Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

university students Related Abstracts

38 Corporate Social Responsibility and Students’ Job Performance: A Case Study of Silpakorn University’s Internship Program

Authors: Naritphol Boonyakiat


This research attempts to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility and students’ job performance of the Silpakorn University’s internship program within various organizations. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility that fundamentally relate to students’ job performance within the organizations. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from selected employers’ qualitative assessment and evaluation forms from various companies. The results represent the perceptions of students towards the corporate social responsibility aspects and their job performance evaluation from the employers in various organizations. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility has significant effects on students’ job performance. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and workplace environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility practices toward students’ job performance within an organizational setting. Therefore, there is good reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR and students’ job performance as an essential aspect of long-term success sustainability.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Job Performance, internship program, university students

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37 Application of an Educational Program for Al Jouf University Students regarding Scientific Writing and Presentation Skills

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil


This study was undertaken to evaluate an educational program regarding scientific writing and presentation skills among university students. This interventional study used a one-group, pretest/posttest design and was conducted in Al Jouf University among four colleges in Saudi Arabia. Baseline students’ assessment was conducted for developing educational program. Interventional, one group, pretest/posttest study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program. Three parts evaluation sheet with total scores of 30 was used for 113 students for the development of the program and 52 students for test pretest phase. Wilcoxon signed ranks showed statistically significant improvement in the combined overall program skills score from a median of 56.7 pre to a median of 86.7 post, (z = 6.231, p < 0.001). When compared to preprogram intervention, post interventions 51.9 % of students achieve excellent performance. While pre intervention no students (0.0 %) achieve this score. Regarding to scientific writing skills, Wilcoxon signed ranks showed statistically significant improvement in the score from a median of 60 pre to a median of 90 post, (z = 6.122, p < 0.001). None of students had excellent performance changed to 73.1%. Regarding to oral presentation skills, Wilcoxon signed ranks showed statistically significant improvement in the score from a median of 50 pre to a median of 80 post, (z = 6.153, p < 0.001). None of students had excellent performance changed to 48.1%. Such educational program needs to be incorporated into classroom delivery of the students’ curriculum. Scientific writing skills book needed to be developed to be recommended as a basic educational strategy for all university faculties.

Keywords: university students, scientific writing, presentation skills, educational program

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36 Implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in the Classroom

Authors: Jarmon Sirigunna


The objective of this study were to investigate the success of the implementation of problem-based learning in classroom and to evaluate the level of satisfaction of Suan Sunandra Rajabhat University’s students who participated in the study. This paper aimed to study and focus on a university students survey conducted in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University during January to March of 2014. The quota sampling was utilized to obtain the sample which included 60 students, 50 percent male and 50 percent female students. The pretest and posttest method was utilized. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had gained higher knowledge after the posttest significantly. The respondents’ knowledge increased about 40 percent after the experiment. Also, the findings revealed the top three highest level of satisfaction as follows: 1) the proper roles of teacher and students, 2) the knowledge gained from the method of the problem-based learning, 3) the activities of the problem-based learning, 4) the interaction of students from the problem-based learning, and 5) the problem-based learning model. Also, the mean score of all categories was 4.22 with a standard deviation of 0.7435 which indicated that the level of satisfaction was high.

Keywords: Implement, Problem-Based Learning, satisfaction, university students

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35 Revisited: Financial Literacy and How University Students Fare

Authors: Zaiton Osman, Phang Ing, Azaze Azizi Abd Adis, Izyanti Awg Razli, Mohd Rizwan Abd Majid, Rosle Mohidin


This study is conducted to investigate the level of financial literacy among students taking Financial Management and Banking in Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia. Students are asked to answer basic financial literacy questions in their first class before study commence and the similar questions were given in their final week of study (after 14 weeks of study duration). The comparison on their level of financial literacy will be examined. This study is expected to yields the following findings; firstly, comparison of the level of financial literacy 'before and after' courses in finance being introduced can be revealed. Secondly, it will provide suggestion on improving the standard of teaching and learning in financial management and banking courses and lastly it will help in identifying financial courses that are important in improving the level of financial literacy among students in Malaysia.

Keywords: Financial Literacy, university students, personal financial planning, business and management engineering

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34 Child Rearing Styles and Family Communication Patterns among University Students

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad


Family is a basic unit of the society and the main source of human development. The initial aim of the family is psychological and social support of its members and has special developmental stages. Researches show the families who have less cohesion, have more conflicts and maladjustments and the members of such families are not able to communicate effectively. Family is a system in which any inter communication is related to child rearing patterns and can affect it. Even the child rearing styles in childhood can determine the family communications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to examine the relationship between child-rearing styles including authoritative, authoritarian and permissive with dimensions of family communication patterns including the conversation and conformity. The research design was a correlational and the population consisted of the psychology students of Roudehen Islamic Azad University who were studying in academic year 2013-2014. A sample of 324 students were selected randomly from the population. The research tools were the Baumrind Child-rearing Questionnaires and Family Communication Patterns Inventory, The Revised Scale of Koerner and Fitzpatrick. The results were: (a) There was a positive and significant relationship between conversation orientation and authoritative style. (b) There was no significant relationship between conversation orientation and other child-rearing styles. (c) There was a negative significant relationship between conformity orientation and authoritative style. (d) There was a positive significant relationship between conformity orientation with authoritarian and permissive styles. (e) There was a significant relationship between 3 dimensions of child-rearing and communication patterns.

