Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Type 2 diabetes Related Abstracts

34 Visfatin and Apelin Are New Interrelated Adipokines Playing Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Hala O. El-Mesallamy, Salwa M. Suwailem, Mae M. Seleem


Visfatin and apelin are two new adipokines that recently gained a special interest in diabetes research. This study was conducted to study the interplay between these two adipokines and their correlation with other inflammatory and biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) postmenopausal women with CAD. Visfatin and apelin were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Visfatin was found to be significantly higher in the following groups: T2D patients without CAD, non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Apelin was found to be significantly lower in non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Visfatin and apelin were found to be significantly associated with each other and with other biochemical parameters. The current study provides evidence for the interplay between visfatin and apelin through the inflammatory milieu characteristic of T2D and their possible role in the pathogenesis of CAD complication of T2D.

Keywords: Inflammation, Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, apelin, visfatin

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33 Feasibility of Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes in Community Pharmacies Using Two Different Approaches: A Pilot Study in Thailand

Authors: Thitaporn Thoopputra, Tipaporn Pongmesa, Shuchuen Li


Aims: To evaluate the application of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment tool in community pharmacy setting. Methods: Thai diabetes risk score was applied to assess individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Interactive computer-based risk screening (IT) and paper-based risk screening (PT) tools were applied. Participants aged over 25 years with no known diabetes were recruited in six participating pharmacies. Results: A total of 187 clients, mean aged (+SD) was 48.6 (+10.9) years. 35% were at high risk. The mean value of willingness-to-pay for the service fee in IT group was significantly higher than PT group (p=0.013). No significant difference observed for the satisfaction between groups. Conclusions: Non-invasive risk assessment tool, whether paper-based or computerized-based can be applied in community pharmacy to support the enhancing role of pharmacists in chronic disease management. Long term follow up is needed to determine the impact of its application in clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.

Keywords: Prevention, Risk Assessment, Intervention, Community Pharmacy, Type 2 diabetes

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32 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto


Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Adherence, Type 2 diabetes, jordan, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist

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31 Antidiabetic Potential of Pseuduvaria monticola Bark Extract on the Pancreatic Cells, NIT-1 and Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

Authors: Hairin Taha, Aditya Arya, M. A. Hapipah, A. M. Mustafa


Plants have been an important source of medicine since ancient times. Pseuduvaria monticola is a rare montane forest species from the Annonaceae family. Traditionally, the plant was used to cure symptoms of fever, inflammation, stomach-ache and also to reduce the elevated levels of blood glucose. Scientifically, we have evaluated the antidiabetic potential of the Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract on certain in vitro cell based assays, followed by in vivo study. Results from in vitro models displayed PMm upregulated glucose uptake and insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β-cells. In vivo study demonstrated the PMm down-regulated hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rat models. Altogether, the study revealed that Pseuduvaria monticola might be used as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes and its related complications.

Keywords: Insulin secretion, Type 2 diabetes, Pseuduvaria monticola, glucose uptake

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30 An Antidiabetic Dietary Defence Weapon: Oats and Milk Based Probiotic Fermented Product

Authors: Rameshwar Singh Seema


In today’s world where diabetes has become an epidemic, our aim was to potentiate the effect of probiotics by integrating probiotics with cereals to formulate composite foods using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 against type 2 diabetes. After optimizing the product by Response Surface Methodology, it was studied for their effect on induction and progression of type 2 diabetes in HFD-fed Wistar rats. After 9 weeks study, best results were shown by the group fed with oat and milk based product fermented with LGG and L. casei NCDC19 which resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, HBA1c, improved OGTT, oxidative stress, cholesterol and triglycerides level during progression study of type 2 diabetes. During induction study also, there was significant reduction in blood glucose level, oxidative stress, cholesterol level and triglycerides level but slightly less as compared to progression study. Real time PCR gene expression studies were done for 5 genes (GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ, TNF-α, IL-6) whose expression is directly related to type 2 diabetes. The relative fold change expression was increased in case of GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ and decreased in case of TNF-α and IL-6 during both induction and progression study of diabetes but more significantly during progression study. Hence it was concluded that oat and milk based probiotic fermented product showed the synergistic effect of probiotics and oats especially in case of progression of type 2 diabetes. The benefits of these probiotic formulations may be further validated by clinical trials.

