Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Trauma Related Abstracts

40 Effect of Sanitary-Environmental Conditions of Diabetic Hypertension Incidence of Displaced Persons

Authors: Radmila Maksimovic, Sonja Ketin, Rade Biocanin, Jelena Maksimovic

Abstract:

The abnormal conditions of life and work genetic factors often play a major role in incidence of diabetes-diabetes, heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice, and post traumatic stress. Trauma and post traumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons,and the focus of this paper is to shed light on this issue in former Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and now in our country. This is caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies against its own pancreascells, degenerative changes in cells that r esult in change of structure and insulin. In this paper, we dealt with traumatic events and long-term psycho social consequences for internally displaced persons, several years after displacement, and found a high level of PTSD symptoms. This stress is present in almost 1/3 of internally displaced persons, and every sixth person is suffering from PTSD in the past. Respondents generally suffer from symptoms of intrusion, but there was a large number of symptoms, avoidance and increased arousal. We also found that gender, age andeducation related to the symptoms. Females, and older respondents and internally displaced persons with lower levels of education how a higher level of PTSD symptoms, especially symptoms of intrusion and increase darousal. It is a highly traumatized sample in which more than 1/2 of respondents experienced more than three traumatic events in life,although the number of traumas experienced before, during and after the conflict varies.We found that during the war, internally displaced persons haveexperienced more traumatic events compared with the periodbefore and after the conflict. Trauma are different in type. No significant correlation between the number of experienced trauma and PTSD, suggesting that it is necessary to further study the structure of past traumas and the intermediary effects of certain risk factors and protective factors.

Keywords: Trauma, Diabetes, treatment, jaundice, living environment, displaced persons, diabetic hypertension, post-traumatic stress (PTSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
39 The Relationship between First-Day Body Temperature and Mortality in Traumatic Patients

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Sama Haghighi, Ali Hashemaghaee

Abstract:

Background: There are many systems and parameters to evaluate trauma patients in the emergency department. Most of these evaluations are to distinguish patients with worse conditions so that the care systems have a better prediction of condition for a better care-giving. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between axillary body temperature and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple traumas and with other clinical and para-clinical factors. Methods: All patients between 16 and 75 years old with multiple traumas who were admitted into Emergency Department then hospitalized in the ICU were included in our study. An axillary temperature in the first and the second day of admission, Glasgow cola scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, Serum glucose levels, and white blood cell counts of all patients at the admission day were recorded and their relationship with mortality were analyzed by SPSS software with suitable statistical tests. Results: Axillary body temperatures in the first and second day were statistically lower in expired traumatic patients (p=0.001 and p<0,001 respectively). Patients with lower GCS had a significantly lower first-day temperature and a significantly higher mortality. (p=0.006 and p=0.006 respectively). Furthermore, the first-day axillary temperature was significantly lower in patients with a lower first-day systolic blood pressure (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results showed that lower axillary body temperature in the first day is associated with higher mortality, lower GCS, and lower systolic blood pressure. Thus, this could be used as a predictor of mortality in evaluation of traumatic patients in emergency settings.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency, Mortality, fever

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
38 Aggression Related Trauma and Coping among University Students, Exploring Emotional Intelligence Applications on Coping with Aggression Related Trauma

Authors: Asanka Bulathwatta

Abstract:

This Study tries to figure out the role of emotional Intelligence for developing coping strategies among adolescents who face traumatic events. Late adolescence students who have enrolled into the University education (Bachelor students/first-year students) would be selected as the sample. University education is an important stage of students’ academic life. Therefore, all students need to develop their competencies to attain the goal of passing examinations and also to developing their wisdom related to the scientific knowledge they gathered through their academic life. Study to be conducted in a cross-cultural manner and it will be taking place in Germany and Sri Lanka. The sample will be consisting of 200 students from each country. Late adolescence is a critical period of the human being as it is foot step in their life which acquiring the emotional and social qualities in their social life. There are many adolescents who have affected by aggression related traumatic events during their lifespan but have not been identified or treated. More specifically, there are numerous burning issues within the first year of the university students namely, ragging done by seniors to juniors, bulling, invalidation and issues raise based on attitudes changes and orientation issues. Those factors can be traumatic for both their academic and day to day lifestyle. Identifying the students who are with emotional damages and their resiliency afterward the aggression related traumas and effective rehabilitation from the traumatic events is immensely needed in order to facilitate university students for their academic achievements and social life within the University education. Research findings in Germany show that students shows more interpersonal traumas, life-threatening illnesses and death of someone related are common in German sample.

