Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Universal design for learning Related Abstracts

10 Differentiation: A Risky Route To An Inclusive Reality

Authors: Marie C. Ryan

Abstract:

The current paper seeks to reconsider differentiation in order to establish whether differentiation has succeeded in its benevolent aim to support individual needs through teaching adaptations or whether paradoxically our attention to differentiation has served to exclude and marginalise. This paper does not deny variation in learner needs and accepts that inclusion requires teachers to adapt and modify curricular content; rather it seeks to examine whether differentiation as it is conceptualised and implemented is fit for purpose when it comes to adapting teaching in view of learner differences. The paper will also explore an alternative approach to supporting learner differences through teaching modifications which may offer a safer path to an inclusive educational reality.

Keywords: Inclusion, Special Education, Universal design for learning, Differentiation

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9 Universal Design for Learning: Its Impact for Enhanced Performance in General Psychology

Authors: Jose Gay D. Gallego

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This study examined the learning performance in General Psychology of 297 freshmen of the CPSU-Main through the Pre and Post Tests. The instructional intervention via Universal Design for Learning (UDL) was applied to 33% (97 out of 297) of these freshmen as the Treatment Group while the 67% (200) belonged to the Control Group for traditional instructions. Statistical inferences utilized one-way Analysis of Variance for mean differences; Pearson R Correlations for bivariate relationships, and; Factor Analysis for significant components that contributed most to the Universal Design for Learning instructions. Findings showed very high levels of students’ acquired UDL skills. Results in the pre test in General Psychology, respectively, were low and average when grouped into low and high achievers. There was no significant mean difference in the acquired nine UDL components when categorized into seven colleges to generalize that between colleges they were on the same very high levels. Significant differences were found in three test areas in General Psychology in eight colleges whose students in College of teacher education taking the lead in the learning performance. Significant differences were also traced in the post test in favor of the students in the treatment group. This proved that UDL really impacted the learning performance of the low achieving students. Significant correlations were revealed between the components of UDL and General Psychology. There were twenty four significant itemized components that contributed most to UDL instructional interventions. Implications were emphasized to maximizing the principles of UDL with the contention of thoughtful planning related to the four curricular pillars of UDL: (a) instructional goals, (b) instructional delivery methods, (c) instructional materials, and (d) student assessments.

Keywords: Technology in Education, Universal design for learning, enhanced performance, teaching innovation, social science area

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8 Teacher Professional Development in Saudi Arabia through the Implementation of Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Majed A. Alsalem

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Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is common theme in education across the US and an influential model and framework that enables students in general and particularly students who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) to access the general education curriculum. UDL helps teachers determine how information will be presented to students and how to keep students engaged. Moreover, UDL helps students to express their understanding and knowledge to others. UDL relies on technology to promote students' interaction with content and their communication of knowledge. This study included 120 DHH students who received daily instruction based on UDL principles. This study presents the results of the study and discusses its implications for the integration of UDL in day-to-day practice as well as in the country's education policy. UDL is a Western concept that began and grew in the US, and it has just begun to transfer to other countries such as Saudi Arabia. It will be very important to researchers, practitioners, and educators to see how UDL is being implemented in a new place with a different culture. UDL is a framework that is built to provide multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression that should be part of curricula and lessons for all students. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variables associated with the implementation of UDL in Saudi Arabian schools and identify the barriers that could prevent the implementation of UDL. Therefore, this study used a mixed methods design that use both quantitative and qualitative methods. More insights will be gained by including both quantitative and qualitative rather than using a single method. By having methods that different concepts and approaches, the databases will be enriched. This study uses levels of collecting date through two stages in order to insure that the data comes from multiple ways to mitigate validity threats and establishing trustworthiness in the findings. The rationale and significance of this study is that it will be the first known research that targets UDL in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it will deal with UDL in depth to set the path for further studies in the Middle East. From a perspective of content, this study considers teachers’ implementation knowledge, skills, and concerns of implementation. This study deals with effective instructional designs that have not been presented in any conferences, workshops, teacher preparation and professional development programs in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, Saudi Arabian schools are challenged to design inclusive schools and practices as well as to support all students’ academic skills development. The total participants in stage one were 336 teachers of DHH students. The results of the intervention indicated significant differences among teachers before and after taking the training sessions associated with their understanding and level of concern. Teachers have indicated interest in knowing more about UDL and adopting it into their practices; they reported that UDL has benefits that will enhance their performance for supporting student learning.

