Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

UAV Related Abstracts

34 Evaluating the Use of Manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Strategic Offensive Tasks

Authors: Yildiray Korkmaz, Mehmet Aksoy

Abstract:

In today's operations, countries want to reach their aims in the shortest way due to economical, political and humanitarian aspects. The most effective way of achieving this goal is to be able to penetrate strategic targets. Strategic targets are generally located deep inside of the countries and are defended by modern and efficient surface to air missiles (SAM) platforms which are operated as integrated with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. On the other hand, these high valued targets are buried deep underground and hardened with strong materials against attacks. Therefore, to penetrate these targets requires very detailed intelligence. This intelligence process should include a wide range that is from weaponry to threat assessment. Accordingly, the framework of the attack package will be determined. This mission package has to execute missions in a high threat environment. The way to minimize the risk which depends on loss of life is to use packages which are formed by UAVs. However, some limitations arising from the characteristics of UAVs restricts the performance of the mission package consisted of UAVs. So, the mission package should be formed with UAVs under the leadership of a fifth generation manned aircraft. Thus, we can minimize the limitations, easily penetrate in the deep inside of the enemy territory with minimum risk, make a decision according to ever-changing conditions and finally destroy the strategic targets. In this article, the strengthens and weakness aspects of UAVs are examined by SWOT analysis. And also, it revealed features of a mission package and presented as an example what kind of a mission package we should form in order to get marginal benefit and penetrate into strategic targets with the development of autonomous mission execution capability in the near future.

Keywords: Autonomy, UAV, Mission Planning, mission package, strategic attack

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33 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson

Abstract:

A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive control, unlike a fixed gain control, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture results in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, robotic arm augmentation, model reference adaptive control, LQR control

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32 Optical Flow Localisation and Appearance Mapping (OFLAAM) for Long-Term Navigation

Authors: Daniel Pastor, Hyo-Sang Shin

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method to use optical flow navigation for long-term navigation. Unlike standard SLAM approaches for augmented reality, OFLAAM is designed for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). It uses an optical flow camera pointing downwards, an IMU and a monocular camera pointing frontwards. That configuration avoids the expensive mapping and tracking of the 3D features. It only maps these features in a vocabulary list by a localization module to tackle the loss of the navigation estimation. That module, based on the well-established algorithm DBoW2, will be also used to close the loop and allow long-term navigation in confined areas. That combination of high-speed optical flow navigation with a low rate localization algorithm allows fully autonomous navigation for MAV, at the same time it reduces the overall computational load. This framework is implemented in ROS (Robot Operating System) and tested attached to a laptop. A representative scenarios is used to analyse the performance of the system.

Keywords: Vision, Navigation, UAV, slam

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31 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: A. N. Ouda, Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: Modeling, UAV, Equations of motion, linearization

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30 Design of Torque Actuator in Hybrid Multi-DOF System with Taking into Account Magnetic Saturation

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee, Hyun-Seok Hong, Tae-Chul Jeong

Abstract:

In this paper, proposes to replace the three-phase SPM for tilting by a single-phase torque actuator of the hybrid multi-DOF system. If a three-phase motor for tilting SPM as acting as instantaneous, low electricity use efficiency, controllability is bad disadvantages. It uses a single-phase torque actuator has a high electrical efficiency compared, good controllability. Thus this will have a great influence on the development and practical use of the system. This study designed a single phase torque actuator in consideration of the magnetic saturation. And compared the SPM and FEM analysis and validation through testing of the production model.

Keywords: UAV, hybrid multi-DOF system, SPM, torque actuator, drone

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29 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: UAV, vibrations, ANSYS, finite element, FSI

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28 A New Family of Flying Wing Low Reynolds Number Airfoils

Authors: Ciro Sobrinho Campolina Martins, Halison da Silva Pereira, Vitor Mainenti Leal Lopes

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been used in a wide range of applications, from precise agriculture monitoring for irrigation and fertilization to military attack missions. Long range performance is required for many of these applications. Tailless aircrafts are commonly used as long-range configurations and, due to its small amount of stability, the airfoil shape design of its wings plays a central role on the performance of the airplane. In this work, a new family of flying wing airfoils is designed for low Reynolds number flows, typical of small-middle UAVs. Camber, thickness and their maximum positions in the chord are variables used for the airfoil geometry optimization. Aerodynamic non-dimensional coefficients were obtained by the well-established Panel Method. High efficient airfoils with small pitch moment coefficient are obtained from the analysis described and its aerodynamic polars are plotted.

