Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

treatment Related Abstracts

60 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

Abstract:

The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: treatment, reuse, nonmetallic, printed circuit board

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
59 Data Disorders in Healthcare Organizations: Symptoms, Diagnoses, and Treatments

Authors: Zakieh Piri, Shahla Damanabi, Peyman Rezaii Hachesoo

Abstract:

Introduction: Healthcare organizations like other organizations suffer from a number of disorders such as Business Sponsor Disorder, Business Acceptance Disorder, Cultural/Political Disorder, Data Disorder, etc. As quality in healthcare care mostly depends on the quality of data, we aimed to identify data disorders and its symptoms in two teaching hospitals. Methods: Using a self-constructed questionnaire, we asked 20 questions in related to quality and usability of patient data stored in patient records. Research population consisted of 150 managers, physicians, nurses, medical record staff who were working at the time of study. We also asked their views about the symptoms and treatments for any data disorders they mentioned in the questionnaire. Using qualitative methods we analyzed the answers. Results: After classifying the answers, we found six main data disorders: incomplete data, missed data, late data, blurred data, manipulated data, illegible data. The majority of participants believed in their important roles in treatment of data disorders while others believed in health system problems. Discussion: As clinicians have important roles in producing of data, they can easily identify symptoms and disorders of patient data. Health information managers can also play important roles in early detection of data disorders by proactively monitoring and periodic check-ups of data.

Keywords: Healthcare, treatment, Quality, data disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
58 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: Gentiana Shegani

Abstract:

Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analysing the change in organic matter, odor, colour, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulphate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, faecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulphate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed.

Keywords: treatment, Coagulation, effluent, tannery

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
57 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.

Keywords: Public Health, treatment, Disposal, medical waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
56 Investigation in Gassy Ozone Influence on Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains Quality Parameters

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Jelena Zagorska, Elina Zvezdina

Abstract:

The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on in year 2012 harvested wheat grains variety ′Zentos′. Grains were washed, wetted; grain biological activation was performed in the climatic chamber up to 24 hours. After biological activation grains was compressed; than flaxes was dried in convective drier till constant moisture content 9±1%. For grain treatment gassy ozone concentration as 0.0002% and treatment time – 6 min was used. In the processed flaxes the content of A and G tocopherol decrease by 23% and by 9%; content of B2 and B6 vitamins – by 11% and by 10%; elaidic acid – by 46%, oleic acid – by 29%; arginine (by 80%), glutamine (by 74%), asparagine and serine (by 68%), valine (by 62%), cysteine (by 54%) and tyrosine (by 47%).

Keywords: treatment, Quality Parameters, gassy ozone, flaxes, biologically activated grains

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
55 Effect of Sanitary-Environmental Conditions of Diabetic Hypertension Incidence of Displaced Persons

Authors: Radmila Maksimovic, Sonja Ketin, Rade Biocanin, Jelena Maksimovic

Abstract:

The abnormal conditions of life and work genetic factors often play a major role in incidence of diabetes-diabetes, heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice, and post traumatic stress. Trauma and post traumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons,and the focus of this paper is to shed light on this issue in former Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and now in our country. This is caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies against its own pancreascells, degenerative changes in cells that r esult in change of structure and insulin. In this paper, we dealt with traumatic events and long-term psycho social consequences for internally displaced persons, several years after displacement, and found a high level of PTSD symptoms. This stress is present in almost 1/3 of internally displaced persons, and every sixth person is suffering from PTSD in the past. Respondents generally suffer from symptoms of intrusion, but there was a large number of symptoms, avoidance and increased arousal. We also found that gender, age andeducation related to the symptoms. Females, and older respondents and internally displaced persons with lower levels of education how a higher level of PTSD symptoms, especially symptoms of intrusion and increase darousal. It is a highly traumatized sample in which more than 1/2 of respondents experienced more than three traumatic events in life,although the number of traumas experienced before, during and after the conflict varies.We found that during the war, internally displaced persons haveexperienced more traumatic events compared with the periodbefore and after the conflict. Trauma are different in type. No significant correlation between the number of experienced trauma and PTSD, suggesting that it is necessary to further study the structure of past traumas and the intermediary effects of certain risk factors and protective factors.

