Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

trend Related Abstracts

12 Long Term Variability of Temperature in Armenia in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: Hrachuhi Galstyan, Lucian Sfîcă, Pavel Ichim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of thermal conditions in the Republic of Armenia. The paper describes annual fluctuations in air temperature. Research has been focused on case study region of Armenia and surrounding areas, where long–term measurements and observations of weather conditions have been performed within the National Meteorological Service of Armenia and its surrounding areas. The study contains yearly air temperature data recorded between 1961-2012. Mann-Kendal test and the autocorrelation function were applied to detect the change trend of annual mean temperature, as well as other parametric and non-parametric tests searching to find the presence of some breaks in the long term evolution of temperature. The analysis of all records reveals a tendency mostly towards warmer years, with increased temperatures especially in valleys and inner basins. The maximum temperature increase is up to 1,5 °C. Negative results have not been observed in Armenia. The patterns of temperature change have been observed since the 1990’s over much of the Armenian territory. The climate in Armenia was influenced by global change in the last 2 decades, as results from the methods employed within the study.

Keywords: Climate Change, Air Temperature, long-term variability, trend

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11 Trend and Cuses of Decline in Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) Production in Enugu State, Nigeria: Implication for Food Security and Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: J. C. Iwuchukwu, K. C. Okwor

Abstract:

In recent time and in the study area, yam farmers are moving into less laborious and more economical crops and very few yam farmers are growing trifoliate yam. In yam markets, little or no bitter yam is displayed or sold. The work was therefore designed to ascertain trend and causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in Enugu state. Three agricultural zones, six blocks, eighteen circles and one hundred and eight trifoliate yam farmers that were purposively selected constituted sample for the study. An interview schedule was used to collect data while percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents had no extension contact, Majority (90.7%) sourced information on trifoliate yam from neighbours/friends/relatives and produced mainly for consumption (67.6%) during rainy season (70.4%). Trifoliate yam was produced manually(71.3%) and organically (58.3%) in a mixture of other crops (87%) using indigenous/local varieties (73.1%). Mean size of land allocated to trifoliate yam production was relatively steady, mean cost of input and income were increasing while output was decreasing within the years under consideration (before 2001 to 2014). Poor/lack of finance(M=1.8) and drudgery associated with trifoliate yam product(M=1.72) were some of the causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in the area. The study recommended that more research and public enlightenment campaigns on the importance of trifoliate yam should be carried out to encourage and consolidate farmers and the masses effort in production and consumption of the crop so that it will not go extinct and then contribute to food security.

Keywords: Decline, trend, causes, trifoliate yam

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10 The Path to Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Improvement

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh

Abstract:

The foundation of all marketing is composed by relations. Thus, all marketing activities concentrated to establish, develop and maintain successful relational exchanges. By building strong relational bonds, relationship marketing improves customer loyalty resulting in improved firm performance. Relationship marketing is a strategically important tool to use to obtain and secure the result of customer’s loyalty, which leads to higher competitiveness and also enhanced satisfaction among the customers. The study revealed that there subsist significant relationships between customer satisfaction and loyalty. It is recognized that with improvement of customer satisfaction a firm will find customers that are more loyal. Based it, firm managers are advised to satisfy and better manage their relationships through quality product and service offerings to their customers as a competitive policy in the marketplace. These offerings are required to meet or surpass consumers’ expectations.

Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Customer Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, trend

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9 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina

Abstract:

Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: Air Quality Monitoring, pollutant, trend, Mann-Kendall

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8 Recent Climate Variability and Crop Production in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Authors: Arragaw Alemayehu, Woldeamlak Bewket

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to understand the influence of current climate variability on crop production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. We used monthly rainfall and temperature data from 132 points each representing a pixel of 10×10 km. The data are reconstructions based on station records and meteorological satellite observations. Production data of the five major crops in the area were collected from the Central Statistical Agency for the period 2004-2013 and for the main cropping season, locally known as Meher. The production data are at the Enumeration Area (EA ) level and hence the best available dataset on crop production. The results show statistically significant decreasing trends in March–May (Belg) rainfall in the area. However, June – September (Kiremt) rainfall showed increasing trends in Efratana Gidim and Menz Gera Meder which the latter is statistically significant. Annual rainfall also showed positive trends in the area except Basona Werana where significant negative trends were observed. On the other hand, maximum and minimum temperatures showed warming trends in the study area. Correlation results have shown that crop production and area of cultivation have positive correlation with rainfall, and negative with temperature. When the trends in crop production are investigated, most crops showed negative trends and below average production was observed. Regression results have shown that rainfall was the most important determinant of crop production in the area. It is concluded that current climate variability has a significant influence on crop production in the area and any unfavorable change in the local climate in the future will have serious implications for household level food security. Efforts to adapt to the ongoing climate change should begin from tackling the current climate variability and take a climate risk management approach.

