Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Trends Related Abstracts

20 Monitoring Trends of Science and Technology Policies in South Korea

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As the science and technology(S&T) has been rapidly advanced, the national government attempts to reflect changes in the S&T for promoting public R&D activities and economic development. Amongst others, due to the rapid advances and changes of S&T, it becomes important to monitor the trends of S&T policies for formulating the new policy and investigating promising S&T fields. Thus, this paper aims to trace the national S&T policies during this decade for monitoring the change of major S&T fields in the case of South Korea. As one of the organization for S&T policy in South Korea, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has been established to coordinate inter-ministerial policies and programs and to determine all of the national and public S&T policy of South Korea. In this regard, the items on national S&T policy determined by the NSTC are useful for understanding the needs for major S&T fields and adapting to the rapid change of S&T. To this end, we first gathered the data on 512 items on the S&T agenda from 1999 to 2013. Based on these items, the trend of S&T policies is monitored and the major S&T fields are derived. Differences of policy purposes between S&T fields are identified to provide guideline for policy making such as budget allocation or investment promotion as well.

Keywords: monitoring, Science and technology policy, Trends, S&T field

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19 Global Communication: Trends and Impact of Unbalanced Information in Nigerian Society

Authors: Uchenna Patricia Ekwugha, Cornelius Aghadiegwu Ukwueze

Abstract:

Global communication has changed life at the international scene affecting on the whole social, cultural and political life of individuals in a global community. It has brought about a changing trend in the field of communication and allowed people to learn, create and process information through mainline media and new media technologies. The paper debates that music is an integral form of global communication that cannot be overlooked because it is a beautiful and powerful tool in relating information to the people which they gladly imbibe. It is worrisome that through global communication there has been consistent clash of values on information’s disseminated to the global community of which the developing countries like Nigerians are the sufferers. Particularly involved in this vicious social dogma are the Nigerian youths, who learn defiant behaviour through global communication and lose touch of African cultural values.

Keywords: Impact, Trends, global communication, unbalanced information

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18 Trends in Extreme Rainfall Events in Tasmania, Australia

Authors: Ataur Rahman, Orpita U. Laz

Abstract:

Climate change will affect various aspects of hydrological cycle such as rainfall. A change in rainfall will affect flood magnitude and frequency in future which will affect the design and operation of hydraulic structures. In this paper, trends in sub-hourly, sub-daily, and daily extreme rainfall events from 18 rainfall stations located in Tasmania, Australia are examined. Two non-parametric tests (Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s Rho) are applied to detect trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. Sub-hourly (6, 12, 18, and 30 minutes) annual maximum rainfall events have been found to experience statistically significant upward trends at 10 % level of significance. However, sub-daily durations (1 hour, 3 and 12 hours) exhibit decreasing trends and no trends exists for longer duration rainfall events (e.g. 24 and 72 hours). Some of the durations (e.g. 6 minutes and 6 hours) show similar results (with upward trends) for both the tests. For 12, 18, 60 minutes and 3 hours durations both the tests show similar downward trends. This finding has important implication for Tasmania in the design of urban infrastructure where shorter duration rainfall events are more relevant for smaller urban catchments such as parking lots, roof catchments and smaller sub-divisions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Trends, design rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, Spearman’s Rho, Tasmania

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17 Identification of Rainfall Trends in Qatar

Authors: Ataur Rahman, Abdullah Al Mamoon

Abstract:

Due to climate change, future rainfall will change at many locations on earth; however, the spatial and temporal patterns of this change are not easy to predict. One approach of predicting such future changes is to examine the trends in the historical rainfall data at a given region and use the identified trends to make future prediction. For this, a statistical trend test is commonly applied to the historical data. This paper examines the trends of daily extreme rainfall events from 30 rain gauges located in the State of Qatar. Rainfall data covering from 1962 to 2011 were used in the analysis. A combination of four non-parametric and parametric tests was applied to identify trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. These tests are Mann-Kendall (MK), Spearman’s Rho (SR), Linear Regression (LR) and CUSUM tests. These tests showed both positive and negative trends throughout the country. Only eight stations showed positive (upward) trend, which were however not statistically significant. In contrast, significant negative (downward) trends were found at the 5% and 10% levels of significance in six stations. The MK, SR and LR tests exhibited very similar results. This finding has important implications in the derivation/upgrade of design rainfall for Qatar, which will affect design and operation of future urban drainage infrastructure in Qatar.