Keywords: Trauma, Coping, Emotional Intelligence, agression

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
37 Fractured Neck of Femur Patients; The Feeding Problems

Authors: F. Christie, M. Staber

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a predictor of poor clinical outcome in the elderly. Up to 60% of hip fracture patients are clinically malnourished on admission. This study assessed the perioperative nutritional state of patients admitted with a proximal femoral fracture and examined if adequate nutritional support was achieved. Methods: Prospective, the observational audit of 30 patients, admitted with a proximal femoral fracture, over a one-month period. We recorded: patient demographics; surgical delay; nutritional state on admission; documentation of Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) score; dietician input and daily calorie intake through food charts. The nutritional state was re-assessed weekly and at discharge. The outcome was measured by the length of hospital stay and thirty-day mortality. Results: Mean age 87, M:F 1:2 and all patients were ASA three or four. Five patients (17%) had a prolonged ( >24 hours) fasting period. All patients had a MUST score completed on admission, 27% were underweight and 30% were high risk for malnutrition. Twenty-six patients (87%) were appropriately assessed for dietician referral. Thirteen patients had food charts; on average, hospital meals provided 1500kcal daily. No patient achieved > 75% of the provided calories with 69% of patients achieving 50% or less. Only three patients were started on nutritional supplements. Twenty-three patients (77%) lost weight, averaging 6% weight loss during admission. Mean length of stay (LOS) was 23 days and 30-day mortality 9%. Four patients (13%) gained weight, their mean LOS was 17 days and 30-day mortality 0%. Discussion: Malnutrition in the elderly originates in the community. Following major trauma it’s difficult to reverse nutritional deficits in hospitals. It’s therefore concerning that no high-risk patient achieved their recommended calorie intake. Perioperative optimisation needs to include early nutritional intervention, early anaesthetic review and adjusted anaesthetic techniques to support feeding.

Keywords: Trauma, Nutrition, neck of femur fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
36 Exploring the Issue of Occult Hypoperfusion in the Pre-Hospital Setting

Authors: A. Fordham, A. Hudson

Abstract:

Background: Studies have suggested 16-25% of normotensive trauma patients with no clinical signs of shock have abnormal lactate and BD readings evidencing shock; a phenomenon known as occult hypoperfusion (OH). In light of the scarce quantity of evidence currently documenting OH, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of OH in the pre-hospital setting and explore ways to improve its identification and management. Methods: A quantitative retrospective data analysis was carried out on 75 sets of patient records for trauma patients treated by Kent Surrey Sussex Air Ambulance Trust between November 2013 and October 2014. The KSS HEMS notes and subsequent ED notes were collected. Trends between patients’ SBP on the scene, whether or not they received PRBCs on the scene as well as lactate and BD readings in the ED were assessed. Patients’ KSS HEMS notes written by the HEMS crew were also reviewed and recorded. Results: -Suspected OH was identified in 7% of the patients who did not receive PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. -SBP heavily influences the physicians’ decision of whether or not to transfuse PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. Preliminary conclusions: OH is an under-studied and underestimated phenomenon. We suggest a prospective trial is carried out to evaluate whether detecting trauma patients’ tissue perfusion status in the pre-hospital phase using portable devices capable of measuring serum BD and/or lactate could aid more accurate detection and management of all haemorrhaging trauma patients, including patients with OH.

Keywords: Trauma, occult hypoperfusion, PRBC transfusion, point of care testing, pre-hospital emergency medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
35 Association of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder with Work Performance amongst Emergency Medical Service Personnel, Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Islam, Salima Kerai, Uzma Khan, Nargis Asad, Junaid Razzak, Omrana Pasha

Abstract:

Background: Pre-hospital care providers are exposed to various kinds of stressors. Their daily exposure to diverse critical and traumatic incidents can lead to stress reactions like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Consequences of PTSD in terms of work loss can be catastrophic because of its compound effect on families, which affect them economically, socially and emotionally. Therefore, it is critical to assess the association between PTSD and Work performance in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) if exist any. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out at AMAN EMS in Karachi, Pakistan. EMS personnel were screened for potential PTSD using impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Work performance was assessed on basis of five variables; number of late arrivals to work, number of days absent, number of days sick, adherence to protocol and patient satisfaction survey over the period of 3 months. In order to model outcomes like number of late arrivals to work, days absent and days late; negative binomial regression was used whereas logistic regression was applied for adherence to protocol and linear for patient satisfaction scores. Results: Out of 536 EMS personnel, 525 were found to be eligible, of them 518 consented. However data on 507 were included because 7 left the job during study period. The mean score of PTSD was found to be 24.0 ± 12.2. However, weak and insignificant association was found between PTSD and work performance measures: number of late arrivals (RRadj 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-1.00), days absent (RRadj 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-0.99), days sick (Rradj 0.99; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.00), adherence to protocol (ORadj 1.01: 95% CI 0.99 to 1.04) and patient satisfaction (0.001% score; 95% CI -0.03% to 0.03%). Conclusion: No association was found between PTSD and Work performance in the selected EMS population in Karachi Pakistan. Further studies are needed to explore the phenomenon of resiliency in these populations. Moreover, qualitative work is required to explore perceptions and feelings like willingness to go to work, readiness to carry out job responsibilities.