Keywords: Iran, university students, child-rearing styles, family relationship patterns

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33 Research into Factors Affecting the Attitudes of University Students towards WeChat Marketing Based on AISAS Mode

Authors: Du Zhiqin


WeChat is an instant messaging service similar to WhatsApp developed by Tencent, one of China's largest and most used Internet service portals. This paper investigates the penetration of WeChat among university students through a questionnaire, analyzes the effect of brand influence, information quality, interactivity, opinions of opinion-leaders, promotion, personal interests on the attitudes of university students towards WeChat marketing. This paper concludes that the penetration rate of WeChat marketing among university students is generally high enough, WeChat has generally been accepted by students as a way for businesses to market their products, and that all the above-mentioned five factors play a positive role in the process of WeChat marketing. It also proposes that businesses could maximize the effect of WeChat marketing by focusing more resources on the increase of brand influence, and the interactivity of WeChat contents and the use of opinions of opinion-leaders.

Keywords: Marketing, university students, WeChat, AISAS

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32 Predicting Career Adaptability and Optimism among University Students in Turkey: The Role of Personal Growth Initiative and Socio-Demographic Variables

Authors: Yagmur Soylu, Emir Ozeren, Erol Esen, Digdem M. Siyez, Ozlem Belkis, Ezgi Burc, Gülce Demirgurz


The aim of the study is to determine the predictive power of personal growth initiative, socio-demographic variables (such as sex, grade, and working condition) on career adaptability and optimism of bachelor students in Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. According to career construction theory, career adaptability is viewed as a psychosocial construct, which refers to an individual’s resources for dealing with current and expected tasks, transitions and traumas in their occupational roles. Career optimism is defined as positive results for future career development of individuals in the expectation that it will achieve or to put the emphasis on the positive aspects of the event and feel comfortable about the career planning process. Personal Growth Initiative (PGI) is defined as being proactive about one’s personal development. Additionally, personal growth is defined as the active and intentional engagement in the process of personal. A study conducted on college students revealed that individuals with high self-development orientation make more effort to discover the requirements of the profession and workspaces than individuals with low levels of personal development orientation. University life is a period that social relations and the importance of academic activities are increased, the students make efforts to progress through their career paths and it is also an environment that offers opportunities to students for their self-realization. For these reasons, personal growth initiative is potentially an important variable which has a key role for an individual during the transition phase from university to the working life. Based on the review of the literature, it is expected that individual’s personal growth initiative, sex, grade, and working condition would significantly predict one’s career adaptability. In the relevant literature, it can be seen that there are relatively few studies available on the career adaptability and optimism of university students. Most of the existing studies have been carried out with limited respondents. In this study, the authors aim to conduct a comprehensive research with a large representative sample of bachelor students in Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey. By now, personal growth initiative and career development constructs have been predominantly discussed in western contexts where individualistic tendencies are likely to be seen. Thus, the examination of the same relationship within the context of Turkey where collectivistic cultural characteristics can be more observed is expected to offer valuable insights and provide an important contribution to the literature. The participants in this study were comprised of 1500 undergraduate students being included from thirteen faculties in Dokuz Eylul University. Stratified and random sampling methods were adopted for the selection of the participants. The Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II and Career Futures Inventory were used as the major measurement tools. In data analysis stage, several statistical analysis concerning the regression analysis, one-way ANOVA and t-test will be conducted to reveal the relationships of the constructs under investigation. At the end of this project, we will be able to determine the level of career adaptability and optimism of university students at varying degrees so that a fertile ground is likely to be created to carry out several intervention techniques to make a contribution to an emergence of a healthier and more productive youth generation in psycho-social sense.

Keywords: university students, career optimism, career adaptability, personal growth initiative

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31 Psychometric Examination of Atma Jaya's Multiple Intelligence Batteries for University Students

Authors: Angela Oktavia Suryani, Bernadeth Gloria, Edwin Sutamto, Jessica Kristianty, Ni Made Rai Sapitri, Patricia Catherine Agla, Sitti Arlinda Rochiadi