Keywords: Climate Change, Trends, extreme rainfall, Qatar, daily rainfall, Mann-Kendall test

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16 Trend Analysis for Extreme Rainfall Events in New South Wales, Australia

Authors: Ataur Rahman, Evan Hajani, Khaled Haddad

Abstract:

Climate change will affect the hydrological cycle in many different ways such as increase in evaporation and rainfalls. There have been growing interests among researchers to identify the nature of trends in historical rainfall data in many different parts of the world. This paper examines the trends in annual maximum rainfall data from 30 stations in New South Wales, Australia by using two non-parametric tests, Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman’s Rho (SR). Rainfall data were analyzed for fifteen different durations ranging from 6 min to 3 days. It is found that the sub-hourly durations (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 48 minutes) show statistically significant positive (upward) trends whereas longer duration (sub-daily and daily) events generally show a statistically significant negative (downward) trend. It is also found that the MK test and SR test provide notably different results for some rainfall event durations considered in this study. Since shorter duration sub-hourly rainfall events show positive trends at many stations, the design rainfall data based on stationary frequency analysis for these durations need to be adjusted to account for the impact of climate change. These shorter durations are more relevant to many urban development projects based on smaller catchments having a much shorter response time.

Keywords: Climate Change, Trends, design rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, Spearman’s Rho test

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15 Detecting Trends in Annual Discharge and Precipitation in the Chott Melghir Basin in Southeastern Algeria

Authors: M. T. Bouziane, A. Benkhaled, B. Achour

Abstract:

In this study, data from 30 catchments in the Chott Melghir basin in the semiarid region of southern East Algeria were analyzed to investigate changes in annual discharge, annual precipitation over the 1965-2005 period. These data were analyzed with the aid of Kendall test trend and regression analysis. The results indicate that the major variations in all catchments discharge in Chott Melghir correspond well to the precipitation. Changes in total annual discharge of Chott Melghir were lower than changes in annual precipitation. Annual precipitation decreased by 66 percent and annual discharge decreased by 4 percent. No significant trend is detected for annual discharge and precipitation at major catchments up to 95% confidence level. The decreasing trend in Chott Melghir discharge is mainly attributed to the decrease of precipitation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Precipitation, Regression analysis, Trends, discharge, Kendall test, Chott Melghir catchments

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14 Analysis of National Science and Technology Policies: The Case of South Korea

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As the science and technology (S&T) has been rapidly advanced, the national government attempts to reflect changes in the S&T for promoting public R&D activities and economic development. Amongst others, due to the rapid advances and changes of S&T, it becomes important to analyze the trends of S&T policies for formulating the new policy and investigating promising S&T fields. Thus, this paper aims to trace the national S&T policies during this decade for analyzing the change of major S&T fields in the case of South Korea. As one of the organization for S&T policy in South Korea, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has been established to coordinate inter-ministerial policies and programs and to determine all of the national and public S&T policy of South Korea. In this regard, the items on national S&T policy determined by the NSTC are useful for understanding the needs for major S&T fields and adapting to the rapid change of S&T. To this end, we first gathered the data on 512 items on the S&T agenda from 1999 to 2013. Based on these items, the trend of S&T policies is monitored and the major S&T fields are derived. Differences of policy purposes between S&T fields are identified to provide guideline for policy making such as budget allocation or investment promotion as well.

Keywords: Policy, Trends, S&T field, national science and technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
13 Long-Term Variabilities and Tendencies in the Zonally Averaged TIMED-SABER Ozone and Temperature in the Middle Atmosphere over 10°N-15°N

Authors: Oindrila Nath, S. Sridharan

Abstract:

