Commenced in January 2007
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trifolium pratense Related Abstracts

3 Responses of Trifolium pratense to Lead Accumulation Under In-Vitro Culture Conditions

Authors: Sadegh Mohajer, Rosna Mat Taha, Arash Khorasani Esmaeili


Seeds of Trifolium pratense (Red clover) were exposed in vitro for 6 weeks to six levels of lead (Pb) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 µM) to analyze the effects on growth, total chlorophyll and total protein contents of grown plants against the lead accumulation. The growth of plants was negatively affected by various levels of lead treatment. The fresh and dry weights, as well as lengths of shoots and roots of grown plants under various lead treatments, were found significantly lower in comparison with the control plants. Total chlorophyll and total soluble protein contents of grown plants under lower concentrations of lead treatment did not show significant differences when compared with the control plants, although they were affected significantly in higher levels of lead accumulation (150-250 µM).

Keywords: chlorophyll content, protein content, trifolium pratense, lead accumulation

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2 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet


In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Root Exudates, Medicago sativa, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brownfield, saponin, trifolium pratense, solubilization

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1 Isoflavonoid Dynamic Variation in Red Clover Genotypes

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Andrés Quiroz, Emilio Hormazabal, Ana Mutis, Fernando Ortega, Loreto Méndez


Red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the main insect pest associated to red clover, Trifolium pratense L. An average of 1.5 H. obscurus per plant can cause 5.5% reduction in forage yield in pastures of two to three years old. Moreover, insect attack can reach 70% to 100% of the plants. To our knowledge, there is no a chemical strategy for controlling this pest. Therefore alternative strategies for controlling H. obscurus are a high priority for red clover producers. One of this alternative is related to the study of secondary metabolites involved in intrinsic chemical defenses developed by plants, such as isoflavonoids. The isoflavonoids formononetin and daidzein have elicited an antifeedant and phagostimult effect on H. obscurus respectively. However, we do not know how is the dynamic variation of these isoflavonoids under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of the antifeedant isoflavonoids formononetin, the phagostimulant isoflavonoids daidzein, and their respective glycosides over time in different ecotypes of red clover. Fourteen red clover ecotypes (8 cultivars and 6 experimental lines), were collected at INIA-Carillanca (La Araucanía, Chile). These plants were established in October 2015 under irrigated conditions. The cultivars were distributed in a randomized complete block with three replicates. The whole plants were sampled in four times: 15th October 2016, 12th December 2016, 27th January 2017 and 16th March 2017 with sufficient amount of soil to avoid root damage. A polar fraction of isoflavonoid was obtained from 20 mg of lyophilized root tissue extracted with 2 mL of 80% MeOH for 16 h using an orbital shaker in the dark at room temperature. After, an aliquot of 1.4 mL of the supernatant was evaporated, and the residue was resuspended in 300 µL of 45% MeOH. The identification and quantification of isoflavonoid root extracts were performed by the injection of 20 µL into a Shimadzu HPLC equipped with a C-18 column. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase composed of AcOH: H₂O (1:9 v/v) as solvent A and CH₃CN as solvent B. The detection was performed at 260 nm. The results showed that the amount of aglycones was higher than the respective glycosides. This result is according to the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids, where the formation of glycoside is further to the glycosides biosynthesis. The amount of formononetin was higher than daidzein. In roots, where H. obscurus spent the most part of its live cycle, the highest content of formononetin was found in G 27, Pawera, Sabtoron High, Redqueli-INIA and Superqueli-INIA cvs. (2.1, 1.8, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.0 mg g⁻¹ respectively); and the lowest amount of daidzein were found Superqueli-INIA (0.32 mg g⁻¹) and in the experimental line Sel Syn Int4 (0.24 mg g⁻¹). This ecotype showed a high content of formononetin (0.9 mg g⁻¹). This information, associated with cultural practices, could help farmers and breeders to reduce H. obscurus in grassland, selecting ecotypes with high content of formononetin and low amount of daidzein in the roots of red clover plants. Acknowledgements: FONDECYT 1141245 and 11130715.

Keywords: trifolium pratense, formononetin, daidzein, isoflavonoid glycosides

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