Keywords: Trauma, Diabetes, treatment, jaundice, living environment, displaced persons, diabetic hypertension, post-traumatic stress (PTSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
54 Hospital Wastewater Treatment by Ultrafiltration Membrane System

Authors: Selin Top, Raul Marcos, M. Sinan Bilgili

Abstract:

Although there have been several studies related to collection, temporary storage, handling and disposal of solid wastes generated by hospitals, there are only a few studies related to liquid wastes generated by hospitals or hospital wastewaters. There is an important amount of water consumptions in hospitals. While minimum domestic water consumption per person is 100 L/day, water consumption per bed in hospitals is generally ranged between 400-1200 L. This high amount of consumption causes high amount of wastewater. The quantity of wastewater produced in a hospital depends on different factors: bed numbers, hospital age, accessibility to water, general services present inside the structure (kitchen, laundry, laboratory, diagnosis, radiology, and air conditioning), number and type of wards and units, institution management policies and awareness in managing the structure in safeguarding the environment, climate and cultural and geographic factors. In our country, characterization of hospital wastewaters conducted by classical parameters in a very few studies. However, as mentioned above, this type of wastewaters may contain different compounds than domestic wastewaters. Hospital Wastewater (HWW) is wastewater generated from all activities of the hospital, medical and non medical. Nowadays, hospitals are considered as one of the biggest sources of wastewater along with urban sources, agricultural effluents and industrial sources. As a health-care waste, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components due to using disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents making not suitable the connection of hospital wastewater to the municipal sewage network. These characteristics may represent a serious health hazard and children, adults and animals all have the potential to come into contact with this water. Therefore, the treatment of hospital wastewater is an important current interest point to focus on. This paper aims to approach on the investigation of hospital wastewater treatment by membrane systems. This study aim is to determined hospital wastewater’s characterization and also evaluates the efficiency of hospital wastewater treatment by high pressure filtration systems such as ultrafiltration (UF). Hospital wastewater samples were taken directly from sewage system from Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, located in the district of Şişli, in the European part of Istanbul. The hospital is a 784 bed tertiary care center with a daily outpatient department of 3850 patients. Ultrafiltration membrane is used as an experimental treatment and the influence of the pressure exerted on the membranes was examined, ranging from 1 to 3 bar. The permeate flux across the membrane was observed to define the flooding membrane points. The global COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies were 54% and 75% respectively for ultrafiltration, all the SST removal efficiencies were above 90% and a successful removal of the pathological bacteria measured was achieved.

Keywords: treatment, ultrafiltration, Membrane, hospital wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
53 Efficiency and Limits of Physicochemical Treatment of Dairy Wastewater: A Case Study of Dairy Industry in Western Algeria

Authors: Khedidja Benouis

Abstract:

Environmental issues in the food industry are related to the water because it consumes water and release large volumes of wastewater. The treatment of such discharges techniques can be adapted to different situations encountered. For dairy effluents, it is necessary and very effective to use a treatment that eliminates much of the pollutant load,thus, to drastically reduce the organic loading rate. This study aims to evaluate the Efficiency and limitations of physicochemical treatment by coagulation - flocculation of liquid effluent from this type of food industry in Algeria, to give an example of the type and the degree of pollution generated by this sector and in order to reduce pollution and minimize its environmental issues. Coagulation - flocculation-sedimentation was carried out using lime without addition of additive (flocculant), the processing efficiency is indicated by the concentration of pollutants in treated water. The results show that treatment is not sufficient to remove organic pollution, but it has significantly reduced the Total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P).

Keywords: treatment, Algeria, coagulation-flocculation, dairy effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
52 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: Prevention, treatment, Liver Cirrhosis, carbon tetrachloride, GSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
51 Consequential Effects of Coal Utilization on Urban Water Supply Sources – a Study of Ajali River in Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Enebe Christian Chukwudi

Abstract:

Water bodies around the world notably underground water, ground water, rivers, streams, and seas, face degradation of their water quality as a result of activities associated with coal utilization including coal mining, coal processing, coal burning, waste storage and thermal pollution from coal plants which tend to contaminate these water bodies. This contamination results from heavy metals, presence of sulphate and iron, dissolved solids, mercury and other toxins contained in coal ash, sludge, and coal waste. These wastes sometimes find their way to sources of urban water supply and contaminate them. A major problem encountered in the supply of potable water to Enugu municipality is the contamination of Ajali River, the source of water supply to Enugu municipal by coal waste. Hydro geochemical analysis of Ajali water samples indicate high sulphate and iron content, high total dissolved solids(TDS), low pH (acidity values) and significant hardness in addition to presence of heavy metals, mercury, and other toxins. This is indicative of the following remedial measures: I. Proper disposal of mine wastes at designated disposal sites that are suitably prepared. II. Proper water treatment and III. Reduction of coal related contaminants taking advantage of clean coal technology.

Keywords: Waste, treatment, Utilization, Water Quality, Coal, Sources, Contamination, effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
50 Profile of the Renal Failure Patients under Haemodialysis at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Nepal

Authors: SANJEEV SHARMA, Ram Sharan Mehta

Abstract:

Introduction: Haemodialysis (HD) is a mechanical process of removing waste products from the blood and replacing essential substances in patients with renal failure. First artificial kidney developed in Netherlands in 1943 AD First successful treatment of CRF reported in 1960AD, life-saving treatment begins for CRF in 1972 AD. In 1973 AD Medicare took over financial responsibility for many clients and after that method become popular. BP Koirala institute of health science is the only center outside the Kathmandu, where HD service is available. In BPKIHS PD started in Jan.1998, HD started in August 2002 till September 2003 about 278 patients received HD. Day by day the number of HD patients is increasing in BPKIHS as with institutional growth. No such type of study was conducted in past hence there is lack of valid & reliable baseline data. Hence, the investigators were interested to conduct the study on " Profile of the Renal Failure patients under Haemodialysis at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Nepal". Objectives: The objectives of the study were: to find out the Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients, to explore the knowledge of the patients regarding disease process and Haemodialysis and to identify the problems encountered by the patients. Methods: It is a hospital-based exploratory study. The population of the study was the clients under HD and the sampling method was purposive. Fifty-four patients undergone HD during the period of 17 July 2012 to 16 July 2013 of complete one year were included in the study. Structured interview schedule was used for collect data after obtaining validity and reliability. Results: Total 54 subjects had undergone for HD, having age range of 5-75 years and majority of them were male (74%) and Hindu (93 %). Thirty-one percent illiterate, 28% had agriculture their occupation, 80% of them were from very poor community, and about 30% subjects were unaware about the disease they suffering. Majority of subjects reported that they had no complications during dialysis (61%), where as 20% reported nausea and vomiting, 9% Hypotension, 4% headache and 2%chest pain during dialysis. Conclusions: CRF leading to HD is a long battle for patients, required to make major and continuous adjustment, both physiologically and psychologically. The study suggests that non-compliance with HD regimen were common. The socio-demographic and knowledge profile will help in the management and early prevention of disease and evaluate aspects that will influence care and patients can select mode of treatment themselves properly.

Keywords: treatment, patients, Haemodialysis, profile, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
49 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, and Ananda Kumar Saha

Abstract:

This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: Characterization, treatment, effluent, tannery

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
48 A Clinical Study of Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica: Findings from a Large Chinese Cohort

Authors: Wei Zhang, Ning Wu, Ying Zhu, Hai-Dong Huang, Yu-Chao Dong, Qin-Ying Sun, Qin Wang, Qiang Li

Abstract:

Background and study aims: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is an uncommon disease of the tracheobronchial system that leads to narrowing of the airway lumen from cartilaginous and/or osseous submucosal nodules. The aim of this study is to perform a detailed review of this rare disease in a large cohort of patients with TO proven by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from China. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on 41,600 patients who underwent bronchoscopy in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Changhai Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Cases of TO were identified based on characteristic features during bronchoscopic examination. Results: 22 cases of bronchoscopic TO were identified. Among whom one-half were male and the mean age was 47.45 ±10.91 years old. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were chronic cough (n=14) and increased sputum production (n=10). Radiographic abnormalities were observed in 3/18 patients and findings on computed tomography consistent with TO such as beaded intraluminal calcifications and/or increased luminal thickenings were observed in 18/22 patients. Patients were classified into the following categories based on the severity of bronchoscopic findings: Stage I (n=2), Stage II (n=6) and Stage III(n=14). The result that bronchoscopic improvement was observed in 2 patients administered with inhaled corticosteroids suggested that resolution of this disease is possible. Conclusions: TO is a benign disease with slow progression, which could be roughly divided into 3 stages on the basis of the characteristic endoscopic features and histopathologic findings. Chronic inflammation was thought to be more important than the other existing plausible hypotheses in the course of TO. Inhaled corticosteroids might have some impact on patients at Stage I/II.

