Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Turbulence Related Abstracts

28 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Turbulence, Localization, Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), turbulent spectrum

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27 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: R. P. Sharma, Swati Sharma

Abstract:

We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: Turbulence, Solar Wind, dispersive alfven wave

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26 Study of the Relationship between the Roughness Configuration of Channel Bottom and the Creation of Vortices at the Rough Area: Numerical Modelling

Authors: Youb Said, Fourar Ali

Abstract:

To describe the influence of bottom roughness on the free surface flows by numerical modeling, a two-dimensional model was developed. The equations of continuity and momentum (Naviers Stokes equations) are solved by the finite volume method. We considered a turbulent flow in an open channel with a bottom roughness. For our simulations, the K-ε model was used. After setting the initial and boundary conditions and solve the equations set, we were able to achieve the following results: vortex forming in the hollow causing substantial energy dissipation in the obstacle areas that form the bottom roughness. The comparison of our results with experimental ones shows a good agreement in terms of the results in the rough area. However, in other areas, differences were more or less important. These differences are in areas far from the bottom, especially the free surface area just after the bottom. These disagreements are probably due to experimental constants used by the k-ε model.

Keywords: Modeling, Turbulence, free surface flow, k-ε model, finite volume, energy dissipation, bottom roughness

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25 Measurement of Turbulence with PITOT Static Tube in Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Authors: Gopikrishnan, Bharathiraja, Boopalan, Jensin Joshua

Abstract:

The Pitot static tube has proven their values and practicability in measuring velocity of fluids for many years. With the aim of extensive usage of such Pitot tube systems, one of the major enabling technologies is to use the design and fabricate a high sensitive pitot tube for the purpose of calibration of the subsonic wind tunnel. Calibration of wind tunnel is carried out by using different instruments to measure variety of parameters. Using too many instruments inside the tunnel may not only affect the fluid flow but also lead to drag or losses. So, it is essential to replace the different system with a single system that would give all the required information. This model of high sensitive Pitot tube has been designed to ease the calibration process. It minimizes the use of different instruments and this single system is capable of calibrating the wind tunnel test section. This Pitot static tube is completely digitalized and so that the velocity data`s can be collected directly from the instrument. Since the turbulence factors are dependent on velocity, the data’s that are collected from the pitot static tube are then processed and the level of turbulence in the fluid flow is calculated. It is also capable of measuring the pressure distribution inside the wind tunnel and the flow angularity of the fluid. Thus, the well-designed high sensitive Pitot static tube is utilized in calibrating the tunnel and also for the measurement of turbulence.

Keywords: Turbulence, Wind Tunnel, velocity, pitot static tube

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24 Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity

Authors: Mohammadreza Sedighi, Mohammad Said Saidi, Hesamoddin Salarian

Abstract:

A numerical study has been performed to investigate the effect of using different turbulent models on natural convection flow field and temperature distributions in partially heated square cavity compare to benchmark. The temperature of the right vertical wall is lower than that of heater while other walls are insulated. The commercial CFD codes are used to model. Standard k-w model provided good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Turbulence, CFD, natural convection, buoyancy, cavity

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23 Aerodynamic Analysis of Dimple Effect on Aircraft Wing

Authors: E. Livya, G. Anitha, P. Valli

Abstract:

The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and maneuverability of the aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall phenomenon. The airfoil which contains dimples will have comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices which delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure drag and also increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall objective of this paper is to improve the aircraft maneuverability by delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This project includes both computational and experimental analysis of dimple effect on aircraft wing, using NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of Semi-sphere, hexagon, cylinder, square are selected for the analysis; airfoil is tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s at different angle of attack (5˚, 10˚, 15˚, 20˚, and 25˚). This analysis favours the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the enhanced performance for the aircraft.

Keywords: Turbulence, Airfoil, dimple effect, boundary layer separation

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22 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: Ahmed Esmael, Ali El Shrif

Abstract:

In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.

