Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

tyrosinase Related Abstracts

4 The Enzyme Inhibitory Potentials of Different Extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek

Abstract:

The key enzyme inhibitory theory is one of the most accepted strategies in the treatment of global health problems including Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes mellitus. For this reason, the enzyme inhibitory potentials of different solvent extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia were investigated against cholinesterase, and tyrosinase. The in vitro enzyme inhibitory potentials were measured with a microplate reader. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited the strongest enzyme inhibitory effects on cholinesterase. However, the water extract was only active on tyrosinase. The results suggested that Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia could be considered as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of major health problems.

Keywords: Turkey, Enzyme Inhibitors, cholinesterase, tyrosinase, linaria

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3 Isolation, Identification and Screening of Marine Fungi for Potential Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Antibacterial and Antioxidant for Future Cosmeceuticals

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. To identify new bioactive cosmetics ingredients of marine microbial bioresource, we screened 35 marine fungi isolated from marine samples collected from Andaman Island and west coast of India. Fungal crude extracts were investigated for their antityrosinase, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for the purpose of identifying anti-aging, skin-whitening and anti-acne biomolecule with the potential in cosmetics. In the tyrosinase inhibition and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays, two fungal extracts, including “P2”, Talaromyces stipitatus and “D4”, Aspergillus terreus showed high inhibitory activity at 1mg/mL for tyrosinase inhibition and 0.5mg/mL for DPPH scavenging. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated by the agar well diffusion method. In the tyrosinase inhibition assay, 8 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain “D5” was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Further investigations will focus on purification and characterization major active components responsible for these activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, marine fungi, tyrosinase, cosmeceuticals

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2 Rapid and Sensitive Detection: Biosensors as an Innovative Analytical Tools

Authors: Sylwia Baluta, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha

Abstract:

The evolution of biosensors was driven by the need for faster and more versatile analytical methods for application in important areas including clinical, diagnostics, food analysis or environmental monitoring, with minimum sample pretreatment. Rapid and sensitive neurotransmitters detection is extremely important in modern medicine. These compounds mainly occur in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Any changes in the neurotransmitters concentration may lead to many diseases, such as Parkinson’s or schizophrenia. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements.

Keywords: Biosensor, Dopamine, laccase, adrenaline, tyrosinase

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1 Ascidian Styela rustica Proteins’ Structural Domains Predicted to Participate in the Tunic Formation

Authors: M. I. Tyletc, O. I. Podgornya, T. G. Shaposhnikova, S. V. Shabelnikov, A. G. Mittenberg, M. A. Daugavet

Abstract:

Ascidiacea is the most numerous class of the Tunicata subtype. These chordates' distinctive feature of the anatomical structure is a tunic consisting of cellulose fibrils, protein molecules, and single cells. The mechanisms of the tunic formation are not known in detail; tunic formation could be used as the model system for studying the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix. Our model species is the ascidian Styela rustica, which is prevalent in benthic communities of the White Sea. As previously shown, the tunic formation involves morula blood cells, which contain the major 48 kDa protein p48. P48 participation in the tunic formation was proved using antibodies against the protein. The nature of the protein and its function remains unknown. The current research aims to determine the amino acid sequence of p48, as well as to clarify its role in the tunic formation. The peptides that make up the p48 amino acid sequence were determined by mass spectrometry. A search for peptides in protein sequence databases identified sequences homologous to p48 in Styela clava, Styela plicata, and Styela canopus. Based on sequence alignment, their level of similarity was determined as 81-87%. The correspondent sequence of ascidian Styela canopus was used for further analysis. The Styela rustica p48 sequence begins with a signal peptide, which could indicate that the protein is secretory. This is consistent with experimentally obtained data: the contents of morula cells secreted in the tunic matrix. The isoelectric point of p48 is 9.77, which is consistent with the experimental results of acid electrophoresis of morula cell proteins. However, the molecular weight of the amino acid sequence of ascidian Styela canopus is 103 kDa, so p48 of Styela rustica is a shorter homolog. The search for conservative functional domains revealed the presence of two Ca-binding EGF-like domains, thrombospondin (TSP1) and tyrosinase domains. The p48 peptides determined by mass spectrometry fall into the region of the sequence corresponding to the last two domains and have amino acid substitutions as compared to Styela canopus homolog. The tyrosinase domain (pfam00264) is known to be part of the phenoloxidase enzyme, which participates in melanization processes and the immune response. The thrombospondin domain (smart00209) interacts with a wide range of proteins, and is involved in several biological processes, including coagulation, cell adhesion, modulation of intercellular and cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, wound healing and tissue remodeling. It can be assumed that the tyrosinase domain in p48 plays the role of the phenoloxidase enzyme, and TSP1 provides a link between the extracellular matrix and cell surface receptors, and may also be responsible for the repair of the tunic. The results obtained are consistent with experimental data on p48. The domain organization of protein suggests that p48 is an enzyme involved in the tunic tunning and is an important regulator of the organization of the extracellular matrix.

Keywords: tyrosinase, thrombospondin, ascidian, p48, tunic, tunning

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