Keywords: Etiology, treatment, Bronchoscopy, airway obstruction, Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
47 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band

Abstract:

Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, treatment, facial nerve palsy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
46 Demographic Characteristics as a Determinant of the use of Health Care Services: Case of Nsukka, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Beatrice Adeoye

Abstract:

Studies have associated social and demographic characteristics as strong determinants of utilization of health care services; however, not much has been done to explore the dynamics of these variables in Nigeria. This empirical study explores the link between demographic factors and the future use of health care services in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. A total of 543 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The findings of the study showed that majority (56.9%) of the respondents were female while 43.1% were male. More of the respondents were married (50.3%) while 41.80/0 of the respondents were between ages 26-35. Testing the demographic characteristics regarding where people will prefer to go first for treatment with multiple regression, It is only Sex as a demographic variable that indicates positive association for future occurrence to where people will prefer to go first for treatment with 0.08 significance. Age and education indicates no association considering their level of significance. This result shows that sex is one of the determinant factors of where and when people will go for treatment. This is pointing out the realities regarding African society where in the family setting, it is the father that dictates the cause of action. Also to buttress these findings, cross tabulating age with who determines where and when to go for treatment, findings show that majority (58.9%) within age 26-35 said their spouses decide on where and when to go for treatment. Findings showed that patriarchy still plays an important role in the utilization of health care delivery among the people studied.

Keywords: Health Care, treatment, self-medication, Demographic characters, Determinant, symptom

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
45 Diarrheal Management Practices in Children Under Five Years and Its Associated Factors Attending Health Clinic in Kalimantan Timur Indonesia

Authors: Tri Murti, Muhammad Hanafiah Juni, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Salmiah Binti Said

Abstract:

The diarrhoeal disease continues to be a leading cause of childhood mortality in countries such as Indonesia, where it is estimated to be responsible for 300,000 deaths annually in children under the age of years. Morbidity survey the Ministry of Health of Indonesia from 2000 to 2010 showed incidence diarrhoea remains a leading cause of infant mortality. Causes of death from diarrhoea is related to poor governance both at home and in health facilities. Despite the improvement of health facilities and government effort to reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea among children and death from diarrhoea, the incidence of diarrhoea among children area still high.

Keywords: treatment, management diarrheal disease, practices mother, diarrhoea among children

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
44 Rapid and Efficient Removal of Lead from Water Using Chitosan/Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Othman M. Hakami, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab

Abstract:

Occurrence of heavy metals in water resources increased in the recent years albeit at low concentrations. Lead (PbII) is among the most important inorganic pollutants in ground and surface water. However, removal of this toxic metal efficiently from water is of public and scientific concern. In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient removal method of lead from water using chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles. A simple and effective process has been used to prepare chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) (CS/Mag NPs) with effect on saturation magnetization value; the particles were strongly responsive to an external magnetic field making separation from solution possible in less than 2 minutes using a permanent magnet and the total Fe in solution was below the detection limit of ICP-OES (<0.19 mg L-1). The hydrodynamic particle size distribution increased from an average diameter of ~60 nm for Fe3O4 NPs to ~75 nm after chitosan coating. The feasibility of the prepared NPs for the adsorption and desorption of Pb(II) from water were evaluated using Chitosan/Magnetite NPs which showed a high removal efficiency for Pb(II) uptake, with 90% of Pb(II) removed during the first 5 minutes and equilibrium in less than 10 minutes. Maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) occurred at pH 6.0 and under room temperature were as high as 85.5 mg g-1, according to Langmuir isotherm model. Desorption of adsorbed Pb on CS/Mag NPs was evaluated using deionized water at different pH values ranged from 1 to 7 which was an effective eluent and did not result the destruction of NPs, then, they could subsequently be reused without any loss of their activity in further adsorption tests. Overall, our results showed the high efficiency of chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) in lead removal from water in controlled conditions, and further studies should be realized in real field conditions.