Keywords: Food Science, Type 2 diabetes, LGG, L.casei NCDC19

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29 Quantitative Analysis of Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Insulin Resistant C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

Authors: Masocorro Gawned, Stephen Myers, Guat Siew Chew


Nuclear Receptors (NR) are a super family of transcription factors that play a major role in lipid and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Recently, pharmacological evidence supports the view that stimulation of nuclear receptors alleviates Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The orphan nuclear receptors (ONR) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily whose ligands and physiological functions remain unknown. To date, no systematic studies have been carried out to screen for ONRs expressed in insulin resistant (IR) skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, in this study, we have established a model for IR by treating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells with insulin (10nM) for 48 hours. Western Blot analysis of phosphorylated AKT confirmed IR. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results highlighted key ONRs including NUR77 (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2) and NOR1 (NR4A3) which have been associated with fatty acid oxidation regulation and glucose homeostasis. Increased mRNA expression levels of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), REV-ERBα, NUR77, NURR1, NOR1, in insulin resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, indicated that these ONRs could potentially play a pivotal regulatory role of insulin secretion in lipid metabolism. Taken together, this study has successfully contributed to the complete analysis of ONR in IR, and has filled in an important void in the study and treatment of T2D.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, orphan nuclear receptors, transcription receptors, quantitative mRNA expression

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28 Carbohydrate Intake and Physical Activity Levels Modify the Association between FTO Gene Variants and Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: First Nutrigenetics Study in an Asian Indian Population

Authors: K. S. Vimal, D. Bodhini, K. Ramya, N. Lakshmipriya, R. M. Anjana, V. Sudha, J. A. Lovegrove, V. Mohan, V. Radha


Gene-lifestyle interaction studies have been carried out in various populations. However, to date there are no studies in an Asian Indian population. Hence, we examined whether lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity modify the association between fat mass and obesity–associated (FTO) gene variants and obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Asian Indian population. We studied 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) in Southern India. Obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization Asia Pacific Guidelines (non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene (rs9940128, rs7193144, rs8050136, rs918031, rs1588413 and rs11076023) identified from recent genome-wide association studies for T2D were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated food frequency questionnaire and physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the model. A joint likelihood ratio test of the main SNP effects and the SNP-diet/physical activity interaction effects was used in the linear regression analyses to maximize statistical power. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 13. There was a significant interaction between FTO SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.04) on obesity, where the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 2.46 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=3.0x10-5) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage. Furthermore, among those who had lower levels of physical activity, the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=4.0x10-5). We also found a borderline interaction between SNP rs11076023 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.08) on T2D, where the ‘A’ allele carriers in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage, had 1.57 times higher risk of T2D than those with ‘TT’ genotype (P=0.002). There was also a significant interaction between SNP rs11076023 and physical activity (Pinteraction=0.03) on T2D. No further significant interactions between SNPs and macronutrient intake or physical activity on obesity and T2D were observed. In conclusion, this is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. These findings suggest that the association between FTO gene variants and obesity and T2D is influenced by carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels. Greater understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions will advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies predicted to reduce the development of metabolic diseases in ‘A’ allele carriers of both SNPs in this Asian Indian population.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, dietary intake, FTO, Asian Indian

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27 Effect of 10 Weeks of Aerobic Exercise Training on Serum Concentrations of Surfactant Protein D and Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Azadeh Jamali


Background and purpose: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a lung-specific protein that is detectable in human plasma. Effect of exercise training on SP-D levels as well as its relation to metabolic indices is not known. The present study then aimed to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of SP-D and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Twenty-two overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited through deliberate sampling and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (11 in each group). The intervention group underwent a progressive aerobic training program for 10 weeks, 3 days per week, 30-55 min/day at 50-75% heart rate reserve (HRR). Control group continued with its everyday routine. Blood samples were obtained before and after training for biochemical analysis. Within-group and between-group differences were analyzed with paired and independent t-tests in spss software, respectively, and the relation between variables was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (all at P = 0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups in leptin, glucose, waist circumference and VO2 max after training. SP-D was decreased and VO2 max was increased significantly in intervention group. However, no significant correlation was observed between SP-D and other variables. Conclusion: Since there was no corresponding decrease in insulin resistance with decreased levels of SP-D, it seems unlikely for SP-D to mediate the association between obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics.

Keywords: insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, Exercise Training, SP-D

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26 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran


Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Self-efficacy, nurse, glycemic control, self-care behaviors, self-care management

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25 Antidiabetic Effects of Bitter Melon

Authors: Jinhyun Ryu, Chengliang Xie, Nal Ae Yoon, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang


Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders featured by a deficit in or loss of insulin activity to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. Mainly, it results from the compromised insulin secretion and/or reduced insulin activity. The frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been increased rapidly in recent decades with the increase in the trend of obesity due to life style and food habit. Obesity is considered to be the primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and thereby developing T2D. Traditionally naturally occurring fruits, vegetables etc. are being used to treat many pathogenic conditions. In this study, we tried to find out the effect of a popularly used vegetable in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, ‘bitter melon’ on high fat diet induced T2D. To investigate the effect, we used 70% ethanol extract of bitter melon (BME) as dietary supplement with chow. BME was found to attenuate the high fat diet (HFD) induced body weight and total fat mass significantly. We also observed that BME reduced the insulin resistance induced by HFD effectively. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity, and reducing the hepatic fat and obesity. These results indicate that BME could be effective to attenuate T2D and could be a preventive measure against T2D.

