Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Unemployment Related Abstracts

28 Issues and Challenges of Tribals in India: A Case of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: P. Lalitha

Abstract:

Economic and social empowerment and educational upliftment of socially disadvantaged groups and marginalized sections of society is necessary for achieving faster and more inclusive development. Programmes are being implemented through states, government’s apex corporations, and NGOs for the up-liftment of disadvantaged and marginalized sections of society. As per the primary data collected, a majority of tribal land holdings (60%) are below 2 hectare and only 5% are above 10 hectares. However, the ownership of large holdings does not give a distinct advantage unless the land is of good quality. There are areas in which even large holdings beyond 5 hectares are not sufficient to meet the food necessity of the tribal families all-round the year. Some initiatives e.g. grain-golas, jhum cultivation, wadi project, Joint Forest Management(JFM), enhancing Livelihood and Health through Traditional Knowledge Management, Associating Individual Rural Volunteers (IRVs) in SHG Bank Linkage Programme have been taken in various tribal areas of the country.

Keywords: Food, Health, Unemployment, tribals

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27 Utilizing Entrepreneurship Education for National Development: Solving the Unemployment Problems in Nigeria

Authors: Kemi Olalekan Oduntan

Abstract:

This paper is of the view that entrepreneurship education (if well utilized) can solve the problems of unemployment and the clamor for paid employment in Nigeria. Nigeria educational system is bookish too more academically oriented thereby neglecting the entrepreneurial and vocational values to a greater extent. This paper examines the utilization of entrepreneurship education as a way out of the myriad of unemployment in Nigeria, with the need to refocus Nigeria educational system towards skills acquisition that prepares Nigerians for self-reliance, hence being an employer of labor, while sustainable development and economic diversification are also stressed. The paper further argues that entrepreneurship education will equip the students and Nigeria working class youth with the skills to be jobs creators and become an employer of labor which it will solve Nigeria’s problems such as poverty, overdependence on foreign goods, low economic growth and poor infrastructural development among others. We concludes and recommends that a new pedagogy that prepares students and working class youth with knowledge and practical skills to be entrepreneurial be instituted, promoted and made compulsory in all our tertiary institutions as a way of reducing the menace unemployment in Nigeria.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Unemployment, Self-Employment, national development

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26 Transformative Pedagogy and Online Adult Education

Authors: Glenn A. Palmer, Lorenzo Bowman, Juanita Johnson-Bailey

Abstract:

The ubiquitous economic upheaval that has gripped the global environment in the past few years displaced many workers through unemployment or underemployment. Globally, this disruption has caused many adult workers to seek additional education or skills to remain competitive, and acquire the ability and options to find gainful employment. While many learners have availed themselves of some opportunities to be retrained and retooled at locations within their communities, others have explored those options through the online learning environment. This paper examines the empirical research that explores the various strategies that are used in the adult online learning community that could also foster transformative learning.

Keywords: Online Learning, Unemployment, Adult Education, Economic Crisis, transformational learning

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25 Expanding Business Strategy to Native American Communities Using Experiential Learning

Authors: A. J. Otjen

Abstract:

Native American communities are struggling with unemployment and depressed economies. A major cause is a lack of business knowledge, education, and cultural desire. And yet, in the history of the American West, Native Americans were considered the best traders and negotiators for everything from furs to weapons to buffalo. To improve these economies, there has been an effort to reintroduce that heritage to todays and tomorrows generation of tribal members, such Crow, Cheyenne, and Blackfeet. Professors at the College of Business Montana State University-Billings (MSUB) teach tribal students in Montana to create business plans. These plans have won national small business plan competitions. The teaching and advising method used at MSUB is uniquely successful as theses business students are now five time national champions. This article reviews the environment and the method of learning to achieve a winning small business plan with Native American students. It discusses the five plans that became national champions. And it discusses the problems and solutions discovered in the process of achieving results. Students who participated in this endeavor have graduated and become CPAs, MBAs, and gainfully employed in their chosen professions. They have also worked to improve the economies of their native lands and homes. By educating members of these communities with business strategy and plan development, they are better able to impact their own economies.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Small Businesses, Unemployment, native American economies

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24 Programs in Nigerian Higher Institutions and Graduates Unemployment

Authors: Evuarherhe Veronica Abolo

Abstract:

The study investigated the programs in Nigerian higher institutions and how they influence unemployment of graduates in the country. The study employed the survey design. The population of the study includes two universities, two polytechnics and two colleges of education in Lagos State. A total of 350 participants, which include graduates and students were sampled for the study. A structured interview schedule and direct observation were used to collect data on the three research questions drawn for the study. The data were analyzed using rating of the structured interview in tables and percentages. The results of the study revealed that Nigerian graduates are not only unemployed but can hardly meet the requirements of available job vacancies due to the stereotype nature in scope, content and methods of the programs in the institutions. Recommendations such as collaboration of companies (end- users) and institutions in the training of students, restructuring of the content and methodology of programs and providing soft loans and other facilities to the young graduates were proffered to reduce the rate of graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria.