Keywords: Crop Production, Regression, Climate Variability, Ethiopia, trend, central highlands

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7 The Visualizer for Real-Time Analysis of Internet Trends

Authors: Radek Malinský, Ivan Jelínek

Abstract:

The current web has become a modern encyclopedia, where people share their thoughts and ideas on various topics around them. Such kind of encyclopedia is very useful for other people who are looking for answers to their questions. However, with the growing popularity of social networking and blogging and ever expanding network services, there has also been a growing diversity of technologies along with different structure of individual websites. It is, therefore, difficult to directly find a relevant answer for a common Internet user. This paper presents a web application for the real-time end-to-end analysis of selected Internet trends; where the trend can be whatever the people post online. The application integrates fully configurable tools for data collection and analysis using selected webometric algorithms, and for its chronological visualization to user. It can be assumed that the application facilitates the users to evaluate the quality of various products that are mentioned online.

Keywords: web 2.0, trend, visualizer, web analysis

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6 Observed Changes in Constructed Precipitation at High Resolution in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Tien Thanh, Günter Meon

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Precipitation plays a key role in water cycle, defining the local climatic conditions and in ecosystem. It is also an important input parameter for water resources management and hydrologic models. With spatial continuous data, a certainty of discharge predictions or other environmental factors is unquestionably better than without. This is, however, not always willingly available to acquire for a small basin, especially for coastal region in Vietnam due to a low network of meteorological stations (30 stations) on long coast of 3260 km2. Furthermore, available gridded precipitation datasets are not fine enough when applying to hydrologic models. Under conditions of global warming, an application of spatial interpolation methods is a crucial for the climate change impact studies to obtain the spatial continuous data. In recent research projects, although some methods can perform better than others do, no methods draw the best results for all cases. The objective of this paper therefore, is to investigate different spatial interpolation methods for daily precipitation over a small basin (approximately 400 km2) located in coastal region, Southern Vietnam and find out the most efficient interpolation method on this catchment. The five different interpolation methods consisting of cressman, ordinary kriging, regression kriging, dual kriging and inverse distance weighting have been applied to identify the best method for the area of study on the spatio-temporal scale (daily, 10 km x 10 km). A 30-year precipitation database was created and merged into available gridded datasets. Finally, observed changes in constructed precipitation were performed. The results demonstrate that the method of ordinary kriging interpolation is an effective approach to analyze the daily precipitation. The mixed trends of increasing and decreasing monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation have documented at significant levels.

Keywords: Precipitation, Interpolation, Vietnam, trend

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5 Analysis of Latest Fitness Trends in India

Authors: Amita Rana

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From the ancient to modern times, the nature of fitness activities has varied. We can choose any form of exercise that is suitable for our particular need. Watchers of fitness trends say that the road to better health is paved with new possibilities along with some old ones that are poised to make a comeback. Educated, certified and experienced fitness professionals; strength training; fitness programmes for older adults; exercise and weight loss; children and obesity; personal training; core training; group personal training; Zumba and other dance workouts; functional fitness; yoga; comprehensive health promotion programmes at worksite; boot-camp; outdoor activities; reaching new markets; spinning; sport-specific training; worker incentive programmes; wellness coaching; and physician referrals are among the fitness trends included in worldwide surveys. However, trends related to fitness in India could be the same or different. Hence, the present paper makes an attempt to analyze the latest fitness trends in India. A total of eighteen (18) surveys were shortlisted on the basis of their relevance to the present topic of study and were arranged in descending order of their chronology. Content analysis was done after the preliminary set of data collection, which formed the basis of a group of data. Further, frequency and percentage were used to statistically represent the data. It can be concluded from the analysis of data regarding recent fitness trends in India that yoga dominates the fitness activity list, followed by numerous other activities including running, Zumba and sh’bam, boot camp, boxing, kickboxing, cycling, swimming, TRX, ass-pocalypse, ballet, biking, bokwa fitness, dance-iso-bic, masala bhangra, outdoor activities, pilates, planks, push-ups, sofa workouts, stairs Workouts, tabata training, and twerking. The body weight/ gym-specified/ strength training as well as high intensity interval training dominate the preferred workouts; followed by mixed work-outs, cross training work-outs, express work-outs, functional fitness, natural body movements, personalized training, and stay-at-home workouts. General areas that featured in the latest fitness trends in India demonstrates that the fitness is making an impact on all sections of the society be it children, women, older adults, senior citizens, worksite fitness. Fitness is becoming the lifestyle of the masses. People are doing exercise for weight-loss, combining diet with exercising; prefer sweating, making groups participate in fitness activities and wellness programmes. Technology is another area which has a high impact on the lives of people. They are using wearable technology for workout tracking and following numerous mobile friendly apps.