Keywords: Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, bitter melon, high fat diet

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24 Study on Metabolic and Mineral Balance, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Different Therapy

Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, E. Fogarasi, M. Croitoru, A. Nyárádi, K. Komlódi, S. Pál, A. Kovács, O. Kopácsy, R. Tripon, Z. Fazakas, C. Uzun, Z. Simon-Szabó, V. Balogh-Sămărghițan, E. Ernő Nagy, M. Szabó, M. Tilinca


Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.

Keywords: Minerals, Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, metformin, malondialdehyde, cardiovascular risk, vitamin B12

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23 A Stepped Care mHealth-Based Approach for Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes in Clinical Health Psychology

Authors: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Margherita Novelli, Emanuele Maria Giusti, Roberto Cattivelli, Enrico Molinari


Diabesity could be defined as a new global epidemic of obesity and being overweight with many complications and chronic conditions. Such conditions include not only type 2 diabetes, but also cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders. The financial direct and indirect burden (considering also the clinical resources involved and the loss of productivity) is a real challenge in many Western health-care systems. Recently the Lancet journal defined diabetes as a 21st-century challenge. In order to promote patient compliance in diabesity treatment reducing costs, evidence-based interventions to improve weight-loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. Moreover, new technologies can provide useful solutions in this multidisciplinary approach, above all in maintaining long-term compliance and adherence in order to ensure clinical efficacy. Psychological therapies with diet and exercise plans could better help patients in achieving weight loss outcomes, both inside hospitals and clinical centers and during out-patient follow-up sessions. In the management of chronic diseases clinical psychology play a key role due to the need of working on psychological conditions of patients, their families and their caregivers. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies: one of the best up-to-date application is the management of obesity with type 2 diabetes, where mHealth solutions can provide remote opportunities for enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications from clinical, organizational and economic perspectives. A stepped care mHealth-based approach is an interesting perspective in chronic care management of obesity with type 2 diabetes. One promising future direction could be treating obesity, considered as a chronic multifactorial disease, using a stepped-care approach: -mhealth or traditional based lifestyle psychoeducational and nutritional approach. -health professionals-driven multidisciplinary protocols tailored for each patient. -inpatient approach with the inclusion of drug therapies and other multidisciplinary treatments. -bariatric surgery with psychological and medical follow-up In the chronic care management of globesity mhealth solutions cannot substitute traditional approaches, but they can supplement some steps in clinical psychology and medicine both for obesity prevention and for weight loss management.

Keywords: Obesity, mHealth, Type 2 diabetes, chronic care management, clinical health psychology, stepped care

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22 Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds and Ajwa Date on Blood Glucose Level in Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Reham Algheshairy, Khaled Tayeb, Christopher Smith, Rebecca Gregg, Haruna Musa


Background: Diabetes is a medical condition that refers to the pancreas’ inability to secrete sufficient insulin levels, a hormone responsible for controlling glucose levels in the body. Any surplus glucose in the blood stream is excreted through the urinary system. Insulin resistance in blood cells can also cause this condition despite the fact that the pancreas is producing the required amount of insulin A number of researchers claim that the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia has reached epidemic proportions, although one study did observe one positive in the rise in the awareness of diabetes, possibly indicative of Saudi Arabia’s improving healthcare system. While a number of factors can cause diabetes, the ever-increasing incidence of the disease in Saudi Arabia has been blamed primarily on low levels of physical activity and high levels of obesity. Objectives: The project has two aims. The first aim of the project is to investigate the regulatory effects of consumption of Nigella seeds and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes. The second aim of the project is to investigate whether these dietary factors may have potentially beneficial effects in controlling the complications that associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This use a random-cross intervention trail of 75 Saudi male and female with type 2 diabetes in Al-Noor hospital in Makkah ( KSA) aged between 18 and 70 years were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 will consume 2g of Nigella Sativa seeds daily along with a modified diet for 12 weeks, group 2 will be given Ajwah dates daily with a modified diet for 12 weeks and group 3 will follow a modified diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, along with bloods for HbA1c, fasting blood sugar and at the end of 12 weeks. Results: This study found significant decrease in blood level (FBG & 2PPBG) and HbA1c in the groups with diet and Nigella seeds) compared to Ajwa date. However, there is no significant change were found in HbA1c, FBG and 2hrpp regarding Ajwa group. Conclusion: This study illustrated a significant improvement in some markers of glycaemia following 2 g of Ns and diet for 12 weeks. The dose of 2g/day of consumed Nigella seeds was found to be more effective in controlling BGL and HbA1c than control and Ajwa groups. This suggests that Nigella seeds and following a diet may have a potential effect (a role in controlling outcomes for type 2 diabetes and controlling the disease). Further research is needed on a large scale to determine the optimum dose and duration of Nigella and Ajwa in order to achieve the desired results.