Keywords: Unemployment, higher institution, graduate unemployment, soft loan

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23 A Retrospective Study of the Effects of Xenophobia on South Africa-Nigeria Relations

Authors: O. Fayomi, F. Chidozie, C. Ayo

Abstract:

The underlying causes of xenophobia are complex and varied. Xenophobia has to do with being contemptuous of that which is foreign, especially of strangers or of people from different countries or cultures. Unemployment and mounting poverty among South Africans at the bottom of the economic ladder have provoked fears of the competition that better educated and experienced migrants can represent. South Africa’s long track-record of violence as a means of protest and the targeting of foreigners in particular, and, the documented tensions over migration policy and the scale of repatriation serve a very good explanation for its xenophobia. It was clear that while most of the attacks were directed against foreign, primarily African, migrants, this was not the rule. Attacks were also noted against Chinese-speakers, Pakistani migrants as well as against South Africans from minority language groups (in the conflict areas). Settlements that have recently experienced the expression of ‘xenophobic’ violence have also been the site of violent and other forms of protest around other issues, most notably service delivery. The failure of government in service delivery was vexed on this form of xenophobia. Due to the increase in migration, this conflict is certainly not temporary in nature. Xenophobia manifests in different regions and communities with devastating effects on the affected nationals. Nigerians living in South Africa have been objects of severe attacks and assault as a result of this xenophobic attitude. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate the xenophobic attacks against Nigerians in South Africa. The methodology is basically qualitative with the use of secondary sources such as books, journals, newspapers and internet sources.

Keywords: Poverty, Unemployment, Xenophobia, Nigeria, South Africa

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22 Harnessing Entrepreneurial Opportunities for National Security

Authors: Itiola Kehinde Adeniran

Abstract:

This paper investigated the influence of harnessing entrepreneurial opportunities on the national security in Nigeria with a specific focus on the security situation of the post-amnesty programmes of the Federal Government in Ondo State. The self-administered structured questionnaire was employed to collect data from one hundred and twenty participants through purposive sampling method. Inferential statistics was used to analyze the data, specifically; ordinary least squares linear regression method was employed with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 in order to determine the influence of independent variable (entrepreneurial opportunities) on dependent variable (national security). The result showed that business opportunities have a significant influence on the rate of criminal activities. The study also revealed that entrepreneurial opportunity creation and discovery as well as providing a model on how these entrepreneurial opportunities could be effectively and efficiently utilized jointly predict better national security, which counted for 69% variance of crime rate reduction. The paper, therefore, recommended that citizens should be encouraged to develop an interest in the skill-based activities in order to change their mindset towards self-employment which can motivate them in identify entrepreneurial opportunities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, National Security, Unemployment, entrepreneurial opportunities

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21 Student Attitude towards Entrepreneurship: A South African and Dutch Comparison

Authors: Natanya Meyer, Johann Landsberg

Abstract:

Unemployment among the youth is a significant problem in South Africa. Large corporations and the public sector simply cannot create enough jobs. Too many youths in South Africa currently do not consider entrepreneurship as an option in order to become independent. Unlike the youth of the Netherlands, South African youth prefer to find employment in the public or private sector. The Netherlands has a much lower unemployment rate than South Africa and the Dutch are generally very entrepreneurial. From early on entrepreneurship is considered a desirable career option in the Netherlands. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the perceptions of some Dutch and South African students in terms of unemployment and entrepreneurship. Questionnaires were distributed to students at the North West University's Vaal Triangle campus in Vanderbijlpark in Gauteng, South Africa and the Technical University of Delft in the Netherlands. A descriptive statistical analysis approach was followed and the means for the independent questions were calculated. The results demonstrate that the Dutch students are not as concerned about unemployment after completion of their studies as this is not as significant a problem as it is in South Africa. Both groups had positive responses towards the posed questions, but the South African group felt more strongly about the issues. Both groups of students felt that there was a need for more practical entrepreneurship training. The South African education system should focus on practical entrepreneurship training from a young age.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Development, Unemployment, South Africa, entrepreneurship development programmes, entrepreneurship intention, Netherlands