Keywords: UAV, low Reynolds number, airfoil design, flying wing, tailless aircraft

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27 Aerodynamic Design of a Light Long Range Blended Wing Body Unmanned Vehicle

Authors: Ciro Sobrinho Campolina Martins, Halison da Silva Pereira, Vitor Mainenti Leal Lopes

Abstract:

Long range performance is a goal for aircraft configuration optimization. Blended Wing Body (BWB) is presented in many works of literature as the most aerodynamically efficient design for a fixed-wing aircraft. Because of its high weight to thrust ratio, BWB is the ideal configuration for many Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) missions on geomatics applications. In this work, a BWB aerodynamic design for typical light geomatics payload is presented. Aerodynamic non-dimensional coefficients are predicted using low Reynolds number computational techniques (3D Panel Method) and wing parameters like aspect ratio, taper ratio, wing twist and sweep are optimized for high cruise performance and flight quality. The methodology of this work is a summary of tailless aircraft wing design and its application, with appropriate computational schemes, to light UAV subjected to low Reynolds number flows leads to conclusions like the higher performance and flight quality of thicker airfoils in the airframe body and the benefits of using aerodynamic twist rather than just geometric.

Keywords: UAV, panel method, low Reynolds number, blended wing body

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26 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

Abstract:

Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: UAV, flight in formation, self-sustained flight, wake vortex

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25 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash

Abstract:

UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and non military works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (sound navigation and ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: Surveillance, UAV, GPS, Sonar, Fishing, RF signals, video stream, school of fish

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24 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Vivek Paul, Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon

Abstract:

Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: UAV, mav, PID tuning, tethered flight

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23 Design of Electromagnetic Field of PMSG for VTOL Series-Hybrid UAV

Authors: Ju Lee, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, In-Gun Kim, Sooyoung Cho

Abstract:

Series hybrid UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle) that is proposed in this paper performs VTOL(Vertical take-off and landing) using the battery and generator, and it applies the series hybrid system with combination of the small engine and generator when cruising flight. This system can be described as the next-generation system that can dramatically increase the UAV flight times. Also, UAV systems require a large energy at the time of VTOL to be conducted for a short time. Therefore, this paper designs PMSG(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) having a high specific power considering VTOL through the FEA.

Keywords: UAV, PMSG, VTOL, high specific power density

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22 VTOL-Fw Mode-Transitioning UAV Design and Analysis

Authors: Feri̇t Çakici, M. Kemal Leblebi̇ci̇oğlu

Abstract:

In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with level flight, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and mode-transitioning capability is designed and analyzed. The platform design combines both multirotor and fixed-wing (FW) conventional airplane structures and control surfaces; therefore named as VTOL-FW. The aircraft is modeled using aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. The proposed method of control includes implementation of multirotor and airplane mode controllers and design of an algorithm to transition between modes in achieving smooth switching maneuvers between VTOL and FW flight. Thus, VTOL-FW UAV’s flight characteristics are expected to be improved by enlarging operational flight envelope through enabling mode-transitioning, agile maneuvers and increasing survivability. Experiments conducted in simulation and real world environments shows that VTOL-FW UAV has both multirotor and airplane characteristics with extra benefits in an enlarged flight envelope.

Keywords: UAV, Aircraft design, linear analysis, mode transitioning control

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21 Long Term Evolution Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Network in Unmanned Air Vehicles Platform

Authors: Ashagrie Getnet Flattie

Abstract:

Line-of-sight (LOS) information, data rates, good quality, and flexible network service are limited by the fact that, for the duration of any given connection, they experience severe variation in signal strength due to fading and path loss. Wireless system faces major challenges in achieving wide coverage and capacity without affecting the system performance and to access data everywhere, all the time. In this paper, the cell coverage and edge rate of different Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) schemes in 20 MHz Long Term Evolution (LTE) system under Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) platform are investigated. After some background on the enormous potential of UAV, MIMO, and LTE in wireless links, the paper highlights the presented system model which attempts to realize the various benefits of MIMO being incorporated into UAV platform. The performances of the three MIMO LTE schemes are compared with the performance of 4x4 MIMO LTE in UAV scheme carried out to evaluate the improvement in cell radius, BER, and data throughput of the system in different morphology. The results show that significant performance gains such as bit error rate (BER), data rate, and coverage can be achieved by using the presented scenario.