Long-term (2002-2012) temperature and ozone measurements by Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite zonally averaged over 10°N-15°N are used to study their long-term changes and their responses to solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The region is selected to provide more accurate long-term trends and variabilities, which were not possible earlier with lidar measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), which are limited to cloud-free nights, whereas continuous data sets of SABER temperature and ozone are available. Regression analysis of temperature shows a cooling trend of 0.5K/decade in the stratosphere and that of 3K/decade in the mesosphere. Ozone shows a statistically significant decreasing trend of 1.3 ppmv per decade in the mesosphere although there is a small positive trend in stratosphere at 25 km. Other than this no significant ozone trend is observed in stratosphere. Negative ozone-QBO response (0.02ppmv/QBO), positive ozone-solar cycle (0.91ppmv/100SFU) and negative response to ENSO (0.51ppmv/SOI) have been found more in mesosphere whereas positive ozone response to ENSO (0.23ppmv/SOI) is pronounced in stratosphere (20-30 km). The temperature response to solar cycle is more positive (3.74K/100SFU) in the upper mesosphere and its response to ENSO is negative around 80 km and positive around 90-100 km and its response to QBO is insignificant at most of the heights. Composite monthly mean of ozone volume mixing ratio shows maximum values during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in middle stratosphere (25-30 km) and in upper mesosphere (85-95 km) around 10 ppmv. Composite monthly mean of temperature shows semi-annual variation with large values (~250-260 K) in equinox months and less values in solstice months in upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (40-55 km) whereas the SAO becomes weaker above 55 km. The semi-annual variation again appears at 80-90 km, with large values in spring equinox and winter months. In the upper mesosphere (90-100 km), less temperature (~170-190 K) prevails in all the months except during September, when the temperature is slightly more. The height profiles of amplitudes of semi-annual and annual oscillations in ozone show maximum values of 6 ppmv and 2.5 ppmv respectively in upper mesosphere (80-100 km), whereas SAO and AO in temperature show maximum values of 5.8 K and 4.6 K in lower and middle mesosphere around 60-85 km. The phase profiles of both SAO and AO show downward progressions. These results are being compared with long-term lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and the results obtained will be presented during the meeting.

Keywords: Trends, temperature, ozone, QBO, solar cycle, ENSO

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12 Investigating the Trends in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Nigeria at Centenary

Authors: Pius Agbebi Alaba

Abstract:

The study emphasized on the effects of contemporary and prospect trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined globalization, safety and security, diversity, service, technology, demographic changes and price–value as contemporary trends while prospect trends such as green and Eco-lodgings, Development of mega hotels, Boutique hotels, Intelligent hotels with advanced technology using the guest’s virtual fingerprint in order to perform all the operations, increasing employee salaries in order retain the existing Staff, More emphasis on the internet and technology, Guests’ virtual and physical social network were equally examined. The methodology for the study involved review of existing related study, books, journal and internet. The findings emanated from the exercise showed clearly that the impact of both trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria would bring about rapid positive transformation of her socio-economic, political and cultural environment. The implication of the study is that it will prepare both private and corporate individuals in hospitality and tourism business for the challenges inherent in both trends.

Keywords: Trends, implications, Hospitality and Tourism, Nigeria's centenary

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11 Early Childhood Care and Education in the North-West of Nigeria: Trends and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Adamu Kwankwaso

Abstract:

Early childhood is a critical period of rapid physical, cognitive and psycho-social development of a child. The quality of care and Education which a child receives at this crucial age will determine to a great extent the level of his/her physical and cognitive development in the future. In Nigeria, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is a fundamental aspect or form of Education for children between the age of 3-6. It was started after independence as pre-primary Education or early child development as contained in the 1977 National Policy on Education. The trends towards ECCE in Nigeria and the northwestern part of the country in particular keep up changing as in the case of other part of the world. The current trends are now towards expansions, inclusiveness, redefinition, early literacy, increased government participation and the unprecedented societal response and awareness towards the Education of the younger children. While all hands are on deck to ensure successful implementation of the ECCE programme, it is unfortunate that, ECCE is facing some challenges. This paper therefore, examines the trends in Early Childhood Care and Education and the major challenges in the north west of Nigeria. Some of the major challenges include, inadequate trained ECCE teachers, lack of unified curriculum, teacher pupil’s ratio, and the medium of instructions and inadequate infrastructural and teaching facilities respectively. To improve the situation the paper offered the following recommendations; establishment of more ECCE classes, enforcement for the use of mothers’ tongue or the languages of the immediate community as a medium of instructions, and adequate provision of infrastructural facilities and the unified curriculum across the northwestern States of Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Challenges, Trends, Early Childhood Care

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10 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa

Abstract:

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: Networking, Financial, Governance, Human Resources, Legal, Collaboration, Integrity, Trends, conduct, NGO, increasing, guiding principle, public trust

