Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Tunnel Related Abstracts

11 The Risk of Ground Movements After Digging Two Parallel Vertical Tunnel in Urban

Authors: Djelloul Chafia, Demagh Rafik, Kareche Toufik

Abstract:

Human activities, made without precautions, accelerate the degradation of the soil structure and reduces its resistance. Operations, such as tunnel construction may exercise an influence more or less permanent on the grounds which surrounded them, these structures alter soil it is necessary to predict their impacts by suitable measures. This research is a numerical analysis that deals the risks and effects due to the weakening of the soil after digging two parallel vertical circular tunnels in urban areas, and suggests forecasting techniques based essentially on the organization of underground space. The simulations are performed using the finite-difference code FLAC in a two-dimensional case and with an elasto-plastic behavior of the soil.

Keywords: Prevention, Tunnel, degradation, sol, weakening

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10 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Tunnel, water inflow, discontinues rock

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9 Safety Status of Stations and Tunnels of Tehran Line 4 Urban and Suburb Railways (Subway) Against Fire Risks

Authors: Yousefi Aryian, Ghanbaripour Amir naser

Abstract:

Record of 2 million trips during a day by subway makes it the most application and the most efficient branch of public transportation. Great safety, energy consumption reduction, appropriate speed, and lower prices for passengers in comparison with private cars or buses, are some reasons for this remarkable statics. This increasing popularity compels the author to evaluate the safety of subway stations and tunnels against fire and fire extinguishing systems in Tehran subway network and then compare some of its safety parameters to other countries. This paper assessed the methods and systems used in different parts of Tehran subway and then by comparing the facilities and equipment necessary to declare and extinguish the fire, the solutions and world standards (NFPA) are explored.

Keywords: Tunnel, Fire Alarm, subway station, extinguishing fire, NFPA standards

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8 The Role of Speed Reduction Model in Urban Highways Tunnels Accidents

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi

Abstract:

According to the increasing travel demand in cities, bridges and tunnels are viewed as one of the fundamental components of cities transportation systems. Normally, due to geometric constraints forms in the tunnels, the considered speed in the tunnels is lower than the speed in connected highways. Therefore, drivers tend to reduce the speed near the entrance of the tunnels. In this paper, the effect of speed reduction on accident happened in the entrance of the tunnels has been discussed. The relation between accidents frequency and the parameters of speed, traffic volume and time of the accident in the mentioned tunnel has been analyzed and the mathematical model has been proposed.

Keywords: Tunnel, mathematical model, accident, urban highway

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7 Study on Monitoring Techniques Developed for a City Railway Construction

Authors: Sung-jin Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Myoung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Il Kim

Abstract:

Currently, sinkholes may occur due to natural or unknown causes. When the sinkhole is an instantaneous phenomenon, most accidents occur because of significant damage. Thus, methods of monitoring are being actively researched, such that the impact of the accident can be mitigated. A sinkhole can severely affect and wreak havoc in community-based facilities such as a city railway construction. Therefore, the development of a laser / scanning system and an image-based tunnel is one method of pre-monitoring that it stops the accidents. The laser scanning is being used but this has shortcomings as it involves the development of expensive equipment. A laser / videobased scanning tunnel is being developed at Korea Railroad Research Institute. This is designed to automatically operate the railway. The purpose of the scanning is to obtain an image of the city such as of railway structures (stations, tunnel). At the railway structures, it has developed 3D laser scanning that can find a micro-crack can not be distinguished by the eye. An additional aim is to develop technology to monitor the status of the railway structure without the need for expensive post-processing of 3D laser scanning equipment, by developing corresponding software.

Keywords: Tunnel, sinkhole, city railway construction

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6 Modelling of Damage as Hinges in Segmented Tunnels

Authors: Gelacio Juarez-Luna, Daniel Enrique GonzáLez-RamíRez, Enrique Tenorio-Montero

Abstract:

Frame elements coupled with springs elements are used for modelling the development of hinges in segmented tunnels, the spring elements modelled the rotational, transversal and axial failure. These spring elements are equipped with constitutive models to include independently the moment, shear force and axial force, respectively. These constitutive models are formulated based on damage mechanics and experimental test reported in the literature review. The mesh of the segmented tunnels was discretized in the software GID, and the nonlinear analyses were carried out in the finite element software ANSYS. These analyses provide the capacity curve of the primary and secondary lining of a segmented tunnel. Two numerical examples of segmented tunnels show the capability of the spring elements to release energy by the development of hinges. The first example is a segmental concrete lining discretized with frame elements loaded until hinges occurred in the lining. The second example is a tunnel with primary and secondary lining, discretized with a double ring frame model. The outer ring simulates the segmental concrete lining and the inner ring simulates the secondary cast-in-place concrete lining. Spring elements also modelled the joints between the segments in the circumferential direction and the ring joints, which connect parallel adjacent rings. The computed load vs displacement curves are congruent with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature review. It is shown that the modelling of a tunnel with primary and secondary lining with frame elements and springs provides reasonable results and save computational cost, comparing with 2D or 3D models equipped with smeared crack models.