Keywords: Control, Type 2 diabetes, nigella seeds, Ajwa dates, fasting blood glucose

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21 Ramadan as a Model of Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Gut Hormones, Appetite and Body Composition in Diabetes vs. Controls

Authors: Turki J. Alharbi, Jencia Wong, Dennis Yue, Tania P. Markovic, Julie Hetherington, Ted Wu, Belinda Brooks, Radhika Seimon, Alice Gibson, Stephanie L. Silviera, Amanda Sainsbury, Tanya J. Little


Fasting has been practiced for centuries and is incorporated into the practices of different religions including Islam, whose followers intermittently fast throughout the month of Ramadan. Thus, Ramadan presents a unique model of prolonged intermittent fasting (IF). Despite a growing body of evidence for a cardio-metabolic and endocrine benefit of IF, detailed studies of the effects of IF on these indices in type 2 diabetes are scarce. We studied 5 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 7 healthy controls (C) at baseline (pre), and in the last week of Ramadan (post). Fasting circulating levels of glucose, HbA1c and lipids, as well as body composition (with DXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured. Plasma gut hormone levels and appetite responses to a mixed meal were also studied. Data are means±SEM. Ramadan decreased total fat mass (-907±92 g, p=0.001) and trunk fat (-778±190 g, p=0.014) in T2DM but not in controls, without any reductions in lean mass or REE. There was a trend towards a decline in plasma FFA in both groups. Ramadan had no effect on body weight, glycemia, blood pressure, or plasma lipids in either group. In T2DM only, the area under the curve for post-meal plasma ghrelin concentrations increased after Ramadan (pre:6632±1737 vs. post:9025±2518 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.045). Despite this increase in orexigenic ghrelin, subjective appetite scores were not altered by Ramadan. Meal-induced plasma concentrations of the satiety hormone pancreatic polypeptide did not change during Ramadan, but were higher in T2DM compared to controls (post: C: 23486±6677 vs. T2DM: 62193±6880 pg/ml.min-1, p=0.003. In conclusion, Ramadan, as a model for IF appears to have more favourable effects on body composition in T2DM, without adverse effects on metabolic control or subjective appetite. These data suggest that IF may be particularly beneficial in T2DM as a nutritional intervention. Larger studies are warranted.

Keywords: Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, intermittent fasting, appetite regulating hormones

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20 Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS1) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Eritreans

Authors: Mengistu G. Woldu, Hani Y. Zaki, Areeg Faggad, Badreldin E. Abdalla


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, degenerative, and multi-factorial disease, which is culpable for huge mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even though relatively significant numbers of studies are conducted on the genetics domain of this disease in the developed world, there is huge information gap in the sub-Saharan Africa region in general and in Eritrea in particular. Objective: The principal aim of this study was to investigate the association of common variants of the Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) genes with T2DM in the Eritrean population. Method: In this cross-sectional case control study 200 T2DM patients and 112 non-diabetes subjects were participated and genotyping of the IRS1 (rs13431179, rs16822615, 16822644rs, rs1801123) and TCF7L2 (rs7092484) tag SNPs were carries out using PCR-RFLP method of analysis. Haplotype analyses were carried out using Plink version 1.07, and Haploview 4.2 software. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analyses were performed using the Plink software. All descriptive statistical data analyses were carried out using SPSS (Version-20) software. Throughout the analysis p-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: Significant association was found between rs13431179 SNP of the IRS1 gene and T2DM under the recessive model of inheritance (OR=9.00, 95%CI=1.17-69.07, p=0.035), and marginally significant association found in the genotypic model (OR=7.50, 95%CI=0.94-60.06, p=0.058). The rs7092484 SNP of the TCF7L2 gene also showed markedly significant association with T2DM in the recessive (OR=3.61, 95%CI=1.70-7.67, p=0.001); and allelic (OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.23-2.62, p=0.002) models. Moreover, eight haplotypes of the IRS1 gene found to have significant association withT2DM (p=0.013 to 0.049). Assessments made on the interactions of genotypes of the rs13431179 and rs7092484 SNPs with various parameters demonstrated that high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), waist circumference (WC), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are the best T2DM onset predicting models. Furthermore, genotypes of the rs7092484 SNP showed significant association with various atherogenic indexes (Atherogenic index of plasma, LDL/HDL, and CHLO/HDL); and Eritreans carrying the GG or GA genotypes were predicted to be more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases onset. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IRS1 (rs13431179) and TCF7L2 (rs7092484) gene polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of T2DM in Eritreans.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, snp, IRS1, TCF7L2