Keywords: Turbulence, hydrodynamic instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, Taylor vortices

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21 Simulation of the FDA Centrifugal Blood Pump Using High Performance Computing

Authors: Mehdi Behbahani, Sebastian Rible, Charles Moulinec, Yvan Fournier, Mike Nicolai, Paolo Crosetto

Abstract:

Computational Fluid Dynamics blood-flow simulations are increasingly used to develop and validate blood-contacting medical devices. This study shows that numerical simulations can provide additional and accurate estimates of relevant hemodynamic indicators (e.g., recirculation zones or wall shear stresses), which may be difficult and expensive to obtain from in-vivo or in-vitro experiments. The most recent FDA (Food and Drug Administration) benchmark consisted of a simplified centrifugal blood pump model that contains fluid flow features as they are commonly found in these devices with a clear focus on highly turbulent phenomena. The FDA centrifugal blood pump study is composed of six test cases with different volumetric flow rates ranging from 2.5 to 7.0 liters per minute, pump speeds, and Reynolds numbers ranging from 210,000 to 293,000. Within the frame of this study different turbulence models were tested including RANS models, e.g. k-omega, k-epsilon and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and, LES. The partitioners Hilbert, METIS, ParMETIS and SCOTCH were used to create an unstructured mesh of 76 million elements and compared in their efficiency. Computations were performed on the JUQUEEN BG/Q architecture applying the highly parallel flow solver Code SATURNE and typically using 32768 or more processors in parallel. Visualisations were performed by means of PARAVIEW. Different turbulence models including all six flow situations could be successfully analysed and validated against analytical considerations and from comparison to other data-bases. It showed that an RSM represents an appropriate choice with respect to modeling high-Reynolds number flow cases. Especially, the Rij-SSG (Speziale, Sarkar, Gatzki) variant turned out to be a good approach. Visualisation of complex flow features could be obtained and the flow situation inside the pump could be characterized.

Keywords: High Performance Computing, Turbulence, Scalability, blood flow, centrifugal blood pump

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20 Insights into Particle Dispersion, Agglomeration and Deposition in Turbulent Channel Flow

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Ali Hassanpour, Michael Fairweather

Abstract:

The work described in this paper was undertaken to gain insight into fundamental aspects of turbulent gas-particle flows with relevance to processes employed in a wide range of applications, such as oil and gas flow assurance in pipes, powder dispersion from dry powder inhalers, and particle resuspension in nuclear waste ponds, to name but a few. In particular, the influence of particle interaction and fluid phase behavior in turbulent flow on particle dispersion in a horizontal channel is investigated. The mathematical modeling technique used is based on the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology embodied in the commercial CFD code FLUENT, with flow solutions provided by this approach coupled to a second commercial code, EDEM, based on the discrete element method (DEM) which is used for the prediction of particle motion and interaction. The results generated by LES for the fluid phase have been validated against direct numerical simulations (DNS) for three different channel flows with shear Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 150, 300 and 590. Overall, the LES shows good agreement, with mean velocities and normal and shear stresses matching those of the DNS in both magnitude and position. The research work has focused on the prediction of those conditions favoring particle aggregation and deposition within turbulent flows. Simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of particle size, density and concentration on particle agglomeration. Furthermore, particles with different surface properties have been simulated in three channel flows with different levels of flow turbulence, achieved by increasing the Reynolds number of the flow. The simulations mimic the conditions of two-phase, fluid-solid flows frequently encountered in domestic, commercial and industrial applications, for example, air conditioning and refrigeration units, heat exchangers, oil and gas suction and pressure lines. The particle size, density, surface energy and volume fractions selected are 45.6, 102 and 150 µm, 250, 1000 and 2159 kg m-3, 50, 500, and 5000 mJ m-2 and 7.84 × 10-6, 2.8 × 10-5, and 1 × 10-4, respectively; such particle properties are associated with particles found in soil, as well as metals and oxides prevalent in turbulent bounded fluid-solid flows due to erosion and corrosion of inner pipe walls. It has been found that the turbulence structure of the flow dominates the motion of the particles, creating particle-particle interactions, with most of these interactions taking place at locations close to the channel walls and in regions of high turbulence where their agglomeration is aided both by the high levels of turbulence and the high concentration of particles. A positive relationship between particle surface energy, concentration, size and density, and agglomeration was observed. Moreover, the results derived for the three Reynolds numbers considered show that the rate of agglomeration is strongly influenced for high surface energy particles by, and increases with, the intensity of the flow turbulence. In contrast, for lower surface energy particles, the rate of agglomeration diminishes with an increase in flow turbulence intensity.