Keywords: Water, treatment, chitosan, magnetite

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
43 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Disease in Fish

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with the abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulate in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutics in the aquatic environments tends to degrade the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and bills were analyzed for biologically active substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration-related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Control, treatment, Fish

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
42 Successful Treatment of Multifocal XDR Tuberculosis Osteomyelitis

Authors: Abeer N. Alshukairi, Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi, Abdulfattah W. Alamri, Adel F. Alothman

Abstract:

We described the nosocomial transmission of a pre-XDR or an MDR case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a HIV negative health care worker in an area endemic for MDR & XDR tuberculosis. With inadequate therapy and non-compliance, his strain developed acquired resistance and he presented with extra-pulmonary XDR tuberculosis in the form of multi-focal osteomyelitis and encysted pleural effusion. He was cured after 2 years of therapy with various anti-tuberculous drugs in addition to interferon gamma.

Keywords: treatment, Osteomyelitis, XDR tuberculosis, successful treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
41 Introduction of a Multimodal Intervention for People with Autism: 'ReAttach'

Authors: P. Weerkamp Bartholomeus

Abstract:

Autism treatment evaluation is crucial for monitoring the development of an intervention at an early stage. ‘ReAttach’ is a new intervention based on the principles of attachment and social cognitive training. Practical research suggests promising results on a variety of developmental areas. Five years after the first ReAttach sessions these findings can be extended with qualitative research by means of follow-up interviews. The potential impact of this treatment on daily life functioning and well-being of autistic persons becomes clear.

Keywords: Innovation, treatment, autism, social cognitive training

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
40 The Investigation of Endogenous Intoxication and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Giardiasis Before and After Treatment

Authors: R. H. Begaydarova, B. Zh. Kultanov, B. T. Esilbaeva, G. E. Nasakaeva, Y. Yukhnevich, G. K. Alshynbekova, A. E. Dyusembaeva

Abstract:

Background: The level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) allows to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease and is a criterion for the effectiveness of the treatment. The detection the products of lipidperoxidation cascade, such as conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde in biological material, has an important role in the development of pathogenesis, the diagnosis and prognosis in different parasitic diseases. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of endogenous intoxication and indicators of lipid peroxidation in patients with giardiasis before and after treatment. Materials and methods: Endogenous intoxication was evaluated in patients with giardiasis in the level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) in the blood. The amount of MMP and products of lipid peroxidation were determined in the blood of 198 patients with giardiasis, 129 of them were women (65%), 69 were men (35%). The MMP level was detected for comparison in the blood of 84 healthy volunteers. The lipid peroxidation were determined in 40 healthy men and women without giardiasis and history of chronic diseases. Data were processed by conventional methods of variation statistics, we calculated the arithmetic mean (M) and standard dispersion (m). t-test (t) was used to assess differences. Results: The level of MMP in the blood was significantly higher in patients with giardiasis in comparison with group of healthy men and women. MMP concentration in the blood of women with Giardia was 2.5 times greater than that of the comparison groups of women. The level of MMP exceeds more than 6 times in men with giardiasis. The decrease in the intensity of endogenous intoxication was two weeks after antigiardia therapy, both men and women. According to the study, a statistically significant increase in the level of all the studied parameters lipid peroxidation cascade was observed in the blood of men with giardiasis, with the exception of the total primary production (NGN). The treatment of giardiasis helped to stabilize the level of almost all metabolites of lipid peroxidation cascade. The exception was level of malondialdehyde, it was significantly elevated to compare with the control group and after treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the MMP level was significantly higher in blood of patients with giardiasis than in comparison group. This is evidence of severe endogenous intoxication caused by giardia infection. The accumulation of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in the blood of men and women. These processes tend to be more active in men than in women. Antigiardiasis therapy contributed to the normalization of almost all the studied indicators of lipid peroxidation in the blood of participants, except the level malondialdehyde in the blood of men.

