Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

triterpenoids Related Abstracts

4 Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Lauraceae)

Authors: O. Hanita, S. A. Ainnul Hamidah, A. H. Yang Zalila, M. R. Siti Nadiah, M. H. Najihah, M. A. Hapipah

Abstract:

The crude extract of the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), was taken under phytochemical investigation. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned with a different solvent system by increasing their polarities (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol). The compounds were fractionated and isolated from n-hexane partition by using column chromatography with silica gel 60 or Sephadex LH-20 as a stationary phase and preparative thin layer chromatographic technique. Isolates were characterized using TLC, FTIR, UV spectrophotometer and NMR spectroscopy. The n-hexane fractionates yielded a total of four compounds namely N-methyllaurotetanine (1), dicentrine (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4). The result indicates that the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis may provide a rich source of alkaloids and triterpenoids.

Keywords: Alkaloids, actinodaphne sesquipedalis, phytochemical investigation, triterpenoids

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3 Comparison of Overall Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita to Pure Cucurbitacins and Cucurbitacin-Containing Crude Extracts

Authors: Zakheleni P. Dube, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

The Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) model had been adopted as a valuable tool in enhancing the understanding of the efficacy of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides on the suppression of nematodes. In most cases, for registration purposes, the active ingredients should be in purified form. Evidence in other phytonematicides suggested that purified active ingredients were less effective in suppression of nematodes. The objective of this study was to use CARD model to compare the overall sensitivities of Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, mobility and mortality to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicides, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and J2 were exposed to 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.50, 4.00, 4.50 and 5.00% of each phytonematicide, whereas in purified form the concentrations were 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹. The exposure period to each concentration was 24-, 48- and 72-h. The overall sensitivities of J2 hatch to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 1, 30, 5 and 2 units, respectively, whereas J2 mobiltity were 3, 17, 3 and 6 units, respectively. For J2 mortality overall sensitivities to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 2, 4, 1 and 4 units, respectively. In conclusion, the two crude extracts, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were generally more potent to M. incognita compared to their pure active ingredients. The crude plant extract preparation is easy, and they could be an ideal tactic for the management of nematodes in resource poor farming communities.

Keywords: Plant Extracts, Botanicals, triterpenoids, cucumin, leptodermin

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2 Developing Cucurbitacin a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of Meloidogyne Incognita Using a Computer-Based Model

Authors: Zakheleni P. Dube, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical that brings about significant inhibition of target organism. The conventional method for establishing the MIC for phytonematicides is tedious. The objective of this study was to use the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) to determine the MIC for pure cucurbitacin A on Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) hatch, immobility and mortality. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and freshly hatched J2 were separately exposed to a series of pure cucurbitacin A concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h in an incubator set at 25 ± 2°C. Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, immobility and mortality counts were determined using a stereomicroscope and the significant means were subjected to the CARD model. The model exhibited density-dependent growth (DDG) patterns of J2 hatch, immobility and mortality to increasing concentrations of cucurbitacin A. The average MIC for cucurbitacin A on M. incognita J2 hatch, immobility and mortality were 2.2, 0.58 and 0.63 µg.mL⁻¹, respectively. Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch had the highest average MIC value followed by mortality and immobility had the least. In conclusion, the CARD model was able to generate MIC for cucurbitacin A, hence it could serve as a valuable tool in the chemical-nematode bioassay studies.

Keywords: triterpenoids, inhibition concentration, phytonematicide, sensitivity index, threshold stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1 Exploration of in-situ Product Extraction to Increase Triterpenoid Production in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Authors: Mariam Dianat Sabet Gilani, Lars M. Blank, Birgitta E. Ebert

Abstract:

Plant-derived lupane-type, pentacyclic triterpenoids are biologically active compounds that are highly interesting for applications in medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Due to the low abundance of these valuable compounds in their natural sources, and the environmentally harmful downstream process, alternative production methods, such as microbial cell factories, are investigated. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, harboring the heterologous genes for betulinic acid synthesis, can produce up to 2 g L-1 triterpenoids, showing high potential for large-scale production of triterpenoids. One limitation of the microbial synthesis is the intracellular product accumulation. It not only makes cell disruption a necessary step in the downstream processing but also limits productivity and product yield per cell. To overcome these restrictions, the aim of this study is to develop an in-situ extraction method, which extracts triterpenoids into a second organic phase. Such a continuous or sequential product removal from the biomass keeps the cells in an active state and enables extended production time or biomass recycling. After screening of twelve different solvents, selected based on product solubility, biocompatibility, as well as environmental and health impact, isopropyl myristate (IPM) was chosen as a suitable solvent for in-situ product removal from S. cerevisiae. Impedance-based single-cell analysis and off-gas measurement of carbon dioxide emission showed that cell viability and physiology were not affected by the presence of IPM. Initial experiments demonstrated that after the addition of 20 vol % IPM to cultures in the stationary phase, 40 % of the total produced triterpenoids were extracted from the cells into the organic phase. In future experiments, the application of IPM in a repeated batch process will be tested, where IPM is added at the end of each batch run to remove triterpenoids from the cells, allowing the same biocatalysts to be used in several sequential batch steps. Due to its high biocompatibility, the amount of IPM added to the culture can also be increased to more than 20 vol % to extract more than 40 % triterpenoids in the organic phase, allowing the cells to produce more triterpenoids. This highlights the potential for the development of a continuous large-scale process, which allows biocatalysts to produce intracellular products continuously without the necessity of cell disruption and without limitation of the cell capacity.

Keywords: Process Development, Yeast, Secondary Metabolites, betulinic acid, triterpenoids, biocompatible solvent, in-situ extraction, isopropyl myristate

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