Keywords: Fitness, India, Survey, trend

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4 The Trend and Implementation of Bargaining Agreements at University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape, South Africa 2012 to 2016

Authors: Olusola Olasupo, E. O. C. Ijeoma

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The University of Fort Hare and the National Education Health and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU), the registered labor union at the University recognizes the significance of collective bargaining. This prompted both parties to enter into agreement with the notion to strengthening the relationship between them. The agreement was therefore entered into between NEHAWU representing the employees and the University. The agreement was signed on August 31st, 2005. The study adopting historical research method reveals the trend and implementation of bargaining agreements at University of Fort Hare from 2012 to 2016. This study examines how the implementation of bargaining agreement is utilized to solve labor related challenges and also improve on employee’s wages and conditions of service thereby strengthening the relationship between the management and employees at University of Fort Hare. The study contributes to knowledge on the effects of the implementation of bargaining agreement on wages and other conditions of service leading to harmonious relationship between the Staff and the management towards the effective administration of the University of Fort Hare. Findings reveal that ever since 2005 when the agreement was reached, University of Fort Hare and NEHAWU have been committed to improving the employees’ wages through substantive agreement. The study concludes by recommending a more effective implementation of bargaining agreement at University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: Implementation, agreement, trend, bargaining

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3 An Evaluation of the Trends in Land Values around Institutions of Higher Learning in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Ben Nwokenkwo, Michael M. Eze, Felix Ike

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The need to study trends in land values around institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. Numerous studies in Nigeria have investigated the economic, and social influence of the sitting of institutions of higher learning at the micro, meso and macro levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the temporal extent at which such institution influences local land values. Since institutions greatly influence both the physical and environmental aspects of their immediate vicinity, attention must be taken to understand the influence of such changes on land values. This study examines the trend in land values using the Mann-Kendall analysis in order to determine if, between its beginning and end, a monotonic increase, decrease or stability exist in the land values across six institutions of higher learning for the period between 2004 and 2014. Specifically, The analysis was applied to the time series of the price(or value) of the land .The results of this study revealed that land values has either been increasing or remained stabled across all the institution sampled. The study finally recommends measures that can be put in place as counter magnets for land values estimation across institutions of higher learning.

Keywords: land, Value, influence, trend

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2 Deconstruction of Gender Stereotypes through Fashion

Authors: Nihan Akdemir

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This research aims to investigate the role of fashion in the context of the deconstruction of gender stereotypes. Expectation of society and culture related to the biological structure of the individual corresponds to the gender. At this point there are some unseen rules which are given to person even from his/her childhoods according to the sex and gender, are called stereotypes. With basic example, girls should wear pink, and the boys should wear blue. Or boys do not wear skirt and the woman must behave like a woman. There are also many many stereotypes like them. But the clothing style the individual uses to express his or her gender identity may not match the expectations of the community and society. In the context of big role of the clothing, these stereotypes could be deconstructed because clothes are the visible expression of gender identity of the person. And fashion is a big part of this structure because fashion is a pioneer of what people wear in other words fashion tells to people what should they wear this season. Nowadays fashion has also meant about expressing identity independent of whether you were born male or female. Many fashion brands prepare their collections in the concept of ‘gender fluid’ by deconstructions. It means that fashion is opening the roads for being more free about the gender identity. The representations of gender fluidity through fashion help bring a sense of normality to people who are trying to find the self-confidence to express who they want to be. Maybe the voice of the streets carries this point to the catwalks firstly, and then it becomes a trend. All these items have been explained with visual images and supported by the literature investigations. And the results are showed that the numbers of collections about it are increasing and fashion sector takes this issue into consideration. And this new approach reached to the streets.

Keywords: Fashion, Gender Identity, trend, gender stereotypes

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1 Study of Trend, Dimension and Effect of Organizational Politics on Workers Performance in Public Organizations

Authors: Eniola Simbiat Ibude

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Work politics could be referred to as office politics or organizational politics. Work place politics take different form, direction, and dimensions. Studies of these features of organizational politics have been conducted in the private sector and much has been left to be studied on the other side of the fence, namely in larger bureaucracies and in public sector system. This is the gap the study tried to fill. This study also focuses on the negative effects that perceptions of politics seem to have on job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction, organizational commitment) and on affective performance. This was with a view to understanding the relevance of its effects on job performance. The descriptive survey research design of the ex-post facto type was adopted for this study since the variables being studied had already occurred and were, therefore, not manipulated. Data were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics of frequency counts, simple percentages, ANOVA, and multiple regression. Findings show that the joint and relative effect of organizational politics on workers performance, planning, coordination and supervision of work (B 0.71), delaying information for carrying out work (B 0.67), criticizing and wasting time for work done (B 0.56) has contributed to workers performance. The effect could be seen as negative on workers performance. Conclusively, every employee will not react to organizational politics the same way. The 'social arsenal' or the 'social skills' of the individual are a good buffer against the potential aftermaths of organizational politics. Also, from this study, it could be concluded that the perceptions of politics have a more complex relationship with job performance, a relationship that may be different for various types of employees.

Keywords: Politics, dimension, trend, bureaucracies

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