Keywords: treatment, Blood, enzymes of antioxidant protection, giardiasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
39 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Fish Diseases

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulates in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutants in the aquatic environments tends to degrades the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and biles were analyzed for active biological substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Natural Products, Control, treatment, Fish

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
38 Bacteria Removal from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

Authors: Boudjema Nouara, Mameri Nabil

Abstract:

Bacteria have played an important role in water contamination as a consequence of organic pollution. In this study, an electrocoagulation process was adopted to remove fecal contamination and pathogenic bacteria from waste water. The effect of anode/cathodes materials as well as operating conditions for bacteria removal from water, such as current intensity and initial pH and temperature. The results indicated that the complete removal was achevied when using aluminium anode as anode at current intensity of 3A, initial pH of 7-8 and electrolysis time of 30 minutes. This process showed a bactericidal effect of 95 to 99% for the total and fecal coliforms and 99% to 100% for Eschercichia coli and fecal Streptococci. A decrease of 72% was recorded for sulphite-reducing Clostridia. Thus, this process has the potential to be one the options for treatment where high amount of bacteria in wastewater river.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment, Bacteria, electrocoagulation, el Harrach river

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
37 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater

Authors: Zahra Akbari, Talat Ghomashchi, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee

Abstract:

Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.

Keywords: treatment, Waste water, Dissolved Air Flotation, oil Industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
36 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: treatment, electrocoagulation, water temperature, flow column

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
35 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption Using Macadamia Nutshells: Effect of Different Treatment Methods

Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade, Themba D. Ntuli, Augustine E. Ofomaja

Abstract:

Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different methods (raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)) were investigated for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent dosage 0.2 g L-1, and concentration 100 mg L-1. The different treatment methods altered the surface characteristics of the sorbents and produced different maximum binding capacities of 42.5, 40.6 and 37.5 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively. The data was fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms. No single model could clearly explain the data perhaps due to the complexity of process taking place. The kinetic modeling results showed that the process of Cr(VI) biosorption with Macadamia sorbents was better described by a process of chemical sorption in pseudo-second order. These results showed that the three treatment methods yielded different surface properties which then influenced adsorption of Cr(VI) differently.

Keywords: treatment, Reduction, biosorption, isotherms, chromium(VI), Macadamia

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
34 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Followed by Dissolved Air Flotation Treating Municipal Sewage

Authors: Priscila Ribeiro dos Santos, Luiz Antonio Daniel

Abstract:

Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation has become one of the most widespread problems affecting people throughout the developing world, leading to an unceasing need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. The UASB technology has been widely employed as a suitable and economical option for the treatment of sewage in developing countries, which involves low initial investment, low energy requirements, low operation and maintenance costs, high loading capacity, short hydraulic retention times, long solids retention times and low sludge production. Whereas dissolved air flotation process is a good option for the post-treatment of anaerobic effluents, being capable of producing high quality effluents in terms of total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, phosphorus, and even pathogens. This work presents an evaluation and monitoring, over a period of 6 months, of one compact full-scale system with this configuration, UASB reactors followed by dissolved air flotation units (DAF), operating in Brazil. It was verified as a successful treatment system, and an issue of relevance since dissolved air flotation process treating UASB reactor effluents is not widely encompassed in the literature. The study covered the removal and behavior of several variables, such as turbidity, total suspend solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Escherichia coli, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens. The physicochemical variables were analyzed according to the protocols established by the Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. For microbiological variables, such as Escherichia coli and total coliforms, it was used the “pour plate” technique with Chromocult Coliform Agar (Merk Cat. No.1.10426) serving as the culture medium, while the microorganism Clostridium perfringens was analyzed through the filtering membrane technique, with the Ágar m-CP (Oxoid Ltda, England) serving as the culture medium. Approximately 74% of total COD was removed in the UASB reactor, and the complementary removal done during the flotation process resulted in 88% of COD removal from the raw sewage, thus the initial concentration of COD of 729 mg.L-1 decreased to 87 mg.L-1. Whereas, in terms of particulate COD, the overall removal efficiency for the whole system was about 94%, decreasing from 375 mg.L-1 in raw sewage to 29 mg.L-1 in final effluent. The UASB reactor removed on average 77% of the TSS from raw sewage. While the dissolved air flotation process did not work as expected, removing only 30% of TSS from the anaerobic effluent. The final effluent presented an average concentration of 38 mg.L-1 of TSS. The turbidity was significantly reduced, leading to an overall efficiency removal of 80% and a final turbidity of 28 NTU.The treated effluent still presented a high concentration of fecal pollution indicators (E. coli, total coliforms, and Clostridium perfringens), showing that the system did not present a good performance in removing pathogens. Clostridium perfringens was the organism which suffered the higher removal by the treatment system. The results can be considered satisfactory for the physicochemical variables, taking into account the simplicity of the system, besides that, it is necessary a post-treatment to improve the microbiological quality of the final effluent.