Keywords: Trauma, stress, Pakistan, emergency medical service

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
34 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

Abstract:

Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: Trauma, Literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
33 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri

Abstract:

This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Trauma, Memory, Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
32 Capacity Building and Training of Health Personals for Disaster Preparedness in North East India

Authors: U. K. Tamuli

Abstract:

Introduction: North East India is graced with natural beauty and hazards. This area is prone to major earthquakes, floods, landslides, accidents, terrorist activities etc. Academy of Trauma (AOT), an NGO of Doctors, conducts training programs, mock drills, field trials amongst the doctors and paramedics in North East India. The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of such training in terms of sensitivity, awareness, and delivery systems of the products. Here the health care delivery system for disaster management is inadequate. Clear guideline of mass casualty management is unavailable. AOT has initiated steps to increase the awareness and handling of mass casualty management to improve the emergency health care delivery system. Method: AOT has conducted training programmes on emergency health management, mass casualty management and hospital preparedness amongst 800 doctors and 1200 paramedics in twenty-two districts of Assam in Northeast India. The training module consists of lectures, hands-on workshop using manikins, mock drills, distribution of manuals, emergency management exercises, periodic exchange of experience and debriefings. AOT evaluates the impact of these trainings by conducting pre and post tests of delegates, trainer’s evaluation, delegate’s satisfaction and confidence level and their suggestions. Results: The module, training, hands-on workshops, mock drills were highly appreciated. There is significant improvement in scores on the post-training tests. The confidence level of the participants has risen to deal with emergency medical situation Conclusion: These kinds of trainings increase the awareness of the medical members to handle mass casualties in different situations. One such training actually sensitises the delegates. Repetition of such training, TOT (Training-of-Trainers) programs, and individual efforts of delegates are extremely important for sustenance and success of health care delivery service during disasters in the developing countries. Further collaboration, assistance, networking, suggestions from established global agencies in this field will be highly appreciated.

Keywords: Trauma, Capacity building, North East India, non-governmental organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
31 A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?

Authors: Bronwyn Griffin, Caroline Acton, Tona Gillen, Roy Kimble

Abstract:

Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children <17years from (June 2004 –June 2015). Comparing trends to a local study published in 1995 Results: Between 2008-2015 there were 197 patients admitted for greater than 24 hours following a cycling injury. The median age was 11 years, with males more frequently involved (n=139, 87%) compared to females. Mean length of stay was three days, with 47 (28%) children admitted to PICU, location of injury was most often the street (n=63, 37%). Between 2004 –2015 there were 15 fatalities (Incidence rate 0.25/100,000); all were male, 14/15 occurred on the street, with eight stated to have not been wearing a helmet, 11/15 children came from the least advantaged socio-economic group (SEIFA) compared to a local publication in 1995, finding of 94 fatalities between (1981-1992). Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in incidence of fatalities between the two time periods with incidence rates dropping from 1.75-0.25/100,000. More statistics need to be run to ascertain if this is a true reduction or perhaps a decrease in children riding bicycles. Injuries that occur on the street that come in contact with a car remain of serious concern. The purpose of this paper is not to discourage bicycle riding among child and adolescent populations, rather, inform parents and the wider community about the risks associated with cycling in order to reduce injuries associated with this sport, whilst promoting safe cycling.

Keywords: Trauma, Prevention, Emergency, Cycling, paediatric

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
30 Evaluation of the Trauma System in a District Hospital Setting in Ireland

Authors: Ahmeda Ali, Mary Codd, Susan Brundage

Abstract:

Importance: This research focuses on devising and improving Health Service Executive (HSE) policy and legislation and therefore improving patient trauma care and outcomes in Ireland. Objectives: The study measures components of the Trauma System in the district hospital setting of the Cavan/Monaghan Hospital Group (CMHG), HSE, Ireland, and uses the collected data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the CMHG Trauma System organisation, to include governance, injury data, prevention and quality improvement, scene care and facility-based care, and rehabilitation. The information will be made available to local policy makers to provide objective situational analysis to assist in future trauma service planning and service provision. Design, setting and participants: From 28 April to May 28, 2016 a cross-sectional survey using World Health Organisation (WHO) Trauma System Assessment Tool (TSAT) was conducted among healthcare professionals directly involved in the level III trauma system of CMHG. Main outcomes: Identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the Trauma System of CMHG. Results: The participants who reported inadequate funding for pre hospital (62.3%) and facility based trauma care at CMHG (52.5%) were high. Thirty four (55.7%) respondents reported that a national trauma registry (TARN) exists but electronic health records are still not used in trauma care. Twenty one respondents (34.4%) reported that there are system wide protocols for determining patient destination and adequate, comprehensive legislation governing the use of ambulances was enforced, however, there is a lack of a reliable advisory service. Over 40% of the respondents reported uncertainty of the injury prevention programmes available in Ireland; as well as the allocated government funding for injury and violence prevention. Conclusions: The results of this study contributed to a comprehensive assessment of the trauma system organisation. The major findings of the study identified three fundamental areas: the inadequate funding at CMHG, the QI techniques and corrective strategies used, and the unfamiliarity of existing prevention strategies. The findings direct the need for further research to guide future development of the trauma system at CMHG (and in Ireland as a whole) in order to maximise best practice and to improve functional and life outcomes.