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20 The Pangs of Unemployment and Its Impediment to Nation Building

Authors: Vitalis Okwuchukwu Opara

Abstract:

The task of nation building primarily consist in welding together, diverse cultural groups into a united nation state, which develops a centripetal political culture that makes its people see themselves as members of one nation linked together by more reliable ties than the coercion offered by the state. Comparatively on the contrary, most countries in the world today are comprised of diverse nationalities, each with its unique set of norms and values, which often come into conflict with others. As such, the task of nation building is in uniting these diverse cultural groups into a united nation state and various human elements that make up its geopolitical zone. The most outstanding impediment to achieving this task is unemployment. Unemployment is like a peril against the nation building. Unemployment is an obstacle for growth of a nation. Often it is said that the wise see obstacles as stepping-stones to advance further. The pangs of unemployment impede nation building such that sometimes it takes very long time to do away with the problem. In recent times, there has been a revolutionary wind blowing across the world. This wind is bound to wake up nations leaders to sit up to their responsibility. Unemployment causes youth restiveness, brings leaders to their knees. It breeds problem. This work is intended to expose the pangs of unemployment and its impending peril to nation building.

Keywords: Unemployment, nation-building, obstacles, pangs

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19 Capital Accumulation and Unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa

Authors: Abubakar Dikko

Abstract:

The research investigates the causes of unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, and the role of Capital Accumulation in reducing the unemployment profile of these economies as proposed by the post-Keynesian economics. This is conducted through extensive review of literature on the NAIRU models and focused on the post-Keynesian view of unemployment within the NAIRU framework. The NAIRU (non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment) model has become a dominant framework used in macroeconomic analysis of unemployment. The study views the post-Keynesian economics arguments that capital accumulation is a major determinant of unemployment. Unemployment remains the fundamental socio-economic challenge facing African economies. It has been a burden to citizens of those economies. Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa are great African nations battling with high unemployment rates. In 2013, the countries recorded high unemployment rates of 16.9%, 23.9% and 24.9% respectively. Most of the unemployed in these economies comprises of youth. Roughly about 40% working age South Africans has jobs, whereas in Nigeria and Namibia is less than that. Unemployment in Africa has wide implications on households which has led to extensive poverty and inequality, and created a rampant criminality. Recently in South Africa there has been a case of xenophobic attacks which were caused by the citizens of the country as a result of unemployment. The high unemployment rate in the country led the citizens to chase away foreigners in the country claiming that they have taken away their jobs. The study proposes that there is a strong relationship between capital accumulation and unemployment in Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, and capital accumulation is responsible for high unemployment rates in these countries. For the economies to achieve steady state level of employment and satisfactory level of economic growth and development there is need for capital accumulation to take place. The countries in the study have been selected after a critical research and investigations. They are selected based on the following criteria; African economies with high unemployment rates above 15% and have about 40% of their workforce unemployed. This level of unemployment is the critical level of unemployment in Africa as expressed by International Labour Organization (ILO). The African countries with low level of capital accumulation. Adequate statistical measures have been employed using a time-series analysis in the study and the results revealed that capital accumulation is the main driver of unemployment performance in the chosen African countries. An increase in the accumulation of capital causes unemployment to reduce significantly. The results of the research work will be useful and relevant to federal governments and ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) of Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa to resolve the issue of high and persistent unemployment rates in their economies which are great burden that slows growth and development of developing economies. Also, the result can be useful to World Bank, African Development Bank and International Labour Organization (ILO) in their further research and studies on how to tackle unemployment in developing and emerging economies.

Keywords: Unemployment, Capital accumulation, Post-Keynesian economics, NAIRU

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18 Occupational Diseases in the Automotive Industry in Czechia

Authors: J. Jarolímek, P. Urban, P. Pavlínek, D. Dzúrová

Abstract:

The industry constitutes a dominant economic sector in Czechia. The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in terms of gross value added and the number of employees. The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry in Czechia during the 2001-2014 period. Whereas the occurrence of OD in other sectors has generally been decreasing, it has been increasing in the automotive industry, including growing spatial discrepancies. Data on OD cases were retrieved from the National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with a focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by an assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. The employees older than 40 years had nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence compared with employees younger than 40 years (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.05-2.85). The OD occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR 3.01; 95 % CI: 2.55-3.55). The OD incidence rate was increasing with the size of the company. An association between the OD incidence and the unemployment rate was not confirmed.