It was found that some blogs or personal websites in Indonesia sell standardized intelligence tests (for example, Progressive Matrices (PM), Intelligence Structure Test (IST), and Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)) and other psychological tests, together with the manual and the key answers for public. Individuals can buy and prepare themselves for selection or recruitment with the real test. This action drives people to lie to the institution (education or company) and also to themselves. It was also found that those tests are old. Some items are not relevant with the current context, for example a question about a diameter of a certain coin that does not exist anymore. These problems motivate us to develop a new intelligence battery test, namely of Multiple Aptitude Battery (MAB). The battery test was built by using Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities theory and intended to be used by high schools students, university students, and worker applicants. The battery tests consist of 9 subtests. In the current study we examine six subtests, namely Reading Comprehension, Verbal Analogies, Numerical Inductive Reasoning, Numerical Deductive Reasoning, Mechanical Ability, and Two Dimensional Spatial Reasoning for university students. The study included 1424 data from students recruited by convenience sampling from eight faculties at Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia. Classical and modern test approaches (Item Response Theory) were carried out to identify the item difficulties of the items and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to examine their internal validities. The validity of each subtest was inspected by using convergent–discriminant method, whereas the reliability was examined by implementing Kuder–Richardson formula. The result showed that the majority of the subtests were difficult in medium level, and there was only one subtest categorized as easy, namely Verbal Analogies. The items were found homogenous and valid measuring their constructs; however at the level of subtests, the construct validity examined by convergent-discriminant method indicated that the subtests were not unidimensional. It means they were not only measuring their own constructs but also other construct. Three of the subtests were able to predict academic performance with small effect size, namely Reading Comprehension, Numerical Inductive Reasoning, and Two Dimensional Spatial Reasoning. GPAs in intermediate level (GPAs at third semester and above) were considered as a factor for predictive invalidity. The Kuder-Richardson formula showed that the reliability coefficients for both numerical reasoning subtests and spatial reasoning were superior, in the range 0.84 – 0.87, whereas the reliability coefficient for the other three subtests were relatively below standard for ability test, in the range of 0.65 – 0.71. It can be concluded that some of the subtests are ready to be used, whereas some others are still need some revisions. This study also demonstrated that the convergent-discrimination method is useful to identify the general intelligence of human.

Keywords: Intelligence, university students, psychometric examination, multiple aptitude battery

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30 Intelligent Scaffolding Diagnostic Tutoring Systems to Enhance Students’ Academic Reading Skills

Authors: A.Chayaporn Kaoropthai, B. Onjaree Natakuatoong, C. Nagul Cooharojananone


The first year is usually the most critical year for university students. Generally, a considerable number of first-year students worldwide drop out of university every year. One of the major reasons for dropping out is failing. Although they are supposed to have mastered sufficient English proficiency upon completing their high school education, most first-year students are still novices in academic reading. Due to their lack of experience in academic reading, first-year students need significant support from teachers to help develop their academic reading skills. Reading strategies training is thus a necessity and plays a crucial role in classroom instruction. However, individual differences in both students, as well as teachers, are the main factors contributing to the failure in not responding to each individual student’s needs. For this reason, reading strategies training inevitably needs a diagnosis of students’ academic reading skills levels before, during, and after learning, in order to respond to their different needs. To further support reading strategies training, scaffolding is proposed to facilitate students in understanding and practicing using reading strategies under the teachers’ guidance. The use of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) as a tool for diagnosing students’ reading problems will be very beneficial to both students and their teachers. The ITSs consist of four major modules: the Expert module, the Student module, the Diagnostic module, and the User Interface module. The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) enables the systems to perform diagnosis consistently and appropriately for each individual student. Thus, it is essential to develop the Intelligent Scaffolding Diagnostic Reading Strategies Tutoring Systems to enhance first-year students’ academic reading skills. The systems proposed will contribute to resolving classroom reading strategies training problems, developing students’ academic reading skills, and facilitating teachers.

Keywords: Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Scaffolding, university students, academic reading

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29 University Climate and Psychological Adjustment: African American Women’s Experiences at Predominantly White Institutions in the United States

Authors: Faheemah N. Mustafaa, Tamarie Macon, Tabbye Chavous


A major concern of university leaders worldwide is how to create environments where students from diverse racial/ethnic, national, and cultural backgrounds can thrive. Over the past decade or so in the United States, African American women have done exceedingly well in terms of college enrollment, academic performance, and completion. However, the relative academic successes of African American women in higher education has in some ways overshadowed social challenges many Black women continue to encounter on college campuses in the United States. Within predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in particular, there is consistent evidence that many Black students experience racially hostile climates. However, research studies on racial climates within PWIs have mostly focused on cross-sectional comparisons of minority and majority group experiences, and few studies have examined campus racial climate in relation to short- and longer-term well-being. One longitudinal study reported that African American women’s psychological well-being was positively related to their comfort in cross-racial interactions (a concept closely related to campus climate). Thus, our primary research question was: Do African American women’s perceptions of campus climate (tension and positive association) during their freshman year predict their reports of psychological distress and well-being (self-acceptance) during their sophomore year? Participants were part of a longitudinal survey examining African American college students’ academic identity development, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. The final subsample included 134 self-identified African American/Black women enrolled in PWIs. Accounting for background characteristics (mother’s education, family income, interracial contact, and prior levels of outcomes), we employed hierarchical regression to examine relationships between campus racial climate during freshman year and psychological adjustment one year later. Both regression models significantly predicted African American women’s psychological outcomes (for distress, F(7,91)= 4.34, p < .001; and for self-acceptance, F(7,90)= 4.92, p < .001). Although none of the controls were significant predictors, perceptions of racial tension on campus were associated with both distress and self-acceptance. More perceptions of tension were related to African American women’s greater psychological distress the following year (B= 0.22, p= .01). Additionally, racial tension predicted later self-acceptance in the expected direction: Higher first-year reports of racial tension were related to less positive attitudes toward the self during the sophomore year (B= -0.16, p= .04). However, perceptions that it was normative for Black and White students to socialize on campus (or positive association scores) were unrelated to psychological distress or self-acceptance. Findings highlight the relevance of examining multiple facets of campus racial climate in relation to psychological adjustment, with possible emphasis on the import of racial tension on African American women’s psychological adjustment. Results suggest that negative dimensions of campus racial climate may have lingering effects on psychological well-being, over and above more positive aspects of climate. Thus, programs targeted toward improving student relations on campus should consider addressing cross-racial tensions.