Keywords: UAV, LTE, mimo, path loss

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20 Visual Servoing for Quadrotor UAV Target Tracking: Effects of Target Information Sharing

Authors: Jason R. King, Hugh H. T. Liu

Abstract:

This research presents simulation and experimental work in the visual servoing of a quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to stabilize overtop of a moving target. Most previous work in the field assumes static or slow-moving, unpredictable targets. In this experiment, the target is assumed to be a friendly ground robot moving freely on a horizontal plane, which shares information with the UAV. This information includes velocity and acceleration information of the ground target to aid the quadrotor in its tracking task. The quadrotor is assumed to have a downward-facing camera which is fixed to the frame of the quadrotor. Only onboard sensing for the quadrotor is utilized for the experiment, with a VICON motion capture system in place used only to measure ground truth and evaluate the performance of the controller. The experimental platform consists of an ArDrone 2.0 and a Create Roomba, communicating using Robot Operating System (ROS). The addition of the target’s information is demonstrated to help the quadrotor in its tracking task using simulations of the dynamic model of a quadrotor in Matlab Simulink. A nested PID control loop is utilized for inner-loop control the quadrotor, similar to previous works at the Flight Systems and Controls Laboratory (FSC) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Experiments are performed with ground truth provided by an indoor motion capture system, and the results are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a velocity controller which incorporates the additional information is able to perform better than the controllers which do not have access to the target’s information.

Keywords: Visual Servoing, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, quadrotor, UAS, target tracking

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19 Environmental Monitoring by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images and Spatial Data: A Case Study of Mineral Exploitation in Brazilian Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Maria De Albuquerque Bercot, Caio Gustavo Mesquita Angelo, Daniela Maria Moreira Siqueira, Augusto Assucena De Vasconcellos, Rodrigo Studart Correa

Abstract:

Mining is an important socioeconomic activity in Brazil although it negatively impacts the environment. Mineral operations cause irreversible changes in topography, removal of vegetation and topsoil, habitat destruction, displacement of fauna, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, siltation of watercourses and have potential to enhance climate change. Due to the impacts and its pollution potential, mining activity in Brazil is legally subjected to environmental licensing. Unlicensed mining operations or operations that not abide to the terms of an obtained license are taken as environmental crimes in the country. This work reports a case analyzed in the Forensic Institute of the Brazilian Federal District Civil Police. The case consisted of detecting illegal aspects of sand exploitation from a licensed mine in Federal District, nearby Brasilia city. The fieldwork covered an area of roughly 6 ha, which was surveyed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (PHANTOM 3 ADVANCED). The overflight with UAV took about 20 min, with maximum flight height of 100 m. 592 UAV georeferenced images were obtained and processed in a photogrammetric software (AGISOFT PHOTOSCAN 1.1.4), which generated a mosaic of geo-referenced images and a 3D model in less than six working hours. The 3D model was analyzed in a forensic software for accurate modeling and volumetric analysis. (MAPTEK I-SITE FORENSIC 2.2). To ensure the 3D model was a true representation of the mine site, coordinates of ten control points and reference measures were taken during fieldwork and compared to respective spatial data in the model. Finally, these spatial data were used for measuring mining area, excavation depth and volume of exploited sand. Results showed that mine holder had not complied with some terms and conditions stated in the granted license, such as sand exploration beyond authorized extension, depth and volume. Easiness, the accuracy and expedition of procedures used in this case highlight the employment of UAV imagery and computational photogrammetry as efficient tools for outdoor forensic exams, especially on environmental issues.

Keywords: Mining, Environmental Monitoring, UAV, computational photogrammetry

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18 Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Technologies in Road Construction Project Monitoring and Management: Case Study of a Project in Cyprus

Authors: Yiannis Vacanas, Kyriacos Themistocleous, Athos Agapiou, Diofantos Hadjimitsis

Abstract:

Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is considered by construction professionals as a very valuable process in modern design, procurement and project management. Construction professionals of all disciplines can use a single 3D model which BIM technology provides, to design a project accurately and furthermore monitor the progress of construction works effectively and efficiently. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), a technology initially developed for military applications, is now without any difficulty accessible and has already been used by commercial industries, including the construction industry. UAV technology has mainly been used for collection of images that allow visual monitoring of building and civil engineering projects conditions in various circumstances. UAVs, nevertheless, have undergone significant advances in equipment capabilities and now have the capacity to acquire high-resolution imagery from many angles in a cost effective manner, and by using photogrammetry methods, someone can determine characteristics such as distances, angles, areas, volumes and elevations of an area within overlapping images. In order to examine the potential of using a combination of BIM and UAV technologies in construction project management, this paper presents the results of a case study of a typical road construction project where the combined use of the two technologies was used in order to achieve efficient and accurate as-built data collection of the works progress, with outcomes such as volumes, and production of sections and 3D models, information necessary in project progress monitoring and efficient project management.