Keywords: Occupational diseases, Unemployment, Automotive industry, Health Geography

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17 Small Businesses as Vehicles for Job Creation in North-West Nigeria

Authors: Mustapha Shitu Suleiman, Francis Neshamba, Nestor Valero-Silva

Abstract:

Small businesses are considered as engine of economic growth, contributing to employment generation, wealth creation, and poverty alleviation and food security in both developed and developing countries. Nigeria is facing many socio-economic problems and it is believed that by supporting small business development, as propellers of new ideas and more effective users of resources, often driven by individual creativity and innovation, Nigeria would be able to address some of its economic and social challenges, such as unemployment and economic diversification. Using secondary literature, this paper examines the role small businesses can play in the creation of jobs in North-West Nigeria to overcome issues of unemployment, which is the most devastating economic challenge facing the region. Most studies in this area have focused on Nigeria as a whole and only a few studies provide a regional focus, hence, this study will contribute to knowledge by filling this gap by concentrating on North-West Nigeria. It is hoped that with the present administration’s determination to improve the economy, small businesses would be used as vehicles for diversification of the economy away from crude oil to create jobs that would lead to a reduction in the country’s high unemployment level.

Keywords: Small Business, Unemployment, Nigeria, job creation, north-west

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16 The Impact of Unemployment on the Sexual Behaviour of Male Youth in Quzini, Eastern Cape, South Africa: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of unemployment on the sexual behaviour of male youth. Drawing from Jahoda’s deprivation theory, unemployed male youth is prone to psychological distress and as a result, they resort to drugs and alcohol abuse as a way to cope with discrimination. Studies showed that such youth is more inclined to be sexually aggressive and very often engage in criminal activities and risky sexual behaviour such as multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex to cover their feelings of emotional insecurities and negative self-concept. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of unemployment on the sexual behaviour of Xhosa- speaking male youth, aged 19-35, from Quzini Location, Eastern Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was followed using phenomenological method. The purposively sampled comprised fifteen unemployed males who gave their informed consent to be interviewed. For trustworthiness of the study, the researcher met the Lincoln and Guba’s principles, namely; credibility, dependability confirmability and transferability. The following themes were identified, namely; patriarchy, gender- based violence, drug abuse, stigma and discrimination, criminal activities, depression and low- self-esteem. Based on the findings, the recommendations are that the government and private sectors should create jobs aimed at reducing unemployment for unemployed youth and psycho-educational programmes that will equip them in the areas of sexual values and attitudes, communication and decision-making skills.

Keywords: Sex, Unemployment, Discrimination, male-youth

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15 Expanding Entrepreneurial Capabilities through Business Incubators: A Case Study of Idea Hub Nigeria

Authors: Kenechukwu Ikebuaku

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship has long been offered as the panacea for poor economic growth and high rate of unemployment. Business incubation is considered an effective means for enhancing entrepreneurial actitivities while engendering socio-economic development. Information Technology Developers Entrepreneurship Accelerator (iDEA), is a software business incubation programme established by the Nigerian government as a means of boosting digital entrepreneurship activities and reducing unemployment in the country. This study assessed the contribution of iDEA Nigeria’s entrepreneurship programmes towards enhancing the capabilities of its tenants. Using the capability approach and the sustainable livelihoods approach, the study analysed iDEA programmes’ contribution towards the expansion of participants’ entrepreneurial capabilities. Apart from identifying a set of entrepreneurial capabilities from both the literature and empirical analysis, the study went further to ascertain how iDEA incubation has helped to enhance those capabilities for its tenants. It also examined digital entrepreneurship as a valued functioning and as an intermediate functioning leading to other valuable functioning. Furthermore, the study examined gender as a conversion factor in digital entrepreneurship. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for the study, and measurement of key variables was made. While the entire population was utilised to collect data for the quantitative research, purposive sampling was used to select respondents for semi-structured interviews in the qualitative research. However, only 40 beneficiaries agreed to take part in the survey while 10 respondents were interviewed for the study. Responses collected from questionnaires administered were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The study developed indexes to measure the perception of the respondents, on how iDEA programmes have enhanced their entrepreneurial capabilities. The Capabilities Enhancement Perception Index (CEPI) computed indicated that the respondents believed that iDEA programmes enhanced their entrepreneurial capabilities. While access to power supply and reliable internet have the highest positive deviations around mean, negotiation skills and access to customers/clients have the highest negative deviation. These were well supported by the findings of the qualitative analysis in which the participants unequivocally narrated how the resources provided by iDEA aid them in their entrepreneurial endeavours. It was also found that iDEA programmes have a significant effect on the tenants’ access to networking opportunities, both with other emerging entrepreneurs and established entrepreneurs. While assessing gender as a conversion factor, it was discovered that there was very low female participation within the digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. The root cause of this gender disparity was found in unquestioned cultural beliefs and social norms which relegate women to a subservient position and household duties. The findings also showed that many of the entrepreneurs could be considered opportunity-based entrepreneurs rather than necessity entrepreneurs, and that digital entrepreneurship is a valued functioning for iDEA tenants. With regards to challenges facing digital entrepreneurship in Nigeria, infrastructural/institutional inadequacies, lack of funding opportunities, and unfavourable government policies, were considered inimical to entrepreneurial capabilities in the country.