Keywords: Higher Education, Psychological Adjustment, university students, university climate

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28 Financial Literacy of Students of Finance

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková


Financial literacy is a widely discussed topic on the national and international level by governments, organizations and academia. For this reason this study analyses financial knowledge, financial behavior and financial attitudes of students of finance. The aim of the paper is to determine whether the financial literacy of university students studying finance differs from the level of financial literacy in selected OECD countries. The research was conducted at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic. The empirical study comprises questions related to several aspects of financial literacy, as well as socio-demographic data enabling more thorough analysis. The results indicate that improvement in financial literacy of university students is still required, even though their major is finance related.

Keywords: Financial Literacy, university students, financial behavior, personal finance management

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27 The Influence of Gender and Harmful Alcohol Consumption on Academic Performance in Spanish University Students

Authors: M. S. Rodríguez, F. Cadaveira, M. F. Páramo


First year university students comprise one of the groups most likely to indulge in hazardous alcohol consumption. The transition from secondary school to university presents a range of academic, social and developmental challenges requiring new responses that will meet the demands of this highly competitive environment. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of gender and hazardous alcohol consumption on academic performance of 300 university students in Spain in a three-year follow-up study. Alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT), and the average university grades were provided by the Academic Management Services of the University. Analysis of variance showed that the level of alcohol consumption significantly affected academic performance. Students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption obtained the lowest grades during the first three years at university. These effects were particularly marked in the sample of women with a hazardous pattern of alcohol consumption, although the interaction between gender and this type of consumption was not significant. The study highlights the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the academic trajectory of university students. The findings confirm that alcohol consumption predicts poor academic performance in first year students and that the low level of performance is maintained throughout the university career.

Keywords: Gender, Academic Performance, university students, alcohol consumption

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26 The Need for the Development of Entrepreneurial Skill in Benue State University Students, Makurdi

Authors: Philomena Ibuh Adzongo, Margaret U. Oluwole, Justina Nguveren Jor.


This paper investigated the need for the development of entrepreneurial skills for Benue State University students. The population consisted of all 1,500 final year students in Benue State University. A sample of 100 students was selected using simple random sampling. A 12-item self-constructed and content validated questionnaire by research experts titled, the Need for the Development of Entrepreneurial Skills in Benue State University Students (NDECBSUS) was used to collect the data. The questionnaire items were rated using a 4-point modified rating scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree, assigned the following scores of 4,3,2 and 1, respectively. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants through the primary source. Simple percentages and chi-square were used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, respectively. The findings revealed that in business management, business management skills, personal skills, and technical skills need to be developed in students for them to become effective and efficient entrepreneurs and concluded that the acquisition of these skills will reduce the challenge of unemployment. The study recommended that funds should be made available by all education stakeholders for such programmes to remain functional.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, university students, entrepreneurial skill, need for development

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25 Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Well-Being in University Students

Authors: Enes Ergün, Sedat Geli̇bolu


The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and subjective well-being among university students. We are aiming to determine whether self efficacy of university students predicts their subjective well-being and if there is a statistically significant difference among boys and girls in this context. Sample of this study consists of 245 university students from Çanakkale, ages ranging between 17 and 24. 72% (n=171) of the participants were girls and 28% (n=69) boys. Three different scales were utilized as data collection tools that Life Satisfaction Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Positive Negative Experiences Scale. Pearson correlation coefficient, independent sample t test and simple linear regression were used for data analyses. Results showed that well-being is significantly correlated with self-efficacy and self-efficacy is a statistically significant predictor of well-being too. In terms of gender differences, there is no significant difference between self-efficacy scores of boys and girls which shows the same case with well being scores, as well. Fostering university students' academic, social and emotional self-efficacy will increase their well-being which is very important for young adults especially their freshman years.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Self-efficacy, university students, subjective well being

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24 Self-Perceived Employability of Students of International Relations of University of Warmia and Mazury in Poland

Authors: Marzena Świgoń


Nowadays, graduates should be prepared for serious challenges in the internal and external labor market. The notion that a degree is a “passport to employment” has been relegated to the past. In the last few years a phenomenon in the form of the increasing unemployment of highly educated young people in EU countries, including Poland has been observed. Empirical studies were conducted among Polish students in the scope of the so-called self-perceived employability review. In this study, a special scale was used which consisted of 19 statements regarding five components: student’s perception of university; field of study; self-belief; state of the external labor market; and, personal knowledge management. The respondent group consisted of final-year master’s students of International Relations at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. The findings of the empirical studies were compiled using statistical methods: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In general, in light of the conducted studies, the self-perceived employability of the Polish students was not high. Limitations of the studies were discussed, as well as the implications for future research in the scope of the students’ employability.

