Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Turbine Related Abstracts

10 Study of Cavitation Erosion of Pump-Storage Hydro Power Plant Prototype

Authors: Tine Cencič, Marko Hočevar, Brane Širok


An experimental investigation has been made to detect cavitation in pump–storage hydro power plant prototype suffering from cavitation in pump mode. Vibrations and acoustic emission on the housing of turbine bearing and pressure fluctuations in the draft tube were measured and the corresponding signals have been recorded and analyzed. The analysis was based on the analysis of high-frequency content of measured variables. The pump-storage hydro power plant prototype has been operated at various input loads and Thoma numbers. Several estimators of cavitation were evaluated according to coefficient of determination between Thoma number and cavitation estimators. The best results were achieved with a compound discharge coefficient cavitation estimator. Cavitation estimators were evaluated in several intervals of frequencies. Also, a prediction of cavitation erosion was made in order to choose the appropriate maintenance and repair periods.

Keywords: Fluid Dynamics, Turbine, cavitation erosion, cavitation measurement

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9 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Stefano Mazzoni


Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Turbine, Compressor, Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Expander, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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8 Model Organic Ranikin Cycle Power Plant for Waste Heat Recovery in Olkaria-I Geothermal Power Plant

Authors: Haile Araya Nigusse, Hiram M. Ndiritu, Robert Kiplimo


Energy consumption is an indispensable component for the continued development of the human population. The global energy demand increases with development and population rise. The increase in energy demand, high cost of fossil fuels and the link between energy utilization and environmental impacts have resulted in the need for a sustainable approach to the utilization of the low grade energy resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant is an advantageous technology that can be applied in generation of power from low temperature brine of geothermal reservoirs. The power plant utilizes a low boiling organic working fluid such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon. Researches indicated that the performance of ORC power plant is highly dependent upon factors such as proper organic working fluid selection, types of heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) and turbine used. Despite a high pressure drop, shell-tube heat exchangers have satisfactory performance for ORC power plants. This study involved the design, fabrication and performance assessment of the components of a model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant to utilize the low grade geothermal brine. Two shell and tube heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and a single stage impulse turbine have been designed, fabricated and the performance assessment of each component has been conducted. Pentane was used as a working fluid and hot water simulating the geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the increase in mass flow rate of hot water by 0.08 kg/s caused a rise in overall heat transfer coefficient of the evaporator by 17.33% and the heat transferred was increased by 6.74%. In the condenser, the increase of cooling water flow rate from 0.15 kg/s to 0.35 kg/s increased the overall heat transfer coefficient by 1.21% and heat transferred was increased by 4.26%. The shaft speed varied from 1585 to 4590 rpm as inlet pressure was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 bar and power generated was varying from 4.34 to 14.46W. The results of the experiments indicated that the performance of each component of the model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant operating at low temperature heat resources was satisfactory.

Keywords: Turbine, heat exchanger, brine, ORC

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7 Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines

Authors: Jeni A. Popescu, Ionut Porumbel, Valeriu A. Vilag, Cleopatra F. Cuciumita


The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for three turboshaft engines. The first is the cycle is a Brayton cycle, describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the Klimov TV2 engine. The other two cycles aim at approaching an Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi-Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions. Also, the power distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In the first of the two considered quasi-Ericsson cycle, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine stage. Also, the power distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In the first of the two considered quasi-Ericsson cycle, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine stages are maintained the same as for the reference case, while for the second, the efficiencies are increased in order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. It is found that in the first case, both the shaft power and the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while in the second, the power is maintained, and even a slight increase in efficiency can be noted.

Keywords: Combustion, Thermodynamic Analysis, Turbine, Ericsson

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6 Diagnosis of the Lubrification System of a Gas Turbine Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: B. Zerouali, B. Hamaidi, H. Mahdjoub, S. Rouabhia


The issue of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) has gained widespread industrial interest in process condition monitoring applications. Accordingly, the use of neuro-fuzzy technic seems very promising. This paper treats a diagnosis modeling a strategic equipment of an industrial installation. We propose a diagnostic tool based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The neuro-fuzzy network provides an abductive diagnosis. Moreover, it takes into account the uncertainties on the maintenance knowledge by giving a fuzzy characterization of each cause. This work was carried out with real data of a lubrication circuit from the gas turbine. The machine of interest is a gas turbine placed in a gas compressor station at South Industrial Centre (SIC Hassi Messaoud Ouargla, Algeria). We have defined the zones of good and bad functioning, and the results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, training, Fault detection and diagnosis, Turbine, ANFIS, lubrication system

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5 Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Mădălina-Elena Mavrodin, Florin Adrian Grădinaru


The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures and existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. Also, the plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.