Keywords: Development, Unemployment, business incubators, entrepreneurial capabilities

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14 The Challenges of Unemployment Situation and Trends in Nigeria

Authors: Simon Oga Egboja

Abstract:

In Africa, particularly in Nigeria, unemployment is a serious issue of concern to every citizen. Hence, this paper focuses on the employment situation and trends in Nigeria. It also investigated the causes why unemployment persists in the country. Prominent among them is the population explosion and rapid expansion of education opportunities all over the country without a corresponding increase in industrial establishment. The paper also discusses the way of reducing the rate of unemployment by encouraging graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria to read professional courses and also to indulge in the habit of establishing small-scale enterprises so that after them school they can be self-employed rather than relying solely on government for employment.

Keywords: Population, Unemployment, causes, remedy

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13 The Implications of Some Social Variables in Increasing the Unemployed in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Elkhouli

Abstract:

This research sets out to identify some social factors or variables that may need to be controlled in order to decrease the volume of unemployed in Egypt. As well as, it comes to investigate the relationship between a set of social variables and unemployment issue in Egypt in the sake of determining the most important social variables influencing the rise of unemployed during the time series targeted (2002-2012). Highlighting the unemployment issue is becoming an increasingly important topic in all countries throughout the world resulting from expand their globalization efforts. In general, the study tries to determine what the most social priorities are likely to adopt seriously by the Egypt's government in order to solve the unemployed problem. The results showed that the low value for both of small projects and the total value of disbursed social security respectively have significant impact on increasing the No. of unemployed in Egypt, according to the target period by the current study.

Keywords: Unemployment, Egypt, social status, unemployed

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12 Combating and Preventing Unemployment in Sweden

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In Sweden the needs of the labor market are regularly monitored. Test results and forecasts translate directly into the education system in this country, which is largely a state system. Sweden is one of the first countries in Europe that has used active labor market policies. It is realized that there is an active unemployment which includes a wide range of activities that can be divided into three groups: Active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms that affect the labor supply and active forms for people with disabilities. Most of the funding is allocated there for subsidized employment and training. Research conducted in Sweden shows that active forms of counteracting unemployment focused on the long-term unemployed can significantly raise the level of employment in this group.

Keywords: Employment, Unemployment, labour market, Sweden, research conducted in Sweden, labour market policies, active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms of counteracting unemployment, subsidized employment education

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11 Evaluate the Effect of Teaching Small Scale Bussiness and Entrepreneurship on Graduates Unemployment in Nigeria: A Case Study of Anambra and Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Erinma Chibuzo Nwandu

Abstract:

Graduates unemployment has risen astronomically in spite of the emphasis on teaching of small scale business and Entrepreneurship in schools. This study sets out to evaluate the effect of teaching small scale business and Entrepreneurship on graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria. This study adopted the survey research design. Thus the nature of data for this study is primary, sourced by the use of a questionnaire administered to a sample of two thousand and sixty-five (2065) respondents drawn from groups of graduates who are employed, unemployed and self-employed in South East Nigeria. Simple percentages, Chi-square and regression analysis were used to derive useful and meaningful information and test the hypotheses respectively. Findings from the study suggest that Nigeria graduates are ill prepared to embark on small-scale business and entrepreneurship after graduation, and that teaching of small scale business and entrepreneurship in Nigeria tertiary institutions is ineffective on graduate unemployment reduction. Findings also suggest that while a lot of graduates agreed that they have taken a class(s) on small scale or entrepreneurship, they received more theoretical teachings than practical, more so while teachings on small scale business or entrepreneurship motivated graduates to think of self-employment, most of them cannot do a good business plan and hence could not benefit from some kind of Government assisted program for small-scale business and bank loan for the sake of small scale business. Thus, so many graduates are not interested in small scale business or entrepreneurship development as a result of lack of startup capital. The study thus recommends that course content and teaching method of entrepreneurship education needs to be reviewed and re-structured to constitute more practical teachings than theoretical teachings. Also, graduates should be exposed to seminar /workshop for self-employment at least once every semester. There should be practical teaching and practice of developing a business plan that will be viable to attract government or private sponsorship as well for it to be viable to attract financing from financing institutions. Government should provide a fund such as venture capital financing arrangement to empower business startups in Nigeria by graduates’.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Unemployment, small scale business, startup capital