Keywords: Professional Development, Saudi Arabia, Universal design for learning, deaf and hard of hearing

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7 Removing Barriers in Assessment and Feedback for Blind Students in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Sindile Ngubane-Mokiwa

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This paper addresses two questions: (1) what barriers do the blind students face with assessment and feedback in open distance learning contexts? And (2) How can these barriers be removed? The paper focuses on the distance education through which most students with disabilities elevate their chances of accessing higher education. Lack of genuine inclusion is also evident in the challenges the blind students face during the assessment. These barriers are experienced at both formative and summative stages. The insights in this paper emanate from a case study that was carried out through qualitative approaches. The data was collected through in-depth interview, life stories, and telephonic interviews. The paper provides a review of local, continental and international views on how best assessment barriers can be removed. A group of five blind students, comprising of two honours students, two master's students and one doctoral student participated in this study. The data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that (a) feedback to the assignment is often inaccessible; (b) the software used is incompatible; (c) learning and assessment are designed in exclusionary approaches; (d) assessment facilities are not conducive; and (e) lack of proactive innovative assessment strategies. The article concludes by recommending ways in which barriers to assessment can be removed. These include addressing inclusive assessment and feedback strategies in professional development initiatives.

Keywords: Disabilities, Feedback, Universal design for learning, barriers, Assessment Design, blind students

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6 A Study on the Implementation of Differentiating Instruction Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The diversity of students in regular classrooms is increasing due to expand inclusive education and increase multicultural students in South Korea. In this diverse classroom environment, the universal design for learning (UDL) has been proposed as a way to meet both the educational need and social expectation of student achievement. UDL offers a variety of practical teaching methods, one of which is a differentiating instruction. The differentiating instruction has been pointed out resource limitation, organizational resistance, and lacks easy-to-implement framework. However, through the framework provided by the UDL, differentiating instruction is able to be flexible in their implementation. In practice, the UDL and differentiating instruction are complementary, but there is still a lack of research that suggests specific implementation methods that apply both concepts at the same time. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of differentiating instruction strategies according to learner characteristics (readiness, interest, learning profile), components of differentiating instruction (content, process, performance, learning environment), especially UDL principles (representation, behavior and expression, participation) existed in differentiating instruction, and implementation of UDL-based differentiating instruction through the Planning for All Learner (PAL) and UDL Lesson Plan Cycle. It is meaningful that such a series of studies can enhance the possibility of more concrete and realistic UDL-based teaching and learning strategies in the classroom, especially in inclusive settings.

Keywords: Universal design for learning, differentiating instruction, UDL lesson plan, PAL

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5 The Impact of Universal Design for Learning Implementation on Teaching Practices for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adnan Alhazmi

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Background: UDL can be understood as a framework that holds the potential to elaborate the alternatives and platforms for the students with intellectual disabilities within general education settings and aims at offering flexible pathways that can support all the students in gaining a mastering over the goals of learning. This system of learning addresses the problem of the variability of the learner by delineating the diverse ways in which the individuals can understand, conceive, express and deal with the information. Goal: The aim of the proposed research is to examine the impact of the implementation of UDL in teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabian schools. Method: This research has used a combination of quantitative and qualitative designs. Survey questionnaires were used to gather the data for under this analytical descriptive method. The application of the qualitative interpretive approach was applied with the help of the interview to gather a detailed understanding on the aim of the research. For this purpose, the semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thus, the primary data will be gathered with the help of survey and interview to examine the impact of universal design learning implementation on teaching practices for intellectually disabled students in Saudi Arabian schools. The survey was conducted to examine the prevailing teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia and evaluate if the teaching experience influences the current practices or not. The surveys were distributed to 50 teachers who teach the students with intellectual disabilities. However, the interviews were conducted to explore barriers of implementing UDL in Saudi Arabia and provide suggested guideline for the implementation of UDL in Saudi Arabia. The interviews, therefore, were with 10 teachers teaching the same subject. Findings: A key findings highlighted in this study revealed that the UDL framework serves as a crucial guide for teachers within inclusive settings to undertake meaningful planning for the individuals with intellectual disabilities so that they are able to access, participate, and grow within the general education curriculum. Other findings of the study highlighted the need to prepare the educators and all faculty members to understand the purpose and need for inclusion, the UDL framework so that better information about academic and social expectations for individuals with intellectual disabilities can be delivered. Conclusion: On the basis of the preliminary study undertaken on the subject of research, it could be suggested that UDL can serve to be an effective support for undertaking a meaningful inclusion of students with intellectual disability (ID) in general educational settings. It holds the potential role of working as an institutional design framework that could be used for designing curriculum for students with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: Inclusion, Intellectual Disability, Universal design for learning, teaching practice

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4 An Analysis of Instruction Checklist Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The purpose of this study is to develop an instruction analysis checklist applicable to inclusive setting based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. To do this, two self-validation reviews, two expert validity reviews, and two usability evaluations were conducted based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. After validation and usability evaluation, a total of 36 items consisting of 4 items for each instruction was developed. In all questions, examples are presented for the purpose of reinforcing concrete. All the items were judged by the 3-point scale. The observation results were provided through a radial chart allowing SWOT analysis of the universal design for learning of teachers. The developed checklist provides a description of the principles and guidelines in the checklist itself as it requires a thorough understanding by the observer of the universal design for learning through prior education. Based on the results of the study, the instruction criteria, the specificity of the criteria, the number of questions, and the method of arrangement were discussed. As a future research, this study proposed the characteristics of application of universal design for learning for each subject, the comparison with the observation results through the self-report teaching tool, and the continual revision and supplementation of the lecture checklist.

