Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

unconventional Related Abstracts

4 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

Authors: Ovye Yohanna Musah

Abstract:

Shale formations of the Middle Benue Trough in North Central Nigeria present a variety of opportunities for the exploration, development and exploitation of unconventional natural gas. Prospective formations range in age from Albian through Coniacian; they include the Asu River Group, Awe, Ezeaku and the Awgu formations, however, the Keana and Lafia formations are thought to be of lesser importance. The Awgu formation presents the best prospect when compared to the Barnett Shales of Fort Worth Basin in Texa, United States with regards to the organic matter maturition, TOC content of formation and shale thicknesses which are key attributes that aid in determining the economic viability of any shale gas play. The vitrinite reflectance value from Rock Eval pyrolysis for Awe and Awgu formations are 0.89—1.34(%) and 0.83—1.13(%) respectively and are good and sufficiently mature to generate gas from the Benue Trough. The TOC value are good for Awgu formation which is 0.83—6.54(%) and closest to that of the Barnett at 1—4.5(%). Asu River and Ezeaku are less viable. Furthermore, the High to Medium Volatile bituminous coals found in the Awgu formation are characterized by high TOC contents which may enhance gas generation and this is good for further examination and possible development.

Keywords: Resource, Shale Gas, unconventional, benue, TOC

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3 Application of Unconventional Materials for ‘Statement Jewellery’

Authors: Shaleni Bajpai, V. Niveditha

Abstract:

A fashion accessory is a product which used to give secondary way to the wearer’s outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century and was specifically chosen to complement the wearer’s look. The aim of project was to introduce the unconventional materials for statement jewellery. The materials used for statement jewellery were waste Cd’s, and scrap fabric. These materials were amalgamated with the traditional raw materials such as beads, sequins, charms and chains to form unique jewellery sets. The sets were divided into two categories based on the type of raw material used i.e. Category 1: Clef-Cd Jewellery, Category 2: Crumb-Fabric Jewellery. Each Jewellery set consisted of a necklace, a pair of earrings, a ring and a bracelet.

Keywords: unconventional, statement jewellery, crumb fabric, Cd’s

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2 Mature Field Rejuvenation Using Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case Study of Tight Mature Oilfield with Reveal Simulator

Authors: Mohamed Hassan, Amjad Shah, Amir Gharavi

Abstract:

The main characteristics of unconventional reservoirs include low-to ultra low permeability and low-to-moderate porosity. As a result, hydrocarbon production from these reservoirs requires different extraction technologies than from conventional resources. An unconventional reservoir must be stimulated to produce hydrocarbons at an acceptable flow rate to recover commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Permeability for unconventional reservoirs is mostly below 0.1 mD, and reservoirs with permeability above 0.1 mD are generally considered to be conventional. The hydrocarbon held in these formations naturally will not move towards producing wells at economic rates without aid from hydraulic fracturing which is the only technique to assess these tight reservoir productions. Horizontal well with multi-stage fracking is the key technique to maximize stimulated reservoir volume and achieve commercial production. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate development options for a tight mature oilfield. This includes multistage hydraulic fracturing and spacing by building of reservoir models in the Reveal simulator to model potential development options based on sidetracking the existing vertical well. To simulate potential options, reservoir models have been built in the Reveal. An existing Petrel geological model was used to build the static parts of these models. A FBHP limit of 40bars was assumed to take into account pump operating limits and to maintain the reservoir pressure above the bubble point. 300m, 600m and 900m lateral length wells were modelled, in conjunction with 4, 6 and 8 stages of fracs. Simulation results indicate that higher initial recoveries and peak oil rates are obtained with longer well lengths and also with more fracs and spacing. For a 25year forecast, the ultimate recovery ranging from 0.4% to 2.56% for 300m and 1000m laterals respectively. The 900m lateral with 8 fracs 100m spacing gave the highest peak rate of 120m3/day, with the 600m and 300m cases giving initial peak rates of 110m3/day. Similarly, recovery factor for the 900m lateral with 8 fracs and 100m spacing was the highest at 2.65% after 25 years. The corresponding values for the 300m and 600m laterals were 2.37% and 2.42%. Therefore, the study suggests that longer laterals with 8 fracs and 100m spacing provided the optimal recovery, and this design is recommended as the basis for further study.

Keywords: Hydraulic, Resource, fracturing, unconventional

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1 The Aesthetic Manifestations of Nothingness in Contemporary Visual Arts Practice

Authors: Robyn Therese Munnick

Abstract:

This paper aims to report on a qualitative practice-based research study which explores the notion of nothingness and how it (nothingness) is the conceptual and theoretical foundation for artistic practice. Furthermore, this study explicates how the artist used their mother’s battle with cancer and the subsequent void it created as source material for the artistic expression of nothingness. The diagnosis which was followed by a physical and emotional absence of the matriarch of the artist family led to an emotional trauma that triggered a feeling of nothingness within the artist. The overarching problem in the study is thus: how this ‘nothingness’ could be expressed in visual art? Nothingness, as a product of expectation, is a notion which refers to where something used to be, should be or isn’t anymore, which attempts to grasp what is there by not being there. In attempting to express nothingness, the research aims to build on an exploration of various materials and modes utilized in order to underpin the research objectives. The primary mode of delivery for the art-making process is painting. However, through strengthening the messages and meaning of the hypothesis of nothingness within the art and research, the use of further modes and materials became pivotal. This involves the use of unconventional contrasting modes within a painting such as the cloth doily, thread, tubing, ceramics, food colour, spray paint, polyvinyl acetate paint, plaster, wooden boxes and fragments thereof. These materials and modes were vital in visualising and aestheticising the conceptual underpinnings of the research. As a result, this strengthened and emancipated the art from the traditional bounds of pure painting. Methods of data gathering took the form of artefacts, document analysis, and field notes in the form of photographic journaling. Ultimately the body of work and research validates that the idea of nothingness can be artistically explored.

Keywords: Conceptual, unconventional, modes, nothingness

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