Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Trichoderma Related Abstracts

3 Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as an Entomopathogenic Fungi against Bemisia tabaci

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

Abstract:

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a complex insect species, including many cryptic species or biotypes. Whitefly causes damage to many ornamental and horticultural crops through directly feeding on phloem sap, resulting in sooty mould and critically decreases the rate of photosynthesis of many host plants. Biological control has emerged as one of the most important methods for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Among the natural enemies of insects different entomopathogenic fungi are mostly used as biological control of the pest. The purpose of this research was to find indigenous insect-associated fungi and their virulence against Bemisia tabaci. A detailed survey of cotton fields in sample collection was conducted during July and August 2013 from the central mixed zone of Punjab, Pakistan. For the isolation of T. longibrachiatum, sabouraud dextrose peptone yeast extract agar (SDAY) media was used and morphological characterization of isolated T. longibrachiatum was studied using different dichotomous keys. Molecular Identification of the pathogen was confirmed by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region. Blastn analysis showed 100% homology with already reported sequences on the database. For these bioassays, two conidial concentrations 4 × 108/mL & 4 × 104/mL of T. longibrachiatum was sprayed in clip cages for nymph and adult B. tabaci respectively under controlled environmental conditions. The pathogenicity of T. longibrachiatum was tested on nymph and adult whitefly to check mortality. Mortality of B. tabaci at nymphal and adult stages were observed after 24-hour intervals. Percentage mortality of nymphs treated with 4 x 104/mL conidia of T. longibrachiatum was 20, 24, 36 and 40% after 48, 72, 96, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours respectively. However, no considerable difference was recorded in percentage mortality of whitefly after 120 and 144 hours. There were great variations after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in the rate of mortality. The efficacy of T. longibrachiatum as entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated in adult and nymphal stages of whitefly. Trichoderma longibrachiatum showed maximum activity on nymphal stages of whitefly as compared to adult stages. The percentage of conidial germination was also recorded on the outer surface of adult and nymphal stages of B. tabaci. The present findings indicated that T. longibrachiatum is an entomopathogenic fungus against B. tabaci and many species of Trichoderma were already reported as an antagonistc organism against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Keywords: Efficacy, virulence, bioassay, Trichoderma

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2 Trichoderma spp Consortium and Its Efficacy as Biological Control Agent of Ganoderma Disease of Oil Palm (Elaies guineensis Jacquin)

Authors: Habu Musa, Nusaibah Binti Syd Ali

Abstract:

Oil palm industries particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia are being devastated by Ganoderma disease caused by Ganoderma spp. To date, this disease has been causing serious oil palm yield losses and collapse of oil palm trees, thus affecting its contribution to the producer’s economy. Research on sustainable and eco-friendly remedy to counter Ganoderma disease is on the upsurge to avoid the current control measures via synthetic fungicides. Trichoderma species have been the most studied and valued microbes as biological control agents in an effort to combat a wide range of plant diseases sustainably. Therefore, in this current study, the potential of Trichoderma spp. (Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) as a consortium approach was evaluated as biological control agents against Ganoderma disease on oil palm. The consortium of Trichoderma spp. applied found to be the most effective treatment in suppressing Ganoderma disease with 83.03% and 89.16% from the foliar and bole symptoms respectively. Besides, it exhibited tremendous enhancement in the oil palm seedling vegetative growth parameters. Also, it had highly induced significant activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and total phenolic content was recorded in the consortium treatment compared to the control treatment. Disease development was slower in the seedlings treated with consortium of Trichoderma spp. compared to the positive control, which exhibited with the highest percentage of disease severity.

Keywords: Biological Control, Trichoderma, ganoderma disease, disease severity

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1 Antagonistic Potential of Trichoderma Strains against Colletotrichum musae

Authors: Shah Md. Asraful Islam, Shabina Yeasmin, Fatima Aktar Mousumi

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the antagonistic potential of three commercially available Trichoderma strains viz., T. harzianum (armigera), T. harzianum (Ispahani), and T. viride against Colletotrichum musae isolates from three banana varieties viz., sagar, sobri, and katali. Mycelial growth rates of C. musae isolates were observed, the highest mycelial growth (11.62, 15.75, and 23.12 mm diameter) was observed by C. musae from sagor banana at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation, respectively. All the Trichoderma strains were capable of growth inhibition of C. musae isolates. After 4 days of duel culture, the highest mycelial growth reduction (10.33 mm diameter) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from sagor banana. Moreover, the highest growth inhibition (46.29%) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from the sobri banana. All the Trichoderma strains fully affected the viability of all the Colletotrichum isolates. Interestingly, both cultural filtrates and mycelial powders of all the Trichoderma strains showed a very nice inhibitory effect against C. musae isolates, where cultural filtrates were more potential than that of mycelial powders. So, all the tested Trichoderma strains may be used for the control of banana anthracnose disease.

Keywords: Biological Control, banana, colletotrichum, Trichoderma, anthracnose

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