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10 Main Tendencies of Youth Unemployment and the Regulation Mechanisms for Decreasing Its Rate in Georgia

Authors: Nino Abesadze, Nino Paresashvili

Abstract:

The modern world faces huge challenges. Globalization changed the socio-economic conditions of many countries. The current processes in the global environment have a different impact on countries with different cultures. However, an alleviation of poverty and improvement of living conditions is still the basic challenge for the majority of countries, because much of the population still lives under the official threshold of poverty. It is very important to stimulate youth employment. In order to prepare young people for the labour market, it is essential to provide them with the appropriate professional skills and knowledge. It is necessary to plan efficient activities for decreasing an unemployment rate and for developing the perfect mechanisms for regulation of a labour market. Such planning requires thorough study and analysis of existing reality, as well as development of corresponding mechanisms. Statistical analysis of unemployment is one of the main platforms for regulation of the labour market key mechanisms. The corresponding statistical methods should be used in the study process. Such methods are observation, gathering, grouping, and calculation of the generalized indicators. Unemployment is one of the most severe socioeconomic problems in Georgia. According to the past as well as the current statistics, unemployment rates always have been the most problematic issue to resolve for policy makers. Analytical works towards to the above-mentioned problem will be the basis for the next sustainable steps to solve the main problem. The results of the study showed that the choice of young people is not often due to their inclinations, their interests and the labour market demand. That is why the wrong professional orientation of young people in most cases leads to their unemployment. At the same time, it was shown that there are a number of professions in the labour market with a high demand because of the deficit the appropriate specialties. To achieve healthy competitiveness in youth employment, it is necessary to formulate regional employment programs with taking into account the regional infrastructure specifications.

Keywords: Analysis, Methods, Unemployment, tendencies, regulation mechanisms

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9 Macroeconomic Impact of Economic Growth on Unemployment: A Case of South Africa

Authors: Ashika Govender

Abstract:

This study seeks to determine whether Okun’s Law is valid for the South African economy, using time series data for the period 2004 to 2014. The data were accessed from the South African Reserve Bank and Stats SA. The stationarity of the variables was analysed by applying unit root tests via the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADF), the Phillips-Perron (PP) test, and the Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin test (KPSS) test. The study used an ordinary least square (OLS) model in analysing the dynamic version of Okun’s law. The Error Correction Model (ECM) was used to analyse the short-run impact of GDP growth on unemployment, as well as the speed of adjustment. The results indicate a short run and long run relationship between unemployment rate and GDP growth rate in period 2004q1-2014q4, suggesting that Okun’s law is valid for the South African economy. With a 1 percent increase in GDP, unemployment can decrease by 0.13 percent, ceteris paribus. The research culminates in important policy recommendations, highlighting the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in the spirit of the National Development Plan.

Keywords: Economic growth, Unemployment, South Africa, Okun's law

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8 Marketing of Global Business Systems Technologies as a Panacea to Unemployment Problem in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Oyewale

Abstract:

This research work seeks to take technology used for business systems as a product that requires marketing activities. Technology is invented and innovated upon in developed countries and are introduced into Africa through marketing activities. Businesses in Africa now adopt this technology for global competitiveness and hitherto unemployed but educationally advantaged people are trained in handling and utilising the technology. The aim of this study is to examine how marketing activities make this technology help in solving the unemployment problem in Africa. The areas of study are both the premier local government and the local government of the industrial haven in Ogun State, Nigeria. Area or cluster sampling technique was employed and Questionnaires were administered to two hundred respondents in the areas of study. Findings revealed that marketing has contributed to the promotion of technology; thereby making businesses globally competitive. In addition, technology has helped in reducing unemployment in developing countries. Recommendations are that training programmes that will address existing knowledge gap in technology utilisation needs to be conducted for the labour force in Africa. Moreover, adequate power supply that will aid effective utilisation of these technologies needs to be put in place by the government in these various African countries.