Keywords: Turbulence, LES, DEM, agglomeration, channel flow

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19 Topography Effects on Wind Turbines Wake Flow

Authors: M. Saighi, H. Daaou Nedjari, O. Guerri

Abstract:

A numerical study was conducted to optimize the positioning of wind turbines over complex terrains. Thus, a two-dimensional disk model was used to calculate the flow velocity deficit in wind farms for both flat and complex configurations. The wind turbine wake was assessed using the hybrid methods that combine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) with the actuator disc model. The wind turbine rotor has been defined with a thrust force, coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations that were resolved by an open source computational code (Code_Saturne V3.0 developed by EDF) The simulations were conducted in atmospheric boundary layer condition considering a two-dimensional region located at the north of Algeria at 36.74°N longitude, 02.97°E latitude. The topography elevation values were collected according to a longitudinal direction of 1km downwind. The wind turbine sited over topography was simulated for different elevation variations. The main of this study is to determine the topography effect on the behavior of wind farm wake flow. For this, the wake model applied in complex terrain needs to selects the singularity effects of topography on the vertical wind flow without rotor disc first. This step allows to determine the existence of mixing scales and friction forces zone near the ground. So, according to the ground relief the wind flow waS disturbed by turbulence and a significant speed variation. Thus, the singularities of the velocity field were thoroughly collected and thrust coefficient Ct was calculated using the specific speed. In addition, to evaluate the land effect on the wake shape, the flow field was also simulated considering different rotor hub heights. Indeed, the distance between the ground and the hub height of turbine (Hhub) was tested in a flat terrain for different locations as Hhub=1.125D, Hhub = 1.5D and Hhub=2D (D is rotor diameter) considering a roughness value of z0=0.01m. This study has demonstrated that topographical farm induce a significant effect on wind turbines wakes, compared to that on flat terrain.

Keywords: Turbulence, CFD, k-epsilon model, wind turbine wake, complex topography

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18 Comparison Analysis of CFD Turbulence Fluid Numerical Study for Quick Coupling

Authors: Young-Chul Park, JoonHo Lee, KyoJin An, JunSu Kim

Abstract:

In this study, the fluid flow characteristics and performance numerical study through CFD model of the Non-split quick coupling for flow control in hydraulic system equipment for the aerospace business group focused to predict. In this study, we considered turbulence models for the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for the CFD model of the Non-split Quick Coupling for aerospace business. In addition to this, the adequacy of the CFD model were verified by comparing with standard value. Based on this analysis, accurate the fluid flow characteristics can be predicted. It is, therefore, the design of the fluid flow characteristic contribute the reliability for the Quick Coupling which is required in industries on the basis of research results.

Keywords: Turbulence, CFD, FEM, quick coupling

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17 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: Ram Balachandar, M. Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, the correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: Turbulence, Reynolds number, open channel flow, smooth and rough bed

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16 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even though decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also found that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power) above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: Probability, Turbulence, stochastic, probability density function

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15 Modeling and Calculation of Physical Parameters of the Pollution of Water by Oil and Materials in Suspensions

Authors: Fourar Ali, Ainas Belkacem

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the mathematical modeling and calculation of physical parameters of water pollution by oil and sand in regime fully dispersed in water. In this study, the sand particles and oil are suspended in the case of fully developed turbulence. The study consists to understand, model and predict the viscosity, the structure and dynamics of these types of mixtures. The work carried out is Numerical and validated by experience.

Keywords: Turbulence, Pollution, Suspensions, multi phase flow

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14 Numerical Investigation of Two Turbulence Models for Predicting the Temperature Separation in Conical Vortex Tube

Authors: M. Guen

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical study is used to analyze the behavior of the flow inside a vortex tube. The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a simple device which is capable of dividing compressed air from the inlet nozzle tangentially into two flow with different temperatures warm and cold. This phenomenon is known from literature by temperature separation. The K ω-SST and K-ε turbulence models are used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the tube. The vortex tube is an Exair 708 slpm (25 scfm) commercial tube. The cold and hot exits areas are 30.2 and 95 mm2 respectively. The vortex nozzle consists of 6 straight slots; the height and the width of each slot are 0.97 mm and 1.41 mm. The total area normal to the flow associated with six nozzles is therefore 8.15 mm 2. The present study focuses on a comparison between two turbulence models K ω-SST, K-ε by using a new configuration of vortex tube (Conical Vortex Tube). The performance curves of the temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction were calculated and compared with experimental and numerical study of other researchers.