Keywords: university students, self-perceived employability, students of international relations, students employability

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23 Relationship of Level of Knowledge on HIV/AIDS and Attitude towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among Selected Philippine Institution 100 (PI 100) Students of the University of the Philippines Diliman

Authors: John Angelo Labuguen, Sarah Joy Salvio


Despite the low prevalence rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the Philippines, the country is one of the seven countries in the world and the only country in Southeast Asia which reported an increasing trend in the number of people infected with HIV. Furthermore, people getting infected with HIV are becoming younger every year. Eighty-five percent (7,103) of the total number of youth (15-24 years old) with HIV were recorded in the past five years. The rising rates of HIV infection suggest the need to understand HIV knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors among the youth in the Philippines. The University of the Philippines (UP), having a population that represents all regions of the country, can be reflective of the current situation of the Filipino youth in the issue of HIV/AIDS. This paper attempted to: (1) assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS; (2) describe the attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS; (3) identify socio-demographic and sexual behaviors associated with the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge; and (4) determine how knowledge on HIV/AIDS is related with attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS among tertiary students of the UP Diliman. Self-administered survey was used to collect data from 308 randomly selected respondents. Data was encoded using CS Pro 6.2 and it was exported to SPSS v23 for further analysis. Findings of the study revealed that comprehensive correct knowledge on HIV/AIDS is associated with a somewhat accepting attitude towards PLWHA. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior characteristics do not contribute to the association between level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and attitude towards PLWHA.

Keywords: university students, Philippines, attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge

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22 Technological Loneliness; The Effect on Loneliness of Internet Addiction of University Students; The Case of Turkey

Authors: Adem Pala, Mustafa Biner


Nowadays, despite the fact that technology and internet shorten the virtual distance, too much use and misuse of internet create distance among people. There is a considerable number of people living in the same house even sitting at the same table but busy themselves with mobiles and computers for long hours without talking to each other. Internet usage is very common among young people especially university students. Evolving out of this problem, internet addiction of university students and effect on their loneliness, and relationship between them consist of the purpose of this study. The study is important because it discusses what can be done in order to make the young people more social via determining the university students’ loneliness and their internet addiction. The study was carried out with 440 university students studying at different universities and departments. The group consists of 200 female and 240 male students with average of age 20,9. In the study, 19 questions, “internet addiction scale” consisting of 3 subscales, and UCLA loneliness scale were used as data collection tools. As a result, it is found out that the loneliness of individuals with internet addiction is higher than the other individuals. The males’ loneliness related to internet addiction is higher than the females; on the other hand, it is determined females feel more lonesome in general loneliness. It is thought that the findings of the study will determine the individuals under risk, prevent them, help researchers and people doing clinical studies during rehabilitation progress.

Keywords: Turkey, Internet Addiction, university students, loneliness

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21 Alcohol and Soda Consumption of University Students in Manila

Authors: Alexi Colleen F. Lim, Inna Felicia I. Agoncillo, Quenniejoy T. Dizon, Jennifer Joyce T. Eti, Carlota Aileen H. Monares, Neil Roy B. Rosales, Joshua F. Santillan, Alyssa Francesca D. S. Tanchuling, Josefina A. Tuazon, Mary Joan Therese C. Valera-Kourdache


Majority of leading causes of mortality in the Philippines are NCDs, which are preventable through control of known risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol. Sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda and energy drinks also contribute to NCD risk and are of concern particularly for youth. This study provides baseline data on beverage consumption of university students in Manila with the focus on alcohol and soda. It further aims to identify factors affecting consumption. Specific objectives include: (1) to describe beverage consumption practices of university students in Manila; and (2) to determine factors promoting excessive consumption of alcohol and soda including demographic characteristics, attitude, interpersonal and environmental variables. Methods: The study employed correlational design with randomly selected students from two universities in Manila. Students 18 years or older who agreed to participate were included after obtaining ethical clearance. The study had two instruments: (1) World Health Organization’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used with permission, to determine excessive alcohol consumption; and (2) a questionnaire to obtain information regarding soda and energy drink consumption. Results: Out of 400 students surveyed, 70% were female and 78.75% were 18-20 years old (mean=19.79; SD=3.76). Among them, 51.50% consumed alcohol, with 30.10% excessive drinkers. Soda consumption is 91.50% with 37.70% excessive consumers. For energy drinks, 36.75% consume this and only 4.76% drink excessively. Using logistic regression, students who were more likely to be excessive alcohol drinkers belonged to non-health courses (OR=2.21) and purchased alcohol from bars (OR=7.84). Less likely to drink excessively are students who do not drink due to stress (OR=0.05) and drink when it is accessible (OR=0.02). Excessive soda consumption was less likely for female students (OR=0.28), those who drink when it is accessible (OR=0.14), do not drink soda during stressful situations (OR=0.19), and do not use soda as hangover treatment (OR=0.15). Conclusion: Excessive alcohol consumption was greater among students in Manila (30.10%) than in US (20%). Drinking alcohol with friends was not related to excessive consumption but availability in bars was. It is expected that health sciences students are less likely to engage in excessive alcohol as they are more aware of its ill effects. Prevalence of soda consumption in Manila (91.50%) is markedly higher compared to 24.5% in the US. These findings can inform schools in developing appropriate health education interventions and policies. For greater understanding of these behaviors and factors, further studies are recommended to explore knowledge and other factors that may promote excessive consumption.