Keywords: Project Management, UAV, bim, Project Monitoring

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17 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: M. Senthil Kumar, Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: Endurance, Aircraft, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, HALE, high altitude, long range

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16 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Piotr Borowiec

Abstract:

The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: Aircraft, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, SMA, shape memory alloy, smart material, helicopters

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15 RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images

Authors: Mads Dyrmann, Simon L. Madsen, Morten S. Laursen, Rasmus N. Jørgensen

Abstract:

Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior to the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.

Keywords: Automation, UAV, weed mapping, DJI SDK, cotyledon plants

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14 Comparison between Photogrammetric and Structure from Motion Techniques in Processing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imageries

Authors: Ahmed Elaksher

Abstract:

Over the last few years, significant progresses have been made and new approaches have been proposed for efficient collection of 3D spatial data from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reduced costs compared to imagery from satellite or manned aircraft. In these systems, a low-cost GPS unit provides the position, velocity of the vehicle, a low-quality inertial measurement unit (IMU) determines its orientation, and off-the-shelf cameras capture the images. Structure from Motion (SfM) and photogrammetry are the main tools for 3D surface reconstruction from images collected by these systems. Unlike traditional techniques, SfM allows the computation of calibration parameters using point correspondences across images without performing a rigorous laboratory or field calibration process and it is more flexible in that it does not require consistent image overlap or same rotation angles between successive photos. These benefits make SfM ideal for UAVs aerial mapping. In this paper, a direct comparison between SfM Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and those generated through traditional photogrammetric techniques was performed. Data was collected by a 3DR IRIS+ Quadcopter with a Canon PowerShot S100 digital camera. Twenty ground control points were randomly distributed on the ground and surveyed with a total station in a local coordinate system. Images were collected from an altitude of 30 meters with a ground resolution of nine mm/pixel. Data was processed with PhotoScan, VisualSFM, Imagine Photogrammetry, and a photogrammetric algorithm developed by the author. The algorithm starts with performing a laboratory camera calibration then the acquired imagery undergoes an orientation procedure to determine the cameras’ positions and orientations. After the orientation is attained, correlation based image matching is conducted to automatically generate three-dimensional surface models followed by a refining step using sub-pixel image information for high matching accuracy. Tests with different number and configurations of the control points were conducted. Camera calibration parameters estimated from commercial software and those obtained with laboratory procedures were comparable. Exposure station positions were within less than few centimeters and insignificant differences, within less than three seconds, among orientation angles were found. DEM differencing was performed between generated DEMs and few centimeters vertical shifts were found.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, UAV, DEM, SfM

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13 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Urban Rail Transit Intelligent Inspection

Authors: Xinglu Nie, Feifei Tang, Chuntao Wei, Zhimin Ruan, Qianhong Zhu

Abstract:

Current method of manual-style inspection can not fully meet the requirement of the urban rail transit security in China. In this paper, an intelligent inspection method using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is utilized. A series of orthophoto of rail transit monitored area was collected by UAV, image correction and registration were operated among multi-phase images, then the change detection was used to detect the changes, judging the engineering activities and human activities that may become potential threats to the security of urban rail. Not only qualitative judgment, but also quantitative judgment of changes in the security control area can be provided by this method, which improves the objectives and efficiency of the patrol results. The No.6 line of Chongqing Municipality was taken as an example to verify the validation of this method.

