Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

uniformity Related Abstracts

4 A Simple Method for Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Abdul Qadir Jangda, Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation, and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicate a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: Film Dosimetry, IMRT, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
3 Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Abdul Qadir Jangda, Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicates a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: Film Dosimetry, IMRT, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2 Criticality of Socio-Cultural Factors in Public Policy: A Study of Reproductive Health Care in Rural West Bengal

Authors: Arindam Roy

Abstract:

Public policy is an intriguing terrain, which involves complex interplay of administrative, social political and economic components. There is hardly any fit-for all formulation of public policy as Lindbloom has aptly categorized it as a science of muddling through. In fact, policies are both temporally and contextually determined as one the proponents of policy sciences Harold D Lasswell has underscored it in his ‘contextual-configurative analysis’ as early as 1950s. Though, a lot of theoretical efforts have been made to make sense of this intricate dynamics of policy making, at the end of the day the applied area of public policy negates any such uniform, planned and systematic formulation. However, our policy makers seem to have learnt very little of that. Until recently, policy making was deemed as an absolutely specialized exercise to be conducted by a cadre of professionally trained seasoned mandarin. Attributes like homogeneity, impartiality, efficiency, and neutrality were considered as the watchwords of delivering common goods. Citizen or clientele was conceptualized as universal political or economic construct, to be taken care of uniformly. Moreover, policy makers usually have the proclivity to put anything into straightjacket, and to ignore the nuances therein. Hence, least attention has been given to the ground level reality, especially the socio-cultural milieu where the policy is supposed to be applied. Consequently, a substantial amount of public money goes in vain as the intended beneficiaries remain indifferent to the delivery of public policies. The present paper in the light of Reproductive Health Care policy in rural West Bengal has tried to underscore the criticality of socio-cultural factors in public health delivery. Indian health sector has traversed a long way. From a near non-existent at the time of independence, the Indian state has gradually built a country-wide network of health infrastructure. Yet it has to make a major breakthrough in terms of coverage and penetration of the health services in the rural areas. Several factors are held responsible for such state of things. These include lack of proper infrastructure, medicine, communication, ambulatory services, doctors, nursing services and trained birth attendants. Policy makers have underlined the importance of supply side in policy formulation and implementation. The successive policy documents concerning health delivery bear the testimony of it. The present paper seeks to interrogate the supply-side oriented explanations for the failure of the delivery of health services. Instead, it identified demand side to find out the answer. The state-led and bureaucratically engineered public health measures fail to engender demands as these measures mostly ignore socio-cultural nuances of health and well-being. Hence, the hiatus between supply side and demand side leads to huge wastage of revenue as health infrastructure, medicine and instruments remain unutilized in most cases. Therefore, taking proper cognizance of these factors could have streamlined the delivery of public health.

Keywords: Policy, context, uniformity, socio-cultural factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1 Teachers’ Involvement in their Designed Play Activities in a Chinese Context

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu

Abstract:

This paper will present a study by the author which investigates Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play and their teaching activities in the designed play activities. It asks the question of how Chinese teachers understand learning at play and how they design play activities in the classroom. Six kindergarten teachers in Hong Kong were invited to select and record exemplary play episodes which contain the largest amount of learning elements in their own classrooms. Applying video-stimulated interview, eight teachers in two focus groups were interviewed to elicit their perspectives on designing play activity and their teaching activities. The findings reveal that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, and the phenomenon of uniformity of teachers’ act was found. The contributions of which are important and useful for professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: uniformity, learning at play, teacher involvement, video-stimulated interview

Procedia PDF Downloads 3