Keywords: Beverage Consumption, university students, alcohol consumption, energy drinks consumption, soda consumption

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20 Financial Decision-Making among Finance Students: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková


Making sound financial decisions is an essential skill which can have an impact on life of each consumer of financial products. The aim of this paper is to examine decision-making concerning financial matters and personal finance. The selected target group was university students majoring in finance related fields. The study was conducted in the Czech Republic at Masaryk University in 2015. In order to analyze financial decision-making questions related to basic finance decisions were developed to address the research objective. The results of the study suggest gaps in detecting best solutions to given financial decision-making questions among finance students. The analysis results indicate relation between financial decision-making and own experience with holding and using concrete financial products.

Keywords: Financial Literacy, Personal Finance, university students, financial decision-making

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19 Financial Products Held by University Students: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelikova


Current financial markets offer a wide range of financial products to the consumers. However, access to the financial products is not always provided or guaranteed, particularly in less developed countries. For this reason, financial inclusion is an important component in the modern society. This paper investigates financial inclusion and what financial products are held by university students majoring in finance fields. The OECD methodology was used to examine the awareness and use of financial products. The study was conducted via online questionnaire at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic among finance students. The results show that the students use current and savings accounts more than any other financial products.

Keywords: financial products, Personal Finance, financial inclusion, university students

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18 African Folklore for Critical Self-Reflection, Reflective Dialogue, and Resultant Attitudinal and Behaviour Change: University Students’ Experiences

Authors: T. M. Buthelezi, E. O. Olagundoye, R. G. L. Cele


This article argues that whilst African folklore has mainly been used for entertainment, it also has an educational value that has power to change young people’s attitudes and behavior. The paper is informed by the findings from the data that was generated from 154 university students who were coming from diverse backgrounds. The qualitative data was thematically analysed. Referring to the six steps of the behaviour change model, we found that African Folklore provides relevant cultural knowledge and instills values that enable young people to engage on self-reflection that eventually leads them towards attitudinal changes and behaviour modification. Using the transformative learning theory, we argue that African Folklore in itself is a pedagogical strategy that integrates cultural knowledge, values with entertainment elements concisely enough to take the young people through a transformative phase which encompasses psychological, convictional and life-style adaptation. During data production stage all ethical considerations were observed including obtaining gatekeeper’s permission letter and ethical clearance certificate from the Ethics Committee of the University. The paper recommends that African Folklore approach should be incorporated into the school curriculum particularly in life skills education with aims to change behaviour.

Keywords: Behavior change, Young People, university students, African folklore, attitudinal

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17 Investigating University Students' Attitudes towards Infertility in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

Authors: Yelda Kağnıcı, Seçil Seymenler, Bahar Baran, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M. Siyez


Infertility is the inability to reproduce after twelve months or longer unprotected sexual relationship. Although infertility is not a life threatening illness, it is considered as a serious problem for both the individual and the society. At this point, the importance of examining attitudes towards infertility is critical. Negative attitudes towards infertility may postpone individuals’ help seeking behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate university students’ attitudes towards infertility in terms of socio-demographic variables (gender, age, taking sexual health education, existence of an infertile individual in the social network, plans about having child and behaviors about health). The sample of the study was 9693 university students attending to 21 universities in Turkey. Of the 9693 students, % 51.6 (n = 5002) were female, % 48.4 (n = 4691) were male. The data was collected by Attitudes toward Infertility Scale developed by researchers and Personal Information Form. In data analysis first frequencies were calculated, then in order to test whether there were significant differences in attitudes towards infertility scores of university students in terms of socio-demographic variables, one way ANOVA was conducted. According to the results, it was found that female students, students who had sexual health education, who have sexual relationship experience, who have an infertile individual in their social networks, who have child plans, who have high caffeine usage and who use alcohol regularly have more positive attitudes towards infertility. On the other hand, attitudes towards infidelity did not show significant differences in terms of age and cigarette usage. When the results of the study were evaluated in general, it was seen that university students’ attitudes towards infertility were negative. The attitudes of students who have high caffeine and alcohols usage were high. It can be considered that these students are aware that their social habits are risky. Female students’ positive attitudes might be explained by their gender role. The results point out that in order to decrease university students’ negative attitudes towards infertility, there is a necessity to develop preventive programs in universities.

Keywords: Sex, attitudes, infertility, university students

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16 The Impact of Household Income on Students' Financial Literacy

Authors: Dorjana Nano


Financial literacy has become on focus of many research studies. Family household is found to influence students’ financial literacy. The purpose of this study is to explore whether financial literacy of Albanian students is associated with their family household. The main objectives of this research are: i) firstly, to evaluate how financial literate are Albanian university students; ii) secondly, to examine whether the financial literacy differs based on the level of students family income; and iii) finally, to draw some conclusions and recommendations in order to improve student’s financial literacy. An instrument, comprised of personal finance and personal characteristics is administered to 637 students in Albania. The constituency of the survey is tested based on the dimension reduction and factor analyzing techniques. The One Way Welch ANOVA and multiple comparison techniques are utilized to analyze the data. The results indicate that student’s financial literacy is influenced by their family income.