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9 An Assessment of the Trend and Pattern of Vital Registration System in Shiroro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Bello Mohammed

Abstract:

Vital registration or registration of vital events is one of the three major sources of demographic data in Nigeria. The other two are the population census and sample survey. The former is judged to be an indispensable source of demographic data because, it provide information on vital statistics and population trends between two census periods. Various literacy works however depict the vital registration in Nigeria as incapable of providing accurate data for the country. The study has both theoretical and practical significances. The trends and pattern of vital registration has not received adequate research interest in Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. This has created a gap in understanding the extent and consequence of the scourge in Africa sub-region. Practically, the study also captures the policy interventions of government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that would help enlighten the public on the importance of vital registration in Nigeria. Furthermore, feasible policy strategies that will enhance trends and pattern vital registration in the society would emanate from the study. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and applied multi stage sampling techniques to sample 230 respondents from the general public in the study area. The first stage involved the splitting of the local government into wards. The second stage involves selecting streets, while the third stage was the households. In all, 6 wards were sampled for the study. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources of data used were the questionnaire, focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview (IDI) guides while the secondary sources of data were journals and books, newspapers and magazines. Twelve FGD sessions with 96 study participants and five IDI sessions with the heads of vital registration facilities were conducted. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics like tables, frequencies and percentages were employed in presenting and interpreting the data. Information from the qualitative data was transcribed and ordered in themes to ensure that outstanding points of the responses are noted. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: the available vital registration facilities are not adequate and were not evenly distributed in the study area; lack of awareness and knowledge of the existence and the importance of vital registration by majority of the people in the local government; distance to vital registration centres from their residents; most births in the area were not registered, and even among the few births that were registered, majority of them were registered after the limited period for registration. And the study reveals that socio-economic index, educational level and distance of facilities to residents are determinants of access to vital registration facility. The study concludes by discussing the need for a reliable and accurate vital registration system if Nigeria’s vision of becoming one of the top 20 economies in the world in 2020 would be realized.

Keywords: Patterns, Trends, vital, registration and assessment

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8 Horizon Scanning of Disruptive Technology Trends in Marine for 2030 Horizon

Authors: José González, Fai Cheng, Ivy Fan

Abstract:

Shipping has a mature and ever expanding worldwide market. The future of the marine industry itself is not only irrevocably linked with the global economic, social, and political landscape; it is also subject to the technological developments in different fields. Some of them may have never been linked to the marine industry before. Companies in the marine sector are getting more dependent on technologies to achieve competitive advantage in an increasing open market. Technologies can be fused across different business functions and geopolitical influences. A successful marine business should be prepared to embrace such potential changes that lie ahead. The present paper intends to articulate long-term marine technology strategies from an industrial perspective. Methodology and current development are introduced. The paper will also provide insight into future technological trends demand for major commercial ship types. It may also assist different stakeholders in tailoring their long-term strategies to achieve a Sea Change and to uncap opportunity.

Keywords: Marine, Technology, Trends, commercial sector

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7 Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases

Authors: Juan Sepulveda

Abstract:

Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Trends, MCA, scientometric

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6 Distributional and Developmental Analysis of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

Authors: Alexander K. Guo

Abstract:

PM2.5 poses a large threat to people’s health and the environment and is an issue of large concern in Beijing, brought to the attention of the government by the media. In addition, both the United States Embassy in Beijing and the government of China have increased monitoring of PM2.5 in recent years, and have made real-time data available to the public. This report utilizes hourly historical data (2008-2016) from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing for the first time. The first objective was to attempt to fit probability distributions to the data to better predict a number of days exceeding the standard, and the second was to uncover any yearly, seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly patterns and trends that may arise to better understand of air control policy. In these data, 66,650 hours and 2687 days provided valid data. Lognormal, gamma, and Weibull distributions were fit to the data through an estimation of parameters. The Chi-squared test was employed to compare the actual data with the fitted distributions. The data were used to uncover trends, patterns, and improvements in PM2.5 concentration over the period of time with valid data in addition to specific periods of time that received large amounts of media attention, analyzed to gain a better understanding of causes of air pollution. The data show a clear indication that Beijing’s air quality is unhealthy, with an average of 94.07µg/m3 across all 66,650 hours with valid data. It was found that no distribution fit the entire dataset of all 2687 days well, but each of the three above distribution types was optimal in at least one of the yearly data sets, with the lognormal distribution found to fit recent years better. An improvement in air quality beginning in 2014 was discovered, with the first five months of 2016 reporting an average PM2.5 concentration that is 23.8% lower than the average of the same period in all years, perhaps the result of various new pollution-control policies. It was also found that the winter and fall months contained more days in both good and extremely polluted categories, leading to a higher average but a comparable median in these months. Additionally, the evening hours, especially in the winter, reported much higher PM2.5 concentrations than the afternoon hours, possibly due to the prohibition of trucks in the city in the daytime and the increased use of coal for heating in the colder months when residents are home in the evening. Lastly, through analysis of special intervals that attracted media attention for either unnaturally good or bad air quality, the government’s temporary pollution control measures, such as more intensive road-space rationing and factory closures, are shown to be effective. In summary, air quality in Beijing is improving steadily and do follow standard probability distributions to an extent, but still needs improvement. Analysis will be updated when new data become available.

Keywords: Distribution, Patterns, Trends, PM2.5, Beijing

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5 An Emerging Trend of Wrong Plurals among Pakistani Bilinguals: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Authors: Sikander Ali

Abstract:

English is being used as linguafranca in most of the formal and informal situations of Pakistan. This extensive use has been rapidly replacing the identity of national language of Pakistani.e. Urdu. The nature of syntactic representation has always been the matter of confusion among linguists. Being unaware of the correct plural forms the non-natives commit mistakes while making plurals. But the situation is reverse when non-natives of English irrespective of knowing the right plurals make wrong plurals usually talking in their native language. The observation method was opted to check this hypothesis. Along with it, a checklist has been made in which these certain occurrences have been mentioned, where this flouting of the norms is a normal routine. The result confirms that Pakistani commit this mistake, i.e. ‘tablian’ the plural of tables, ‘filain’ the plural of files, though this is done by them on unconscious level. This emerging trend of unconscious mistake is leading Pakistani bilinguals towards a diglossic situation where they are coining portmanteau.

Keywords: bilinguals, Trends, emerging trend, portmanteau

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4 A Polyphonic Look at Trends

Authors: Turquesa Topper

Abstract:

The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.

Keywords: Methodology, Fashion, Trends, Narrative

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3 Using Multi-Level Analysis to Identify Future Trends in Small Device Digital Communication Examinations

Authors: Mark A. Spooner

Abstract:

The growth of technological advances in the digital communications industry has dictated the way forensic examination laboratories receive, analyze, and report on digital evidence. This study looks at the trends in a medium sized digital forensics lab that examines small communications devices (i.e., cellular telephones, tablets, thumb drives, etc.) over the past five years. As law enforcement and homeland security organizations budgets shrink, many agencies are being asked to perform more examinations with less resources available. Using multi-level statistical analysis using five years of examination data, this research shows the increasing technological demand trend. The research then extrapolates the current data into the model created and finds a continued exponential growth curve of said demands is well within the parameters defined earlier on in the research.

Keywords: Digital Forensics, Trends, forensic examination, small device

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2 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

Abstract:

There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, Trends, Malaria, Rainfall, seasonal

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1 A Macroeconomic Analysis of Defense Industry: Comparisons, Trends and Improvements in Brazil and in the World

Authors: J. Guerra, J. Fajardo, E. Gonzales

Abstract:

This paper will outline a study of Brazil's industrial base of defense (IDB), through a bibliographic research method, combined with an analysis of macroeconomic data from several available public data platforms. This paper begins with a brief study about Brazilian national industry, including analyzes of productivity, income, outcome and jobs. Next, the research presents a study on the defense industry in Brazil, presenting the main national companies that operate in the aeronautical, army and naval branches. After knowing the main points of the Brazilian defense industry, data on the productivity of the defense industry of the main countries and competing companies of the Brazilian industry were analyzed, in order to summarize big cases in Brazil with a comparative analysis. Concerned the methodology, were used bibliographic research and the exploration of historical data series, in order to analyze information, to get trends and to make comparisons along the time. The research is finished with the main trends for the development of the Brazilian defense industry, comparing the current situation with the point of view of several countries.

Keywords: Industry, Market, Trends, economics of defence

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