Keywords: Marketing, Unemployment, problem, panacea

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7 Qualitative Profiling Model and Competencies Evaluation to Fighting Unemployment

Authors: Francesca Carta, Giovanna Linfante, Laura Agneni, Debora Radicchia, Camilla Micheletta, Angelo Del Cimmuto

Abstract:

Overtaking competence mismatches and fostering career pathways congruent with the individual skills profile would significantly contribute to fighting unemployment. The aim of this paper is to examine the usefulness and efficiency of qualitative tools in supporting and improving the quality of caseworkers’ activities during the jobseekers’ profile analysis and career guidance process. The selected target groups are long-term and middle term unemployed, job seekers, young people at the end of the vocational training pathway and unemployed woman with social disadvantages. The experimentation is conducted in Italy at public employment services in 2017. In the framework of Italian labour market reform, the experimentation represents the first step to develop a customized qualitative model profiling; the final general object is to improve the public employment services quality. The experimentation tests the transferability of an OECD self-assessment competences tool in the Italian public employment services. On one hand, the first analysis results will indicate the user’s perception concerning the tool’s application and their different competence levels (literacy, numeracy, problem solving, career interest, subjective well-being and health, behavioural competencies) with reference to the specific target. On the other hand, the experimentation outcomes will show caseworkers understanding regarding the tool’s usability and efficiency for career guidance and reskilling and upskilling programs.

Keywords: Unemployment, career guidance, evaluation competences, reskilling pathway

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6 Applying Multivariate and Univariate Analysis of Variance on Socioeconomic, Health, and Security Variables in Jordan

Authors: Faisal G. Khamis, Ghaleb A. El-Refae

Abstract:

Many researchers have studied socioeconomic, health, and security variables in the developed countries; however, very few studies used multivariate analysis in developing countries. The current study contributes to the scarce literature about the determinants of the variance in socioeconomic, health, and security factors. Questions raised were whether the independent variables (IVs) of governorate and year impact the socioeconomic, health, and security dependent variables (DVs) in Jordan, whether the marginal mean of each DV in each governorate and in each year is significant, which governorates are similar in difference means of each DV, and whether these DVs vary. The main objectives were to determine the source of variances in DVs, collectively and separately, testing which governorates are similar and which diverge for each DV. The research design was time series and cross-sectional analysis. The main hypotheses are that IVs affect DVs collectively and separately. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were carried out to test these hypotheses. The population of 12 governorates in Jordan and the available data of 15 years (2000–2015) accrued from several Jordanian statistical yearbooks. We investigated the effect of two factors of governorate and year on the four DVs of divorce rate, mortality rate, unemployment percentage, and crime rate. All DVs were transformed to multivariate normal distribution. We calculated descriptive statistics for each DV. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, we found a significant effect in IVs on DVs with p < .001. Based on the univariate analysis, we found a significant effect of IVs on each DV with p < .001, except the effect of the year factor on unemployment was not significant with p = .642. The grand and marginal means of each DV in each governorate and each year were significant based on a 95% confidence interval. Most governorates are not similar in DVs with p < .001. We concluded that the two factors produce significant effects on DVs, collectively and separately. Based on these findings, the government can distribute its financial and physical resources to governorates more efficiently. By identifying the sources of variance that contribute to the variation in DVs, insights can help inform focused variation prevention efforts.

Keywords: Crime, Unemployment, divorce, Mortality, Means, jordan, ANOVA, MANOVA, governorate, hypothesis test, year

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5 Efficient Bargaining versus Right to Manage in the Era of Liberalization

Authors: Panagiota Koliousi, Natasha Miaouli

Abstract:

We compare product and labour market liberalization under the two trade union bargaining models: the Right-to-Manage (RTM) model and the Efficient Bargaining (EB) model. The vehicle is a dynamic general equilibrium (DGE) model that incorporates two types of agents (capitalists and workers), imperfectly competitive product and labour markets. The model is solved numerically employing common parameter values and data from the euro area. A key message is that product market deregulation is favourable under any labour market structure while opting for labour market deregulation one should provide special attention to the structure of the labour market such as the bargaining system of unions. If the prevailing way of bargaining is the RTM model then restructuring both markets is beneficial for all agents.