Keywords: Tunnel, Damage, lining, hinges

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5 Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic

Authors: Yasuyuki Nabeshima

Abstract:

Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.

Keywords: Ultrasonic, Tunnel, void, non-destructive inspection, lining concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
4 Development of the Accelerator Applied to an Early Stage High-Strength Shotcrete

Authors: Ayanori Sugiyama, Takahisa Hanei, Yasuhide Higo

Abstract:

Domestic demand for the construction of tunnels has been increasing in recent years in Japan. To meet this demand, various construction materials and construction methods have been developed to attain higher strength, reduction of negative impact on the environment and improvement for working conditions. In this report, we would like to introduce the newly developed shotcrete with superior hardening properties which were tested through the actual machine scale and its workability and strength development were evaluated. As a result, this new tunnel construction method was found to achieve higher workability and quicker strength development in only a couple of minutes.

Keywords: Tunnel, Shotcrete, accelerator, high-strength

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3 Seismic Investigation on the Effect of Surface Structures and Twin Tunnel on the Site Response in Urban Areas

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Site response has a profound effect on earthquake damages. Seismic interaction of urban tunnels with surface structures could also affect seismic site response. Here, we use FLAC 2D to investigate the interaction of a single tunnel and twin tunnels-surface structures on the site response. Soil stratification and properties are selected based on Line. No 7 of the Tehran subway. The effect of surface structure is considered in two ways: Equivalent surcharge and geometrical modeling of the structure. Comparison of the results shows that consideration of the structure geometry is vital in dynamic analysis and leads to the changes in the magnitude of displacements, accelerations and response spectrum. Therefore it is necessary for the surface structures to be wholly modeled and not just considered as a surcharge in dynamic analysis. The use of twin tunnel also leads to the reduction of dynamic residual settlement.

Keywords: Interaction, Tunnel, site response, surcharge, superstructure

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2 Stability Analysis of Rock Tunnel Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

Authors: Mohammad Zaid, Md. Rehan Sadique

Abstract:

Underground structures are an integral part of urban infrastructures. Tunnels are being used for the transportation of humans and goods from distance to distance. Terrorist attacks on underground structures such as tunnels have resulted in the improvement of design methodologies of tunnels. The design of underground tunnels must include anti-terror design parameters. The study has been carried out to analyse the rock tunnel when subjected to internal blast loading. The finite element analysis has been carried out for 30m by 30m of the cross-section of the tunnel and 35m length of extrusion of the rock tunnel model. The effect of tunnel diameter and overburden depth of tunnel has been studied under internal blast loading. Four different diameters of tunnel considered are 5m, 6m, 7m, and 8m, and four different overburden depth of tunnel considered are 5m, 7.5m, 10m, and 12.5m. The mohr-coulomb constitutive material model has been considered for the Quartzite rock. A concrete damage plasticity model has been adopted for concrete tunnel lining. For the trinitrotoluene (TNT) Jones-Wilkens-Lee (JWL) material model has been considered. Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach for blast analysis has been considered in the present study. The present study concludes that a shallow tunnel having smaller diameter needs more attention in comparison to blast resistant design of deep tunnel having a larger diameter. Further, in the case of shallow tunnels, more bulging has been observed, and a more substantial zone of rock has been affected by internal blast loading.

Keywords: Tunnel, rock, Finite Element Method, blast, CEL, JWL

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1 A Seismic Study on The Settlement of Superstructures Due to the Tunnel Construction

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Rapid urban development leads to the construction of urban tunnels for transport. Passage of tunnels under the surface structures and utilities prompted the changes in the site conditions and hence alteration of the dynamic response of surface structures. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the interaction of tunnel-superstructure on the site response is investigated numerically. For this purpose, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC 2D) is used, and stratification and properties of soil layers are selected based on the line No 7 of Tehran subway. The superstructure is modeled both as an equivalent surcharge and the actual structure, and the results are compared. A comparison of the results shows that consideration of structure geometry is necessary for dynamic analysis and it leads to the changes in displacements and accelerations. Consequently, the geometry of the superstructure should be modeled completely instead of the application of an equivalent load. The effect of tunnel diameter and depth on the settlement of superstructures is also studied. Results show that when the tunnel depth and diameter grow, the settlements increase considerably.

Keywords: Settlement, Tunnel, Dynamic Analysis, FLAC2D

Procedia PDF Downloads 1