Keywords: Inclusion, Universal design for learning, instruction analysis, instruction checklist

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3 The Effect of Using Universal Design for Learning to Improve the Quality of Vocational Programme with Intellectual Disabilities and the Challenges Facing This Method from the Teachers' Point of View

Authors: Ohud Adnan Saffar

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This study aims to know the effect of using universal design for learning (UDL) to improve the quality of vocational programme with intellectual disabilities (SID) and the challenges facing this method from the teachers' point of view. The significance of the study: There are comparatively few published studies on UDL in emerging nations. Therefore, this study will encourage the researchers to consider a new approaches teaching. Development of this study will contribute significant information on the cognitively disabled community on a universal scope. In order to collect and evaluate the data and for the verification of the results, this study has been used the mixed research method, by using two groups comparison method. To answer the study questions, we were used the questionnaire, lists of observations, open questions, and pre and post-test. Thus, the study explored the advantages and drawbacks, and know about the impact of using the UDL method on integrating SID with students non-special education needs in the same classroom. Those aims were realized by developing a workshop to explain the three principles of the UDL and train (16) teachers in how to apply this method to teach (12) students non-special education needs and the (12) SID in the same classroom, then take their opinion by using the questionnaire and questions. Finally, this research will explore the effects of the UDL on the teaching of professional photography skills for the SID in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, the research method was a comparison of the performance of the SID using the UDL method with that of female students with the same challenges applying other strategies by teachers in control and experiment groups, we used the observation lists, pre and post-test. Initial results: It is clear from the previous response to the participants that most of the answers confirmed that the use of UDL achieves the principle of inclusion between the SID and students non-special education needs by 93.8%. In addition, the results show that the majority of the sampled people see that the most important advantages of using UDL in teaching are creating an interactive environment with using new and various teaching methods, with a percentage of 56.2%. Following this result, the UDL is useful for integrating students with general education, with a percentage of 31.2%. Moreover, the finding indicates to improve understanding through using the new technology and exchanging the primitive ways of teaching with the new ones, with a percentage of 25%. The result shows the percentages of the sampled people's opinions about the financial obstacles, and it concluded that the majority see that the cost is high and there is no computer maintenance available, with 50%. There are no smart devices in schools to help in implementing and applying for the program, with a percentage of 43.8%.

Keywords: Intellectual Disabilities, Universal design for learning, vocational programme, the challenges facing this method

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2 Teaching Practitioners to Use Technology to Support and Instruct Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Nicole Nicholson, Anne Spillane

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The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive analysis was to determine the success of a post-graduate new teacher education program, designed to teach educators the knowledge and skills necessary to use technology in the classroom, improve the ability to communicate with stakeholders, and implement EBPs and UDL principles into instruction for students with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders ). The success of candidates (n=20) in the program provided evidence as to how candidates were effectively able to use technology to create meaningful learning opportunities and implement EBPs for individuals with ASD. ≥90% of participants achieved the following competencies: podcast creation; technology used to share information about assistive technology; and created a resource website on ASD (including information on EBPs, local and national support groups, ASD characteristics, and the latest research on ASD). 59% of students successfully created animation. Results of the analysis indicated that the teacher education program was successful in teaching candidates desired competencies during its first year of implementation.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD, Universal design for learning, UDL, evidence based practices, EBP

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1 Implementing Universal Design for Learning in Social Work Education

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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Action research is a method of inquiry useful in solving social problems in social work. This study seeks to address a significant problem: higher education’s use of traditional instructional methods in social work education. Ineffective techniques, such as lecturing, fail to account for students’ variable learning needs. In contrast to traditional pedagogy, universal design for learning (UDL) is a robust framework that '[improves] and [optimizes] teaching and learning for all people' (CAST, 2018), including students with disabilities. For this project, the research team interviewed the UDL and Accessibility Specialist at their institution for two reasons: (1) to learn how to implement UDL practices in their classrooms, and in turn, (2) to motivate other faculty members at their institution to consider enacting UDL principles. A thematic analysis of the interview’s transcript reveals themes relevant to practicing UDL. Implications for future practice, as well as the researcher’s reflections on the research process, are shared in the discussion section.

Keywords: Higher Education, Disabilities, Inclusive Education, Universal design for learning

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