Keywords: Trade Unions, Unemployment, market structure, structural reforms

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4 Youth Involvement in Cybercrime in Nigeria: A Case Study of Ikeja Local Government Area

Authors: Niyi Adegoke, Saanumi Jimmy Omolou

Abstract:

The prevalence rate of youth involving in cybercrime is alarming, which calls for concern among the government, parents, NGO and religious bodies, hence this paper aims at examining youth involvement in cybercrime in Nigeria. Achievement motivation theory was used to explain the activities of cyber-criminals in Nigerian society. A descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. The sample for the study was one hundred and fifty (150) respondents randomly selected from the population of the study. A questionnaire was used to gather information and data from the respondents. Data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed using percentage tool for the respondents’ bio-data while chi-square was employed to test the hypotheses. Findings from the study have revealed that parental negligence, unemployment, peer influence, and quest for materialism were responsible for cyber-crimes in Nigeria. The study concludes with the following recommendations among which are: creating employment opportunities for the youths and ensure good governance and accountability among other things will go a long way to solve the problem of cybercrime in our society.

Keywords: Cybercrime, Unemployment, Youth, Information Communication Technology, Nigeria

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3 People Experiencing Economic Disadvantages and Access to Justice System: The Case of Unemployed People in Australia

Authors: M. Shahadat Hossain

Abstract:

People experiencing economic disadvantages have limited access to justice system. Employment status is a key indicator of economic disadvantage. There is a link between employment status and vulnerability to legal problems. This paper addresses the obstacles unemployed people experience to secure justice in Australia. This paper further explores exiting services for economically disadvantaged people to secure justice where these unemployment people can get access. It reveals that unemployed people are vulnerable to multifaced crime and violence. Due to high cost of legal services, these unemployed people are unable to afford legal services to access justice. They are often found higher levels of nonactions in terms of access to justice also due to lack of their initiatives. This paper further reveals that legal aid commissions are state and territory statutory agencies in Australia which provide free legal information, advice, duty lawyers, and legal representation services. Community legal centres are independent, non-profit government organizations with a focus of early advice, problem solving, and working with other agencies to address connected, financial, and health problems. Moreover, the private profession helps people who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer in several ways. But there are problems of shortage of funding for these legal services and making available to economically disadvantaged people. However, this paper argues that people experiencing long-term unemployment face barriers to secure justice due to their economic disadvantages. It further argues that services available for them to access to justice is inadequate.

Keywords: Access to justice, Unemployment, Australia, economic disadvantages

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2 Vocational and Technical Education: A Practical Approach to Reducing Insecurity in Nigeria

Authors: S. S. Amoor

Abstract:

Insecurity is becoming a major tool in the hand of Nigeria’s enemies to increase poverty and hatred among the citizens and split the county into several political segments. It is based on this background that this paper critically examines Vocational and Technical Education as a practical and realistic approach to reducing insecurity in Nigeria so as to save the country from total disintegration. The paper discusses the concept of insecurity, types, causes and effects of insecurity, and how vocational and technical education and its variables are fundamental and practical measures to reducing insecurity in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the large army of unemployed and unskilled youths in Nigeria requires immediate attention in the area of provision of marketable vocational and technical skills, creativity and competences that will prepare them for employment or self-reliance. It is hoped that government jobs or self-employment will keep the teeming youths busy and therefore take their minds away from odd jobs that threaten the security of the country. In line with these, the paper recommends, among others, that since the teeming unemployed and unskilled youths are mostly from the rural areas, the state governments in collaboration with the local governments should take appropriate steps to provide the youths with vocational skills in carpentry, fashion designing, hair-dressing, driving, welding, mechanical works, among others. Once the youths are involved in one skilled trade or the other, insecurity would be reduced.

Keywords: Unemployment, Vocational and technical education, insecurity, practical approach to reducing insecurity

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1 Impact of Globalization on Youth Bulge and Civil Unrest: An Empirical Approach

Authors: Swetasree Roy, Subaran Roy

Abstract:

The contemporary literature documents globalization affects the stability of a country in three ways i) it increases peace ii) it decreases the likelihood of civil unrest, and iii) it creates employment. In this paper, we show that unemployment amongst youth plays a significant role in the effect of globalization and the internal stability of a country. Using recent data on globalization for 88 countries (2000-2014), we examine whether the presence of a large section of youth exacerbates the negative effects of globalization, thereby increasing chances of civil unrest. Using recent measures of globalization, we find globalization affect adversely on the stability of a country. Our results indicate that globalization in the presence of a high youth unemployment rate can create more instability in an economy. Results are robust in the presence of other socio-economic variables.

Keywords: Globalization, Unemployment, youth bulge, civil unrest

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