Keywords: Financial Literacy, university students, household income, smart decisions

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15 Religiosity and Social Factors on Alcohol Use among South African University Students

Authors: Godswill Nwabuisi Osuafor, Sonto Maria Maputle


Background: Abounding studies found that religiosity and social factors modulate alcohol use among university students. However, there is a scarcity of empirical studies examining the protective effects of religiosity and other social factors on alcohol use and abuse in South African universities. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the protective effects of religiosity and roles of social factors on alcohol use among university students. Methodology: A survey on the use of alcohol among 416 university students was conducted using structured questionnaire in 2014. Data were sourced on religiosity and contextual variables. Students were classified as practicing intrinsic religiosity or extrinsic religiosity based on the response to the measures of religiosity. Descriptive, chi square and binary logistic analyses were used in processing the data. Result: Results revealed that alcohol use was associated with religiosity, religion, sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Reporting alcohol abuse was significantly predicted by sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Religiosity mediated lower alcohol use whereas family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol promoted alcohol use and abuse. Conclusion: Families, religious groups and societal factors may be the specific niches for intervention on alcohol use among university students.

Keywords: religiosity, university students, protective factors, alcohol use

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14 Young People’s Participation in Decision-Making Using Information and Communication Technology

Authors: Marina Diković


By giving personal opinions, suggestions and criticism through e-democracy, young people can reinforce the adoption of decisions which they have an impact on. The purpose of this research was to examine the opinion of university students about the possibility of their decision-making by using information and communication technology (ICT). The questionnaire examined young people's values and behaviour associated with e-democracy and the related decision-making. Students are most active online when it comes to finding information connected with their academic responsibilities, but less frequently take part in democratic processes in society, both at the national and local level. E-democracy as a tool can be learned in programmes of Human Rights Education and Citizenship Education. 

Keywords: e-democracy, Active Citizens, university students, Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

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13 Cultural Orientation as a Moderator between Social Support Needs and Psychological Well-Being among Canadian University Students

Authors: Allison Streutker, Josephine Tan


Universities across Canada have experienced unprecedented growth in international student enrollment from across the world. As cultural diversity in Canada and other countries increases, understanding the social support needs of all students is important for providing them with the assistance they need to thrive psychologically and academically. Those from individualistic cultural orientations tend to seek explicit social support, which involves expressly asking for assistance in times of stress. However, those from collectivistic cultural orientations are more likely to seek implicit social support, where encouragement is obtained from spending time among valued social groups without explicitly talking about problems. This study explored whether the relationship between the type of social support needs (implicit or explicit) and psychological and academic functioning might be moderated by cultural orientations (individualistic, collectivistic) among university students. Participants were 110 university students (70 women, 40 men; mean age = 24.8 years, SD = 6.6). They completed the Individualism and Collectivism Scale (ICS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) which assesses implicit and explicit social support, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) which yields positive and negative experience scores, Flourishing Scale (FS), and reported their grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic performance. Moderated regression analysis demonstrated that, for those scoring lower on individualism, reporting lower level of implicit support predicted higher levels of perceived stress. For those scoring higher on individualism, lower levels of explicit social support predicted higher levels of perceived stress and a greater number of negative experiences. Generally, higher levels of implicit support were associated with greater satisfaction with life for all students, with the association becoming stronger among students with higher collectivism scores. No other significant findings were found. The results point to the value of considering the cultural orientations of students when designing programs to maintain and improve their sense of well-being.

Keywords: Well-being, Social Support, university students, cultural orientation

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12 Attitudes, Knowledge and Perceptions towards Cervical Cancer Messages among Female University Students

Authors: Anne Nattembo


Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in developing countries, especially in Africa. Effective cervical cancer prevention communication requires identification of behaviors, attitudes and increasing awareness of a given population; thus this study focused on investigating awareness, attitudes, and behavior among female university students towards cervical cancer messages. The study objectives sought to investigate the communication behavior of young adults towards cervical cancer, to understand female students recognition of cervical cancer as a problem, to identify the frames related to cervical cancer and their impact towards audience communication and participation behaviors, to identify the factors that influence behavioral intentions and level of involvement towards cervical cancer services and to make recommendations on how to improve cervical cancer communication towards female university students. The researcher obtained data using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions targeting 90 respondents. The semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out through one-on-one discussions basis using a set of prepared questions among 53 respondents. All interviews were audio-tape recorded. Each interview was directly typed into Microsoft Word. 4 focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 37 respondents; 2 female only groups with 10 respondents in one and 9 respondents in another, 1 mixed with 12 participants 5 of whom were male, and 1 male only group with 6 participants. The key findings show that the participants preferred to receive and access cervical cancer information from doctors although they were mainly receiving information from the radio. In regards to the type of public the respondents represent, majority of the respondents were non-publics in the sense that they did not have knowledge about cervical cancer, had low levels of involvement and had high constraint recognition their cervical cancer knowledge levels. The researcher identified the most salient audience frames among female university students towards cervical cancer and these included; death, loss, and fear. These frames did not necessarily make cervical cancer an issue of concern among the female university students but rather an issue they distanced themselves from as they did not perceive it as a risk. The study also identified the constraints respondents face in responding to cervical cancer campaign calls-to-action which included; stigma, lack of knowledge and access to services as well as lack of recommendation from doctors. In regards to sex differences, females had more knowledge about cervical cancer than the males. In conclusion the study highlights the importance of interpersonal communication in risk or health communication with a focus on health providers proactively sharing cervical cancer prevention information with their patients. Health provider’s involvement in cervical cancer is very important in influencing behavior and compliance of cervical cancer calls-to-action. The study also provides recommendations for designing effective cervical cancer campaigns that will positively impact on the audience such as packaging cervical cancer messages that also target the males as a way of increasing their involvement and more campaigns to increase awareness of cervical cancer as well as designing positive framed messages to counter the negative audience frames towards cervical cancer.