Keywords: UAV, Rail Transit, change detection, control of protected areas, intelligent inspection

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12 Evaluation of Redundancy Architectures Based on System on Chip Internal Interfaces for Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Flight Control Computer

Authors: Sebastian Hiergeist

Abstract:

It is a common view that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) tend to migrate into the civil airspace. This trend is challenging UAV manufacturer in plenty ways, as there come up a lot of new requirements and functional aspects. On the higher application levels, this might be collision detection and avoidance and similar features, whereas all these functions only act as input for the flight control components of the aircraft. The flight control computer (FCC) is the central component when it comes up to ensure a continuous safe flight and landing. As these systems are flight critical, they have to be built up redundantly to be able to provide a Fail-Operational behavior. Recent architectural approaches of FCCs used in UAV systems are often based on very simple microprocessors in combination with proprietary Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) extensions implementing the whole redundancy functionality. In the future, such simple microprocessors may not be available anymore as they are more and more replaced by higher sophisticated System on Chip (SoC). As the avionic industry cannot provide enough market power to significantly influence the development of new semiconductor products, the use of solutions from foreign markets is almost inevitable. Products stemming from the industrial market developed according to IEC 61508, or automotive SoCs, according to ISO 26262, can be seen as candidates as they have been developed for similar environments. Current available SoC from the industrial or automotive sector provides quite a broad selection of interfaces like, i.e., Ethernet, SPI or FlexRay, that might come into account for the implementation of a redundancy network. In this context, possible network architectures shall be investigated which could be established by using the interfaces stated above. Of importance here is the avoidance of any single point of failures, as well as a proper segregation in distinct fault containment regions. The performed analysis is supported by the use of guidelines, published by the aviation authorities (FAA and EASA), on the reliability of data networks. The main focus clearly lies on the reachable level of safety, but also other aspects like performance and determinism play an important role and are considered in the research. Due to the further increase in design complexity of recent and future SoCs, also the risk of design errors, which might lead to common mode faults, increases. Thus in the context of this work also the aspect of dissimilarity will be considered to limit the effect of design errors. To achieve this, the work is limited to broadly available interfaces available in products from the most common silicon manufacturer. The resulting work shall support the design of future UAV FCCs by giving a guideline on building up a redundancy network between SoCs, solely using on board interfaces. Therefore the author will provide a detailed usability analysis on available interfaces provided by recent SoC solutions, suggestions on possible redundancy architectures based on these interfaces and an assessment of the most relevant characteristics of the suggested network architectures, like e.g. safety or performance.

Keywords: redundancy, UAV, System-On-Chip, flight control computer (FCC)

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11 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Emergency Purpose

Authors: Shah S. M. A., Aftab U.

Abstract:

It is imperative in today’s world to get a real time information about different emergency situation occurred in the environment. Helicopters are mostly used to access places which are hard to access in emergencies like earthquake, floods, bridge failure or in any other disasters conditions. Use of helicopters are considered more costly to properly collect the data. Therefore a new technique has been introduced in this research to promptly collect data using drones. The drone designed in this research is based on trial and error experimental work with objective to construct an economical drone. Locally available material have been used for this purpose. And a mobile camera were also attached to prepare video during the flight. It was found that within very limited resources the result were quite successful.

Keywords: UAV, disasters, camera, real time

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10 Development of Real Time System for Human Detection and Localization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Optical and Thermal Sensor and Visualization on Geographic Information Systems Platform

Authors: Nemi Bhattarai

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs) in search and rescue (SAR) operations, disaster management, and many more areas where information about the location of human beings are important. This research will primarily focus on the use of optical and thermal camera via UAV platform in real-time detection, localization, and visualization of human beings on GIS. This research will be beneficial in disaster management search of lost humans in wilderness or difficult terrain, detecting abnormal human behaviors in border or security tight areas, studying distribution of people at night, counting people density in crowd, manage people flow during evacuation, planning provisions in areas with high human density and many more.

Keywords: Real-time, Visualization, Localization, GIS, UAV, Thermal Sensor, human detection, haar-like

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9 Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Vertical Take-Off and Landing Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Configuration

Authors: Amir Abdelqodus, Mario Shehata

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to model and evaluate the aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives of a Vertical, Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle configuration (VTOL UAV), which is a fixed wing UAV and a quad-copter hybrid capable of both vertical and conventional take-off and/or landing. The aerodynamic analysis of this configuration was carried out using CFD commercial package Ansys Fluent. Also, the aerodynamic coefficients for the case of the UAV without the quad-copter is carried out analytically using MATLAB programmed codes, and the resulting data is verified using Lifting Line Theory and potential method programs. The two results are then compared to understand the effect of adding the quad-copter on the aerodynamic performance of the UAV.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, UAV, VTOL, potential flow

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8 Study on Construction of 3D Topography by UAV-Based Images