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19 Effect of Various Durations of Type 2 Diabetes on Muscle Performance

Authors: Santosh Kumar Yadav, Shobha Keswani, Nishat Quddus, Sohrab Ahmad Khan, Zuheb Ahmad Shiddiqui, Varsha Chorsiya


Introduction: Early onset diabetes is more aggressive than the late onset diabetes. Diabetic individual has a greater spectrum of life period to suffer from its damage, complications, and long-term disability. This study aimed at assessing knee joint muscle performance under various durations of diabetes. Method and Materials: A total of 30 diabetic subjects (18 male and 12 females) without diabetic neuropathy were included for the study. They were divided into three groups with 5 years, 10 years and 15 years of duration of disease each. Muscle performance was evaluated through strength and flexibility. Peak torque for quadriceps muscle was measured using isokinetic dynamometer. Flexibility for quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured through Ducan’s Elys test and 90/90 test. Results: The result showed significant difference in muscle strength (p<0.05), flexibility (p≤0.05) between groups. Discussion: Optimal muscle strength and flexibility are vital for musculoskeletal health and functional independence. Conclusion: The reduced muscle performance and functional impairment in nonneuropathic diabetic patients suggest that other mechanism besides neuropathy that contribute to altered biomechanics. These findings of this study project early management of these altered parameters through disease-specific physical therapy and assessment-based intervention. Clinical Relevance: Managing disability is more costly than managing disease. Prompt and timely identification and management strategy can dramatically reduce the cost of care for diabetic patients.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, muscle performance, muscle flexibility, muscle torque

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18 Efficacy and Safety by Baseline A1c with Once-Weekly Dulaglutide in the AWARD Program

Authors: Alaa Mostafa, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Maria Yu, Nan Zhang, Dara Schuster, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez


Dulaglutide (DU), a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, was studied in the AWARD clinical trial program in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and demonstrated significant hemoglobin A1c (A1c) reduction and potential for weight loss. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg in patients with T2D by baseline A1c <8.5% or ≥8.5%, a post-hoc analysis was conducted on AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 at 6 months. Across 7 studies, 55% to 82% of the DU-treated patients had a baseline A1c <8.5%, and 18% to 45% had a baseline A1c ≥8.5%. The ranges of A1c reductions with baseline A1c <8.5% and ≥8.5%, respectively, were: DU 1.5 mg: -0.67% to -1.25% and -1.22% to -2.37%; DU 0.75 mg: -0.53% to -1.07% and -1.37% to -2.19%. The A1c reduction from the pooled analysis was greater in patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% than patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, respectively: DU 1.5 mg: -1.86% and -1.02%; DU 0.75 mg: -1.75% and -0.83%. DU treatments were well tolerated among baseline A1c subgroups. Across the AWARD program, DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg demonstrated significant A1c reduction in both subgroups with an acceptable safety profile. Compared to patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% had greater A1c reduction. Disclosures: This study was supported and conducted by Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Keywords: weight loss, Type 2 diabetes, A1c reduction, dulaglutide

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17 Influence of HbA1c on Nitric Oxide Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Dara Kutsyk, Olga Bondarenko, Mariya Sorochka


In 21-century type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a global health and social problem in the whole world. The goal of treatment for patients with T2D is to prevent complications of diabetes - macrovascular diseases (heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular diseases (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy). Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Loss of NO function is one of the earliest indicators of disease and its progression especially in patients with T2D. Aim: To compare NO level between patients with well and bad controlled glycemia in T2D. Methods: The study included 32 patients with T2D. The diagnosis of T2D was confirmed due to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: with well controlled glycaemia (HbA1c < 7%) and bad controlled glycaemia (HbA1c > 7%). The control group consists of 15 healthy subjects. Results: NO level in patients with T2D is significantly higher (27,2 ±3,1 µmol), compared to controls (18,86±0,9 µmol; p < 0,001). A significant difference in NO level was found between patients with bad controlled glycaemia (25,9±2,2 µmol) and well controlled glycaemia (28,7 ± 3,0 µmol; p<0,01). The study showed a moderate negative correlation between NO level and HbA1c (-0,399; р< 0,05). Conclusions: Production of NO is impaired in patients with T2D, especially with badly controlled glycaemia. With the increase in HbAc serum NO decreases. This can be the main target for prevention vascular complication in T2D.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes, Nitric Oxide, glycated hemoglobin