Keywords: Health communication, risk communication, university students, cervical cancer communication

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11 Investigation of Various Variabilities of Attitudes toward Teaching as a Profession Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students

Authors: Turan Cetinkaya, Abdurrahman Kırtepe


The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level attitudes toward teaching as a profession to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 277 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and teaching profession scale consisting 34 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, attitudes toward teaching as a profession levels do not differ according to gender, but significant differences were detected in the exercise regularly and department.

Keywords: attitude, teaching profession, university students, physical education and sports students

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10 Effect of Internet Addiction on Dietary Behavior and Lifestyle Characteristics among University Students

Authors: Hafsa Kamran, Asma Afreen, Zaheer Ahmed


Internet addiction, an emerging mental health disorder from last two decades, is manifested by the inability in the controlled use of internet leading to academics, social, physiological and/or psychological difficulties. The present study aimed to assess the levels of internet addiction among university students in Lahore and to explore the effects of internet addiction on their dietary behavior and lifestyle. It was an analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected from October to December 2016 from students of four universities selected through two-stage sampling method. The numbers of participants were 500 and 13 questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete information. Levels of Internet Addiction (IA) were calculated using Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). Data was also collected on students’ demographics, lifestyle factors and dietary behavior using self-reported questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Chi-square test was applied to evaluate the relationship between variables. Results of the study revealed that 10% of the population had severe internet addiction while moderate Internet Addiction was present in 42%. High prevalence was found among males (11% vs. 8%), private sector university students (p = 0.008) and engineering students (p = 0.000). The lifestyle habits of internet addicts were significantly of poorer quality than normal users (p = 0.05). Internet addiction was found associated with lesser physically activity (p = 0.025), had shorter duration of physical activity (p = 0.016), had more disorganized sleep pattern (p = 0.023), had less duration of sleep (p = 0.019), reported being more tired and sleepy in class (p = 0.033) and spending more time on internet as compared to normal users. Severe and moderate internet addicts also found to be more overweight and obese than normal users (p = 0.000). The dietary behavior of internet addicts was significantly poorer than normal users. Internet addicts were found to skip breakfast more than a normal user (p = 0.039). Common reasons for meal skipping were lack of time and snacking between meals (p = 0.000). They also had increased meal size (p = 0.05) and habit of snacking while using the internet (p = 0.027). Fast food (p = 0.016) and fried items (p = 0.05) were most consumed snacks, while carbonated beverages (p = 0.019) were most consumed beverages among internet addicts. Internet Addicts were found to consume less than recommended daily servings of dairy (p = 0.008) and fruits (p = 0.000) and more servings of meat group (p = 0.025) than their no internet addict counterparts. In conclusion, in this study, it was demonstrated that internet addicts have unhealthy dietary behavior and inappropriate lifestyle habits. University students should be educated regarding the importance of balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, which are critical for effectual primary prevention of numerous chronic degenerative diseases. Furthermore, it is necessary to raise awareness concerning adverse effects of internet addiction among youth and their parents.

Keywords: Lifestyle, Internet Addiction, university students, dietary behavior

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9 Sexual Harassment at University: Male Students' Perspectives

Authors: Shakila Singh


Sexual harassment continues to be a problem both in educational institutions and workplaces with the main victims being women and the main perpetrators being men. The achievement of quality education demands to create safe learning spaces for all students and requires extensive and integrated interventions. This article draws on the data from a broader study that aims to create safer learning environments at university by addressing gender violence. It attempts to understand male students’ perspectives about their role in sexual harassment on the campus. It is a move away from interventions that place the responsibility of prevention of sexual harassment, on women. The study adopts an interpretive paradigm within a qualitative approach. The sample comprises twenty male university students who were purposively selected because they live in the campus residences. The main data generation methods included focus group discussions and individual interviews. Findings show that while many male students agree that victims of sexual harassment are mainly women, they also suggest that men are victims of sexual harassment by women. Male students have varying understandings of what constitutes sexual harassment. They position themselves as victims who feel harassed by women’s dress and behaviour. Male students also felt under pressure by sexual advances made by women that forced them to comply in order to protect their masculinity. This article argues that social norms of masculinity are powerful drivers of behaviour that play a key role in the perpetuation of sexual harassment. Male students who feel strongly against sexual harassment of female students are constrained by their masculinities in their ability to act against it. Effective interventions need to actively engage students in reflecting on and challenging social and cultural norms that contribute to violent expressions and to develop alternatives with them.

Keywords: Sexual harassment, university students, gender violence, male students

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