using a two- stage systematic sampling technique was used to select 530 women of reproductive age out of 20,000 households. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed on a 5 point score in which a score of ≤ 2 rated poor while perception was scored on 36 points score in which a score of ≤ 18 was rated low. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression at p< 0.05. There were 530 respondents. Age of respondents was 30.3 ±7.8 years, and 73.0% were married. About 90% had good knowledge of contraception while 60.8% had used contraceptives. The commonest source of information about contraception was mass media (72.8%). Minority (26.1%) obtained husbands approval before using contraceptive while 20.0% had used modern contraceptives before the first birth. Many (54.5%) of the respondents agreed that contraception helps in improving standard of living and 64.7% had good perception about contraception. Factors that hindered effective uptake of contraception services included poor service provider’s attitude (33.3%) and congestion at the service centers (4.5%). Respondents with nonuse of contraceptive before first birth are less likely to subsequently use contraceptives (OR= 0.324, 95% CI= 0.1-0.5). Husband approval of contraceptives use was the major determinant of women’s contraceptive use (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7). Respondents who had family planning centers not more than 5 kilometers walking distance to their residence did not significantly use contraception services (41.5%) more than 21.1% of those who had to take means of transportation to the service venues. This study showed that majority of the respondents were knowledgeable and aware of contraception services, but husband’s agreement on the use of modern contraceptives remains poor. Programmes that enhances husbands approval of modern contraception is thus recommended.

Keywords: uptake, contraception services, service provider’s attitude, husbands approval

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2 Corrective Feedback and Uptake Patterns in English Speaking Lessons at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong


New teaching methods have led to the changes in the teachers’ roles in an English class, in which teachers’ error correction is an integral part. Language error and corrective feedback have been the interest of many researchers in foreign language teaching. However, the techniques and the effectiveness of teachers’ feedback have been a question of much controversy. This present case study has been carried out with a view to finding out the patterns of teachers’ corrective feedback and their impact on students’ uptake in English speaking lessons of legal English major students at Hanoi Law University. In order to achieve those aims, the study makes use of classroom observations as the main method of data collection to seeks answers to the two following questions: 1. What patterns of corrective feedback occur in English speaking lessons for second- year legal English major students in Hanoi Law University?; 2. To what extent does that corrective feedback lead to students’ uptake? The study provided some important findings, among which was a close relationship between corrective feedback and uptake. In particular, recast was the most commonly used feedback type, yet it was the least effective in terms of students’ uptake and repair, while the most successful feedback, namely meta-linguistic feedback, clarification requests and elicitation, which led to students’ generated repair, was used at a much lower rate by teachers. Furthermore, it revealed that different types of errors needed different types of feedback. Also, the use of feedback depended on the students’ English proficiency level. In the light of findings, a number of pedagogical implications have been drawn in the hope of enhancing the effectiveness of teachers’ corrective feedback to students’ uptake in foreign language acquisition process.

Keywords: uptake, corrective feedback, error, speaking English lesson

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1 Study on Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Sweet Potato, Grown in Industrially Polluted Regions

Authors: Violina Angelova, Galina Pevicharova


A comparative research had been carried out to allow us to determine the quantities and the centers of accumulation of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the sweet potatoes and to ascertain the possibilities for growing them on soils, polluted with heavy metals. The experiments were performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the (1) Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, (2) Lead and Zinc Complex near Kardjali and (3) a copper smelter near Pirdop, Bulgaria. The soils used in this experiment were characterized by acid, neutral and slightly alkaline reaction, loamy texture and a moderate content of organic matter. The total content of Zn, Pb, and Cd was high and exceeded the limit value in agriculture soils. Sweet potatoes were in a 2-year rotation scheme on three blocks in the experimental field. On reaching commercial ripeness the sweet potatoes were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts – root, tuber (peel and core), leaves and stems, were determined after microwave mineralization. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The contamination of the sweet potatoes was due mainly to the presence of heavy metals in the soil, which entered the plants through their root system, as well as by diffusion through the peel. Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd were selectively accumulated in the underground parts of the sweet potatoes, and most of all in the root system and the peel. Heavy metals have an impact on the development and productivity of the sweet potatoes. The high anthropogenic contamination leads to an increased assimilation of heavy metals which reduces the yield and the quality of the production of sweet potatoes, as well as leads to decrease of the absolute dry substance and the quantity of sugars in sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes could be grown on soils, which are light to medium polluted with lead, zinc, and cadmium, as they do not accumulate these elements. On heavily polluted soils, however, (Pb – 1504 mg/kg, Zn – 3322 mg/kg, Cd – 47 mg/kg) the growing of sweet potatoes is not allowed, as the accumulation of Pb and Cd in the core of the potatoes exceeds the Maximum Acceptable Concentration. Acknowledgment: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI DH04/9).

Keywords: Heavy Metals, uptake, polluted soils, sweet potatoes

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