Keywords: Turbulence, conical vortex tube, temperature separation, cold mass fraction

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13 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Turbulence, Kinetic Energy, boundary layer, drag, dimple

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12 Dynamical Heterogeneity and Aging in Turbulence with a Nambu-Goldstone Mode

Authors: Fahrudin Nugroho, Halim Hamadi, Yusril Yusuf, Pekik Nurwantoro, Ari Setiawan, Yoshiki Hidaka

Abstract:

We investigate the Nikolaevskiy equation numerically using exponential time differencing method and pseudo-spectral method. This equation develops a long-wavelength modulation that behaves as a Nambu–Goldstone mode, and short-wavelength instability and exhibit turbulence. Using the autocorrelation analysis, the statistical properties of the turbulence governed by the equation are investigated. The autocorrelation then has been fitted with The Kohlrausch– Williams–Watts (KWW) expression. By varying the control parameter, we show a transition from compressed to stretched exponential for the auto-correlation function of Nikolaevskiy turbulence. The compressed exponential is an indicator of the existence of dynamical heterogeneity while the stretched indicates aging process. Thereby, we revealed the existence of dynamical heterogeneity and aging in the turbulence governed by Nikolaevskiy equation.

Keywords: Turbulence, compressed exponential, dynamical heterogeneity, Nikolaevskiy equation, stretched exponential

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11 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Ram Balachandar, Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: Turbulence, Reynolds number, roughness, open channel flow

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10 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez

Abstract:

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: Turbulence, velocity profile, PIV, laminar, annular duct

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9 Numerical Study of the Breakdown of Surface Divergence Based Models for Interfacial Gas Transfer Velocity at Large Contamination Levels

Authors: Yasemin Akar, Jan G. Wissink, Herlina Herlina

Abstract:

The effect of various levels of contamination on the interfacial air–water gas transfer velocity is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The interfacial gas transfer is driven by isotropic turbulence, introduced at the bottom of the computational domain, diffusing upwards. The isotropic turbulence is generated in a separate, concurrently running the large-eddy simulation (LES). The flow fields in the main DNS and the LES are solved using fourth-order discretisations of convection and diffusion. To solve the transport of dissolved gases in water, a fifth-order-accurate WENO scheme is used for scalar convection combined with a fourth-order central discretisation for scalar diffusion. The damping effect of the surfactant contamination on the near surface (horizontal) velocities in the DNS is modelled using horizontal gradients of the surfactant concentration. An important parameter in this model, which corresponds to the level of contamination, is ReMa⁄We, where Re is the Reynolds number, Ma is the Marangoni number, and We is the Weber number. It was previously found that even small levels of contamination (ReMa⁄We small) lead to a significant drop in the interfacial gas transfer velocity KL. It is known that KL depends on both the Schmidt number Sc (ratio of the kinematic viscosity and the gas diffusivity in water) and the surface divergence β, i.e. K_L∝√(β⁄Sc). Previously it has been shown that this relation works well for surfaces with low to moderate contamination. However, it will break down for β close to zero. To study the validity of this dependence in the presence of surface contamination, simulations were carried out for ReMa⁄We=0,0.12,0.6,1.2,6,30 and Sc = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. First, it will be shown that the scaling of KL with Sc remains valid also for larger ReMa⁄We. This is an important result that indicates that - for various levels of contamination - the numerical results obtained at low Schmidt numbers are also valid for significantly higher and more realistic Sc. Subsequently, it will be shown that - with increasing levels of ReMa⁄We - the dependency of KL on β begins to break down as the increased damping of near surface fluctuations results in an increased damping of β. Especially for large levels of contamination, this damping is so severe that KL is found to be underestimated significantly.

Keywords: Turbulence, Surfactants, Contamination, gas transfer

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8 [Keynote Speech]: Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-in-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol, M. S. Chan, J. S. Lim

Abstract:

Emulsion formation is unavoidable and can be detrimental to an oil field production. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion and pipeline pressure drop. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constrictions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. Lower constriction ratio cases cause larger pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constrictions, an optimum design of constriction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.

Keywords: Turbulence, pressure drop, constriction, water-in-oil emulsions

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7 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence, cavitation, lift coefficient

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6 Control for Fluid Flow Behaviours of Viscous Fluids and Heat Transfer in Mini-Channel: A Case Study Using Numerical Simulation Method

Authors: Emmanuel Ophel Gilbert, Williams Speret

Abstract:

The control for fluid flow behaviours of viscous fluids and heat transfer occurrences within heated mini-channel is considered. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of different viscous liquids, such as engine oil, automatic transmission fluid, one-half ethylene glycol, and deionized water were numerically analyzed. Some mathematical applications such as Fourier series and Laplace Z-Transforms were employed to ascertain the behaviour-wave like structure of these each viscous fluids. The steady, laminar flow and heat transfer equations are reckoned by the aid of numerical simulation technique. Further, this numerical simulation technique is endorsed by using the accessible practical values in comparison with the anticipated local thermal resistances. However, the roughness of this mini-channel that is one of the physical limitations was also predicted in this study. This affects the frictional factor. When an additive such as tetracycline was introduced in the fluid, the heat input was lowered, and this caused pro rata effect on the minor and major frictional losses, mostly at a very minute Reynolds number circa 60-80. At this ascertained lower value of Reynolds numbers, there exists decrease in the viscosity and minute frictional losses as a result of the temperature of these viscous liquids been increased. It is inferred that the three equations and models are identified which supported the numerical simulation via interpolation and integration of the variables extended to the walls of the mini-channel, yields the utmost reliance for engineering and technology calculations for turbulence impacting jets in the near imminent age. Out of reasoning with a true equation that could support this control for the fluid flow, Navier-stokes equations were found to tangential to this finding. Though, other physical factors with respect to these Navier-stokes equations are required to be checkmated to avoid uncertain turbulence of the fluid flow. This paradox is resolved within the framework of continuum mechanics using the classical slip condition and an iteration scheme via numerical simulation method that takes into account certain terms in the full Navier-Stokes equations. However, this resulted in dropping out in the approximation of certain assumptions. Concrete questions raised in the main body of the work are sightseen further in the appendices.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Turbulence, Reynolds number, laminar flow, mini-channel, frictional losses, number simulation, viscous fluids

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5 Modeling and Simulation of Turbulence Induced in Nozzle Cavitation and Its Effects on Internal Flow in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Imran Shafi, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Ali Javaid

Abstract:

To control combustion inside a direct injection diesel engine, fuel atomization is the best tool. Controlling combustion helps in reducing emissions and improves efficiency. Cavitation is one of the most important factors that significantly affect the nature of spray before it injects into combustion chamber. Typical fuel injector nozzles are small and operate at a very high pressure, which limits the study of internal nozzle behavior especially in case of diesel engine. Simulating cavitation in a fuel injector will help in understanding the phenomenon and will assist in further development. There is a parametric variation between high speed and high torque low speed diesel engines. The objective of this study is to simulate internal spray characteristics for a low speed high torque diesel engine. In-nozzle cavitation has strong effects on the parameters e.g. mass flow rate, fuel velocity, and momentum flux of fuel that is to be injected into the combustion chamber. The external spray dynamics and subsequently the air – fuel mixing depends on a lot of the parameters of fuel injecting the nozzle. The approach used to model turbulence induced in – nozzle cavitation for high-torque low-speed diesel engine, is homogeneous equilibrium model. The governing equations were modeled using Matlab. Complete Model in question was extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in the near-nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission, and improved fuel economy.

Keywords: Turbulence, cavitation, Open FOAM, HEM model, nozzle flow

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4 Modeling and Simulation of Primary Atomization and Its Effects on Internal Flow Dynamics in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Imran Shafi, Rizwan Latif, Muteeb Ulhaq, Sayed Adnan Qasim

Abstract:

Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High-Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low-speed engines the requirement is altogether different. These types of Engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines etc. Unfortunately due to lack of research and development, these engines have low efficiency and high soot emissions and one of the most effective way to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder, the fuel spray atomization process plays a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process is of a great importance. In this research, we will examine the effects of primary breakup modeling on the spray characteristics under diesel engine conditions. KH-ACT model is applied to cater the effect of aerodynamics in an engine cylinder and also cavitations and turbulence generated inside the injector. It is a modified form of most commonly used KH model, which considers only the aerodynamically induced breakup based on the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Our model is extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver. Spray characteristics like Spray Penetration, Liquid length, Spray cone angle and Souter mean diameter (SMD) were validated by comparing the results of Open Foam and Matlab. Including the effects of cavitation and turbulence enhances primary breakup, leading to smaller droplet sizes, decrease in liquid penetration, and increase in the radial dispersion of spray. All these properties favor early evaporation of fuel which enhances Engine efficiency.