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16 Aframomum melegueta Improves Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetes Rats Model

Authors: Aminu Mohammed, Shahidul Islam


Aframomum melegueta K.Schum commonly known as Grains of Paradise has been a popularly used spice in most of the African food preparation. Available data have shown that ethyl acetate fraction from crude ethanolic extract exhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions, improved pancreatic β-cell damage and ameliorated insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Additionally, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-paradol and oleanolic acid are shown to be the compounds responsible for the antidiabetic action of A. melegueta. However, detail antioxidant potential of this spice in a diabetic animal model has not yet been reported. Thus, the present study investigates the effect of oral consumption of A. melegueta fruit on the in vivo antioxidant status of type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats. T2D was induced in rats by feeding a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (bw)). The animals were orally administered with 150 (DAML) or 300 mg/kg bw (DAMH) of the fraction once daily for four weeks. Data were analyzed by using a statistical software package (SPSS for Windows, version 22, IBM Corporation, NY, USA) using Tukey’s-HSD multiple range post-hoc test. Values were considered significantly different at p < 0.05. According to the data, after four weeks of intervention, diabetic untreated animals showed significantly (p < 0.05) elevation of blood glucose levels. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed to increase with concomitant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the serum and organs (liver, kidney, heart and pancreas) of diabetic untreated animals. The activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reductase) were greatly reduced in the serum and organs of diabetic untreated animals compared to the normal animals. These alterations were reverted to near-normal after the treatment of A. melegueta fruit in the treated groups (DAML & DAMH) within the study period, especially at the dose of 300 mg/kg bw. This potent antioxidant action may partly be attributed to the presence of the 6-Gingerol, 6-shogaol and 6-paradol are known to possess antioxidant action. The results of our study showed that A. melegueta intake improved the antioxidant status of T2D rats and therefore could be used to ameliorate the diabetes-induced oxidative damage.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, antioxidant, aframomum melegueta, ethyl acetate extract

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15 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth


Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic effect, cow urine, synergic effect, vijaysar

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14 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, Alireza Barari, S. Shirali, S. Amini


Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, saffron, aerobic exercises, HFABP, troponin T

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13 Association of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 Genetic Variants with Type 2 Diabetes-Related Traits in Population from Bosnia and Herzegovina

Authors: Anida Causevic-Ramosevac, Sabina Semiz


The aim of this study was to investigate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs673548, rs693 in ApoB gene, rs1800775 in CETP gene and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with parameters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic dyslipidemia in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Materials and methods: Our study involved 352 patients with T2D and 156 healthy subjects. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured in all participants. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood for the purpose of genetic testing. Polymorphisms in ApoB (rs673548, rs693), CETP (rs1800775) and GALNT2 (rs4846914) genes were analyzed by using Sequenom IPLEX platform. Results: Our results demonstrated significant associations for rs180075 polymorphism in CETP gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.020; p = 0.027; p = 0.044), triglycerides (p = 0.046) and ALT (p = 0.031) activity in control group. In group of diabetic patients, results showed a significant association of rs673548 in ApoB gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.013), VLDL-C (p = 0.037) and CRP (p = 0.029) and rs693 in ApoB gene with BMI (p = 0.025), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.027), fasting insulin (p = 0.037) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.023) levels. Significant associations were also observed for rs1800775 in CETP gene with triglyceride (p = 0.023) levels and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with HbA1C (p = 0.013) and triglyceride (p = 0.043) levels. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study that examined the impact of variations of candidate genes on a wide range of metabolic parameters in BH population. Our results suggest an association of variations of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 genes with specific markers of T2D and dyslipidemia. Further studies would be needed in order to confirm these genetic effects in other ethnic groups as well.