Keywords: treatment, Dissolved Air Flotation, UASB reactor, municipal sewage

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
33 An Optimal Control Model for the Dynamics of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Ibrahim M. Elmojtaba, Rayan M. Altayeb

Abstract:

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus leishmania. The transmission of the parasite to humans and animals occurs via the bite of adult female sandflies previously infected by biting and sucking blood of an infectious humans or animals. In this paper we use a previously proposed model, and then applied two optimal controls, namely treatment and vaccination to that model to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of the disease using treatment and vaccination as the system control variables. The possible impact of using combinations of the two controls, either one at a time or two at a time on the spread of the disease is also examined. Our results provide a framework for vaccination and treatment strategies to reduce susceptible and infection individuals of VL in five years.

Keywords: treatment, Optimal Control, Vaccination, Numerical Simulation, visceral leishmaniasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
32 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki

Abstract:

Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, wastewater, treatment, Microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
31 Understanding the Cause(S) of Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Adolescents with ADHD and Its Implications for the Successful Implementation of Intervention(S)

Authors: Elisavet Kechagia

Abstract:

Due to the interplay of different genetic and environmental risk factors and its heterogeneous nature, the concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has shaped controversy and conflicts, which have been, in turn, reflected in the controversial arguments about its treatment. Taking into account recent well evidence-based researches suggesting that ADHD is a condition, in which biopsychosocial factors are all weaved together, the current paper explores the multiple risk-factors that are likely to influence ADHD, with a particular focus on adolescents with ADHD who might experience comorbid social, emotional and behavioural disorders (SEBD). In the first section of this paper, the primary objective was to investigate the conflicting ideas regarding the definition, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD at an international level as well as to critically examine and identify the limitations of the two most prevailing sets of diagnostic criteria that inform current diagnosis, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) diagnostic scheme, DSM-V, and the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) classification of diseases, ICD-10. Taking into consideration the findings of current longitudinal studies on ADHD association with high rates of comorbid conditions and social dysfunction, in the second section the author moves towards an investigation of the transitional points −physical, psychological and social ones− that students with ADHD might experience during early adolescence, as informed by neuroscience and developmental contextualism theory. The third section is an exploration of the different perspectives of ADHD as reflected in individuals’ with ADHD self-reports and the KENT project’s findings on school staff’s attitudes and practices. In the last section, given the high rates of SEBDs in adolescents with ADHD, it is examined how cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), coupled with other interventions, could be effective in ameliorating anti-social behaviours and/or other emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with ADHD. The findings of a range of randomised control studies indicate that CBT might have positive outcomes in adolescents with multiple behavioural problems, hence it is suggested to be considered both in schools and other community settings. Finally, taking into account the heterogeneous nature of ADHD, the different biopsychosocial and environmental risk factors that take place during adolescence and the discourse and practices concerning ADHD and SEBD, it is suggested how it might be possible to make sense of and meaningful improvements to the education of adolescents with ADHD within a multi-modal and multi-disciplinary whole-school approach that addresses the multiple problems that not only students with ADHD but also their peers might experience. Further research that would be based on more large-scale controls and would investigate the effectiveness of various interventions, as well as the profiles of those students who have benefited from particular approaches and those who have not, will generate further evidence concerning the psychoeducation of adolescents with ADHD allowing for generalised conclusions to be drawn.

Keywords: treatment, adolescence, attention deficit hyperctivity disorder, cognitive behavioural theory, comorbid social emotional behavioural disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 185