Keywords: Turbulence, kelvin–helmholtz instability, Open FOAM, primary breakup, souter mean diameter

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3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Mini-Channels for Rocket Cooling Applications

Authors: Meisam Babaie, O. Anwar Beg, Sireetorn Kuharat, Armghan Zubair

Abstract:

In this work, motivated by rocket channel cooling applications, we describe recent CFD simulations of turbulent convective heat transfer in mini-channels at different aspect ratios. ANSYS FLUENT software has been employed with a mean average error of 5.97% relative to Forrest’s MIT cooling channel study (2014) at a Reynolds number of 50,443 with a Prandtl number of 3.01. This suggests that the simulation model created for turbulent flow was suitable to set as a foundation for the study of different aspect ratios in the channel. Multiple aspect ratios were also considered to understand the influence of high aspect ratios to analyse the best performing cooling channel, which was determined to be the highest aspect ratio channels. Hence, the approximate 28:1 aspect ratio provided the best characteristics to ensure effective cooling. A mesh convergence study was performed to assess the optimum mesh density to collect accurate results. Hence, for this study an element size of 0.05mm was used to generate 579,120 for proper turbulent flow simulation. Deploying a greater bias factor would increase the mesh density to the furthest edges of the channel which would prove to be useful if the focus of the study was just on a single side of the wall. Since a bulk temperature is involved with the calculations, it is essential to ensure a suitable bias factor is used to ensure the reliability of the results. Hence, in this study we have opted to use a bias factor of 5 to allow greater mesh density at both edges of the channel. However, the limitations on mesh density and hardware have curtailed the sophistication achievable for the turbulence characteristics. Also only linear rectangular channels were considered, i.e. curvature was ignored. Furthermore, we only considered conventional water coolant. From this CFD study the variation of aspect ratio provided a deeper appreciation of the effect of small to high aspect ratios with regard to cooling channels. Hence, when considering an application for the channel, the geometry of the aspect ratio must play a crucial role in optimizing cooling performance.

Keywords: Turbulence, rocket channel cooling, ANSYS FLUENT CFD, convection heat transfer

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2 Numerical Investigation of Flow Past in a Staggered Tube Bundle

Authors: Kerkouri Abdelkadir

Abstract:

Numerical calculations of turbulent flows are one of the most prominent modern interests in various engineering applications. Due to the difficulty of predicting, following up and studying this flow for computational fluid dynamic (CFD), in this paper, we simulated numerical study of a flow past in a staggered tube bundle, using CFD Code ANSYS FLUENT with several models of turbulence following: k-ε, k-ω and SST approaches. The flow is modeled based on the experimental studies. The predictions of mean velocities are in very good agreement with detailed LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements performed in 8 stations along the depth of the array. The sizes of the recirculation zones behind the cylinders are also predicted. The simulations are conducted for Reynolds numbers of 12858. The Reynolds number is set to depend experimental results.

Keywords: Turbulence, CFD, Flow, LDA, Ansys fluent, tube bundle, RANS (k-ε, k-ω, SST)

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1 An Experimental Investigation of the Surface Pressure on Flat Plates in Turbulent Boundary Layers

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Matthew J. Emes, Maziar Arjomandi, Farzin Ghanadi, Benjamin S. Cazzolato

Abstract:

The turbulence within the atmospheric boundary layer induces highly unsteady aerodynamic loads on structures. These loads, if not accounted for in the design process, will lead to structural failure and are therefore important for the design of the structures. For an accurate prediction of wind loads, understanding the correlation between atmospheric turbulence and the aerodynamic loads is necessary. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of turbulence within the atmospheric boundary layer on the surface pressure on a flat plate over a wide range of turbulence intensities and integral length scales. The flat plate is chosen as a fundamental geometry which represents structures such as solar panels and billboards. Experiments were conducted at the University of Adelaide large-scale wind tunnel. Two wind tunnel boundary layers with different intensities and length scales of turbulence were generated using two sets of spires with different dimensions and a fetch of roughness elements. Average longitudinal turbulence intensities of 13% and 26% were achieved in each boundary layer, and the longitudinal integral length scale within the three boundary layers was between 0.4 m and 1.22 m. The pressure distributions on a square flat plate at different elevation angles between 30° and 90° were measured within the two boundary layers with different turbulence intensities and integral length scales. It was found that the peak pressure coefficient on the flat plate increased with increasing turbulence intensity and integral length scale. For example, the peak pressure coefficient on a flat plate elevated at 90° increased from 1.2 to 3 with increasing turbulence intensity from 13% to 26%. Furthermore, both the mean and the peak pressure distribution on the flat plates varied with turbulence intensity and length scale. The results of this study can be used to provide a more accurate estimation of the unsteady wind loads on structures such as buildings and solar panels.

Keywords: Turbulence, Atmospheric Boundary Layer, flat plate, pressure coefficient

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