Keywords: Dyslipidemia, Type 2 diabetes, CETP, ApoB, GALNT2

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12 A Review of Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Cardiovascular Disease in Zambia

Authors: Mwenya Mubanga, Sula Mazimba


Background: In Zambia, much of the focus on nutrition and health has been on reducing micronutrient deficiencies, wasting and underweight malnutrition and not on the rising global projections of trends in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to identify and collate studies on the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease conducted in Zambia, to summarize their findings and to identify areas that need further research. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLINE) database was searched for peer-reviewed articles on the prevalence of, and factors associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease amongst Zambian residents using a combination of search terms. The period of search was from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. We expanded the search terms to include all possible synonyms and spellings obtained in the search strategy. Additionally, we performed a manual search for other articles and references of peer-reviewed articles. Results: In Zambia, the current prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is estimated at 13%-16% and 2.0 – 3.0% respectively. Risk factors such as the adoption of western dietary habits, the social stigmatization associated with rapid weight loss due to Tuberculosis and/ or the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and rapid urbanization have all been blamed for fueling the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, unlike traditional Western populations, those with no formal education were less likely to be obese than those who attained secondary or tertiary level education. Approximately 30% of those surveyed were unaware of their diabetes diagnosis and more than 60% were not on treatment despite a known diabetic status. Socio-demographic factors such as older age, female sex, urban dwelling, lack of tobacco use and marital status were associated with an increased risk of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. We were unable to identify studies that specifically looked at diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes in Zambia appears low, more representative studies focusing on parts of the country outside of the main industrial zone need to be conducted. There also needs to be research on diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. National surveillance, monitoring and evaluation on all non-communicable diseases need to be prioritized and policies that address underweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes developed.

Keywords: Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 diabetes, Zambia

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11 A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Muhammad Qamar


There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age <40 years. The age at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes, Malaysia, diabetes diagnosis, outpatients, age of onset, retrospective study

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10 Anagliptin: A Japanese Made Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor That Naturally Lowers LDL-Cholesterol in Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: C. Iitake, K. Iitake


Background and Aims: The number of diabetic patients based on obesity is increasing drastically in Asia. Since most patients have multiple complications, if one medicine can treat those at the same time, it would contribute to financial savings and patients’ compliance. A Japanese-made DPP-4 inhibitor, Anagliptin is only sold in Japan and South Korea. It is said to have its unique aspect of lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels together with lowering blood glucose. We have assessed 63 patients in our faculty to investigate this fact clinically and statistically. Method: Patients with type 2 diabetes who has been treated with Anagliptin for the first time was investigated changes in HbA1c, fasting and random blood glucose and LDL-C levels from the baseline at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Results: 29 patients (46.1%) were given DPP-4 inhibitors for the first time (original group), and 34 patients (53.9%) were using other DPP-4 inhibitors before Anagliptin (exchanged group). The change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from the baseline were -2.0% (P < 0.001) and -38.3mg/dl (P < 0.01) respectively with original group, -0.5% (P < 0.01) and -29.4mg/dl (P < 0.01) respectively with exchanged group. 23 patients (36.5%) were using statins or fibrates and 28 patients (44.4%) were using none, and its LDL-C change were -8.1mg/dl (P = 0.2582) and -10.1mg/dl(P < 0.05) respectively. 16 patients(25%) with LDL-C level ≥ 140mg/dl, change were -21.7mg/dl(P < 0.05). LDL-C change did not have a correlation coefficient (=-0.03238) with change in HbA1c and was not affected by other diabetic drugs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Anagliptin is a potential treatment option for type 2 diabetes complicated by hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, DPP-4 inhibitors, anagliptin, LDL-cholesterol

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9 Assessment of Osteocalcin and Homocysteine Levels in Saudi Female Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Saeed


Studies suggest a crosstalk between bone and metabolism through Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein that plays an important role in regulating glucose and fat metabolism. Studies relate type II Diabetes Mellitus (DMII) with Homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates the relationship between levels of OC, Hcy, and DMII in 85 subjects of which 50 were diabetic female patients (29–65 years) and 35 healthy controls. OC and Hcy levels were measured in fasting blood samples using immunoassay analyzer. Fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, were estimated by automated Siemens Dimension XP auto-analyzer. A significant increase in the frequency of low OC levels (p < 0.001) and high Hcy levels (p < 0.001) was detected in diabetic patients compared to controls (chi-squared test). Using ANOVA test, patients were divided into tertiles based on plasma OC and Hcy levels; fasting serum glucose varied inversely with OC but directly with Hcy tertiles (p=0.049, p=0.033 respectively). Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP=Log TG/HDL) predicts that diabetic patients with 36% high and 15% intermediate cardiovascular risk had increased frequency of low OC levels compared to low-risk patients (p=0.047). Another group of diabetic patients with 39% high and 11% intermediate CVD risk had increased frequency of high Hcy levels (p=0.033). A significant negative correlation existed between OC and glucose (r = -0.318; p = 0.035) while correlation between glucose level and Hcy (r = 0.851 p=0.022) was positive. Hence, low serum OC levels and high Hcy levels were associated with impaired glucose metabolism that may increase cardiovascular risk in DMII.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, osteocalcin