Keywords: Risk management, risk analysis, critical infrastructure, Vulnerability, Critical Infrastructure Protection, Turbine, impact analysis

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4 Improving the Technology of Assembly by Use of Computer Calculations

Authors: Mariya V. Yanyukina, Michael A. Bolotov


Assembling accuracy is the degree of accordance between the actual values of the parameters obtained during assembly, and the values specified in the assembly drawings and technical specifications. However, the assembling accuracy depends not only on the quality of the production process but also on the correctness of the assembly process. Therefore, preliminary calculations of assembly stages are carried out to verify the correspondence of real geometric parameters to their acceptable values. In the aviation industry, most calculations involve interacting dimensional chains. This greatly complicates the task. Solving such problems requires a special approach. The purpose of this article is to carry out the problem of improving the technology of assembly of aviation units by use of computer calculations. One of the actual examples of the assembly unit, in which there is an interacting dimensional chain, is the turbine wheel of gas turbine engine. Dimensional chain of turbine wheel is formed by geometric parameters of disk and set of blades. The interaction of the dimensional chain consists in the formation of two chains. The first chain is formed by the dimensions that determine the location of the grooves for the installation of the blades, and the dimensions of the blade roots. The second dimensional chain is formed by the dimensions of the airfoil shroud platform. The interaction of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the interdependence of the first and second chains by means of power circuits formed by a plurality of middle parts of the turbine blades. The timeliness of the calculation of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the need to improve the technology of assembly of this unit. The task at hand contains geometric and mathematical components; therefore, its solution can be implemented following the algorithm: 1) research and analysis of production errors by geometric parameters; 2) development of a parametric model in the CAD system; 3) creation of set of CAD-models of details taking into account actual or generalized distributions of errors of geometrical parameters; 4) calculation model in the CAE-system, loading of various combinations of models of parts; 5) the accumulation of statistics and analysis. The main task is to pre-simulate the assembly process by calculating the interacting dimensional chains. The article describes the approach to the solution from the point of view of mathematical statistics, implemented in the software package Matlab. Within the framework of the study, there are data on the measurement of the components of the turbine wheel-blades and disks, as a result of which it is expected that the assembly process of the unit will be optimized by solving dimensional chains.

Keywords: assembly, Accuracy, Turbine, interacting dimension chains

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
3 Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Richard Kyung, Seung Ki Lee


In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.

Keywords: Turbine, drag force, blades, national advisory committee for aeronautics airfoils

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
2 Testing of Gas Turbine KingTech with Biodiesel

Authors: Nicolas Lipchak, Franco Aiducic, Santiago Baieli


The present work is a part of the research project called ‘Testing of gas turbine KingTech with biodiesel’, carried out by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the National Technological University at Buenos Aires. The research group aims to experiment with biodiesel in a gas turbine Kingtech K-100 to verify the correct operation of it. In this sense, tests have been developed to obtain real data of parameters inherent to the work cycle, to be used later as parameters of comparison and performance analysis. In the first instance, the study consisted in testing the gas turbine with a mixture composition of 50% Biodiesel and 50% Diesel. The parameters arising from the measurements made were compared with the parameters of the gas turbine with a composition of 100% Diesel. In the second instance, the measured parameters were used to calculate the power generated and the thermal efficiency of the Kingtech K-100 turbine. The turbine was also inspected to verify the status of the internals due to the use of biofuels. The conclusions obtained allow empirically demonstrate that it is feasible to use biodiesel in this type of gas turbines, without the use of this fuel generates a loss of power or degradation of internals.

Keywords: Efficiency, Biodiesel, Turbine, KingTech

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1 Integration of Constraints Related to Composite Materials in the Design of Industrial Products

Authors: S. Lecheb, K. Benfriha, A. Boumedine


Manufacturing methods for products and structures made of composite materials reduce the number of parts and integrate technical functions, this advantage of composite materials leads to a lot of innovation but also to a reduction of costs and a gain in quality. A material has attributes: its density, it’s resistance, it’s cost, it’s resistance to corrosion. For the design of a product, a certain profile of these attributes is required: low density, resistance removed, low cost. The problem is then to identify this attribute profile and to compare it with those of the materials, in order to find the one that comes closest. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing a mini turbine made of 3D printed fiber-filled composite material by the process of additive manufacturing, then compare the performance of the alloy turbine with the composite turbine according to the results of the simulation by Abaqus software.

Keywords: Design, Composite Materials, Additive manufacturing, Turbine

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