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Chieh-Kai Tsai, Dai-Ling Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a method of fast 3D topography modeling using the high-resolution camera images is studied based on the characteristics of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry and the need of three dimensional (3D) urban landscape modeling. Firstly, the existing high-resolution digital camera with special design of overlap images is designed by reconstructing and analyzing the auto-flying paths of UAVs, which improves the self-calibration function to achieve the high precision imaging by software, and further increased the resolution of the imaging system. Secondly, several-angle images including vertical images and oblique images gotten by the UAV system are used for the detail measure of urban land surfaces and the texture extraction. Finally, the aerial photography and 3D topography construction are both developed in campus of Chang-Jung University and in Guerin district area in Tainan, Taiwan, provide authentication model for construction of 3D topography based on combined UAV-based camera images from system. The results demonstrated that the UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry can be used in the construction of 3D topography production, and the technology solution in this paper offers a new, fast, and technical plan for the 3D expression of the city landscape, fine modeling and visualization.

Keywords: Images, UAV, Topography

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7 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Ghalem Belalem, Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, UAV, centralized architecture, USV

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6 Understanding Evidence Dispersal Caused by the Effects of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Active Indoor Crime Scenes

Authors: Elizabeth Parrott, Harry Pointon, Frederic Bezombes, Heather Panter

Abstract:

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) are making a profound effect within policing, forensic and fire service procedures worldwide. These intelligent devices have already proven useful in photographing and recording large-scale outdoor and indoor sites using orthomosaic and three-dimensional (3D) modelling techniques, for the purpose of capturing and recording sites during and post-incident. UAV’s are becoming an established tool as they are extending the reach of the photographer and offering new perspectives without the expense and restrictions of deploying full-scale aircraft. 3D reconstruction quality is directly linked to the resolution of captured images; therefore, close proximity flights are required for more detailed models. As technology advances deployment of UAVs in confined spaces is becoming more common. With this in mind, this study investigates the effects of UAV operation within active crimes scenes with regard to the dispersal of particulate evidence. To date, there has been little consideration given to the potential effects of using UAV’s within active crime scenes aside from a legislation point of view. Although potentially the technology can reduce the likelihood of contamination by replacing some of the roles of investigating practitioners. There is the risk of evidence dispersal caused by the effect of the strong airflow beneath the UAV, from the downwash of the propellers. The initial results of this study are therefore presented to determine the height of least effect at which to fly, and the commercial propeller type to choose to generate the smallest amount of disturbance from the dataset tested. In this study, a range of commercially available 4-inch propellers were chosen as a starting point due to the common availability and their small size makes them well suited for operation within confined spaces. To perform the testing, a rig was configured to support a single motor and propeller powered with a standalone mains power supply and controlled via a microcontroller. This was to mimic a complete throttle cycle and control the device to ensure repeatability. By removing the variances of battery packs and complex UAV structures to allow for a more robust setup. Therefore, the only changing factors were the propeller and operating height. The results were calculated via computer vision analysis of the recorded dispersal of the sample particles placed below the arm-mounted propeller. The aim of this initial study is to give practitioners an insight into the technology to use when operating within confined spaces as well as recognizing some of the issues caused by UAV’s within active crime scenes.

Keywords: UAV, evidence, Dispersal, propeller

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5 Field Oriented Control of Electrical Motor for Efficiency Improvement of Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Francois Defay

Abstract:

Uses of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasing for many applicative cases. Long endurance UAVs are required for inspection or transportation in some deserted places. The global optimization of the efficiency is the aim of the works in ISAE-SUPAERO. From the propulsive part until the motor control, the global optimization can increase significantly the global efficiency. This paper deals with the global improvement of the efficiency of the electrical propulsion for the aerial vehicle. The application case of study is a small airplane of 2kg. A global modelization is presented in order to validate the electrical engine in a complete simulation from aerodynamics to battery. The classical control of the synchronous permanent drive is compared to the field-oriented control which is not yet applied for UAVs. The experimental results presented show an increase of more than 10 percent of the efficiency. A complete modelization and simulation based on Matlab/ Simulink are presented in this paper and compared to the experimental study. Finally this paper presents solutions to increase the endurance of the electrical aerial vehicle and provide models to optimize the global consumption for a specific mission. The next step is to use this model and the control to work with distributed propulsion which is the future for small distance plane.

Keywords: Endurance, UAV, field-oriented control, electrical propulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 136