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8 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Nurse-Led Smartphone-Based Self-Management Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Poor Glycemic Control

Authors: Wenru Wang


Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the ‘diabetes epicentre’ in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanization and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective and cost-effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic. This study aims to develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in Singapore. We proposed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and repeated post-tests control group design. A total of 128 type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the diabetes clinic of an acute public hospital in Singapore through convenience sampling. Study participants will be either randomly allocated to the experimental group or control group. Outcome measures used will include the 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, 11-item Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities, and 19-item Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Data will be collected at 3-time points: baseline, three months and six months from the baseline, respectively. It is expected that this programme will be an alternative offered to diabetes patients to master their self-care management skills, in addition to the existing diabetes service provided in diabetes clinics in Singapore hospitals. Also, the self-supporting and less resource-intensive nature of this programme, through the use of smartphone app as a mode of intervention delivery, will greatly reduce nurses’ direct contact time with patients and allow more time to be allocated to those who require more attention. The study has been registered with The trial registration number is NCT03088475.

Keywords: Self-management, Type 2 diabetes, poor glycaemic control, nurse-led, smartphone-based, health-relevant outcomes

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7 Assessment of Impact of Physiological and Biochemical Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: V. Mathad, S. Shivprasad, P. Shivsharannappa, M. K. Patil


Introduction: Non-communicable diseases are emerging diseases in India. Government of India launched National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke (NPCDCS) during the year 2008. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of non communicable diseases by health promotion and prompt treatment. Objective: The present study was intended to assess the impact of National Program for prevention and control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer and Stroke Programme on biochemical and physiological factors influencing Type 2 diabetes in Kalaburagi District. Material and Method: NCD Clinic was established at District Hospital during April 2016. All the patients attending District Hospital Kalaburagi above the age of 30 years are screened for Non Communicable Diseases under NPCDCS Programme. A total sample of 7447 patients attending NCD Clinic situated at Kalaburagi district was assessed in this study. Pre structured and pretested schedule seeking information was obtained from all the patients by the counselor working under NPCDCS programme. All the Patients attending District Hospital were screened for Diabetes using Glucometer at NCD clinic. The suspected cases were further confirmed through Biochemical investigations like Fasting Blood glucose, HBA1c, Urine Glucose, Kidney Function test. SPSS 20 version was used for analysis of data. Chi square test, P values and odds ratio was used to study the association of factors. Results: A Total of 7447 patients attended NCD clinic during the year 2017-18 were analyzed, Diabetes was seen among 3028 individuals were as comorbidities along with Hypertension was seen among 757 individuals. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 2.84. 3440(46.2%) were males whereas Female constituted 4007(53.8%) of population. The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes being 8.6 and 12.8 respectively. Diabetes was more commonly seen during the age group of 40 to 69 years. Diabetes was significantly associated with Age group 40 to 69 years, obesity and female gender (p < 0.05). The risk of developing Hypertension and comorbidity conditions of hypertension and Diabetes was 1.224 and 1.305 times higher among males, whereas the risk of diabetes was 1.127 higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: The screening for NCD has significantly increased after launching of NPCDCS programme. NCD was significantly associated with obesity, female gender, increased age as well as comorbid conditions like hypertension and tuberculosis.

Keywords: Non-communicable diseases, Type 2 diabetes, NPCDCS programme, physiological factors

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6 The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma Hansanee De Silva


Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, haskap

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5 The Effect of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Polyphenol Composition of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) and Anti-diabetic Properties of Haskap Polyphenols

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma De Silva


Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a newly commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including, anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting properties. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berries. The compound C3G has the ability to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects through several ways, including inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), reduction of gluconeogenesis, improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvests maturity of haskap on C3G, other fruit quality characteristics and anti-diabetic activities of haskap berries using in vitro studies. The polyphenols present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) apart from 2-3 days, were extracted separately. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyzes of polyphenols revealed that haskap berries contain predominantly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids. The compound C3G was the most prominent anthocyanin, which is available in approximately 79% of total anthocyanin in four cultivars. The Larissa at H5 contained the highest C3G content. The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was greater than other cultivars. Furthermore, Larissa H5 showed the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion, the haskap variety and harvesting date influenced the polyphenol composition and biological properties. The variety Larissa, at H5 harvesting date, contained the highest polyphenol content and the ability of inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme as well as DPP4 enzyme in order to reduce type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, polyphenol, anthocyanin, haskap

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