Keywords: Education, Management, Trauma, System

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
29 A Case Study of a Rehabilitated Child by Joint Efforts of Parents and Community

Authors: Fouzia Arif, Arif S. Mohammad, Hifsa Altaf, Lubna Raees

Abstract:

Introduction: The term "disability", refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. In developing countries like Pakistan, disable population is usually excluded from the mainstream. In squatter settlements the situation is more critical. Sultanabad is one of the squatter settlements of Karachi. Purpose of case study is to improve the health of disabled children’s, and create awareness among the parents and community. Through a household visit, Shiraz, a young disabled boy of 15.5 years old was identified. Her mother articulated that her son was living normally and happily with his parents two years back. When he was 13 years old and student of class 8th, both his legs were traumatized in a Railway Train Accident while playing cricket. He got both femoral shaft fractured severely. He was taken to Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC) where his left leg was amputated at above knee level and right leg was opened & fixed by reduction internally, luckily bone healed moderately with the passage of time. Methods: In Squatter settlements of Karachi Sultanabad, a survey was conducted in two sectors. Disability screening questionnaire was developed, collaboration with community through household visits, outreach sessions 23cases of disabled were identified who were socialized through sports, Musical program and get-together was organized with stockholder for creating awareness among community and parent’s. Collaboration was established with different NGOs, Government, stakeholders and community support for establishment of Physiotherapy Center. During home visit it was identified that Shiraz was on bed since last 1 year, his family could not afforded cost of physiotherapist and medical consultation due to poverty. Parents counseling was done mentioning that Shiraz needed to take treatment. After motivation his parents agreed for treatment. He was consulted by an orthopedic surgeon in AKUH, Who referred to DMC University of Health Science for rehabilitation service. There he was assessed and referred for Community Based Physiotherapy Centre Sultanabad. Physiotherapist visited home along with Coordinator for Special children and assessed him regularly, planned Physiotherapy treatment for abdominal, high muscles strutting exercise foot muscles strengthening exercise, knee mobilization weight bearing from partial to full weight gradually, also strengthen exercise were given for residual limb as the boy was dependent on it. He was also provided by an artificial leg and training was done. Result: Shiraz is now fully mobile, he can walk independently even out of home, functional ability progress improved and dependency factors reduced. It was difficult but not impossible. We all have sympathy but if we have empathy then we can rehabilitate the community in a better way. His parents are very happy and also the community is surprised to see him in such better condition. Conclusion: Combined efforts of physiotherapist, Coordinator of special children, community and parents made a drastic change in Shiraz’s case by continuously motivating him for better outcome. He is going to school regularly without support. Since he belongs to a poor family he faces financial constraints for education and clinical follow ups regularly.

Keywords: Trauma, femoral shaft fracture, orthopedic surgeon, physiotherapy treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
28 Injury Pattern of Field Hockey Players at Different Field Position during Game and Practice

Authors: Sujay Bisht

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess and examines the pattern of injury among the field hockey players at different field position during practice & game. It was hypothesized that the backfield might have the height rate of injury, followed by midfield. Methods: university level and national level male field hockey (N=60) are selected as a subject and requested to respond an anon questionnaire. Personal characteristics of each and individual players were also collected like (age, height, weight); field hockey professional information (level of play, year of experience, playing surface); players injury history (site, types, cause etc). The rates of injury per athlete per year were also calculated. Result: Around half of the injury occurred were to the lower limbs (49%) followed by head and face (30%), upper limbs (19%) and torso region (2%). Injuries included concussion, wounds, broken nose, ligament sprain, dislocation, fracture, and muscles strain and knee injury. The ligament sprain is the highest rate (40%) among the other types of injuries. After investigation and evaluation backfield players had the highest rate of risk of injury (1.10 injury/athletes-year) followed by midfield players (0.70 injury/athlete-year), forward players (0.45 injury/athlete-year) & goalkeeper was (0.37 injury/athlete-year). Conclusion: Due to the different field position the pattern & rate of injury were different. After evaluation, lower limbs had the highest rate of injury followed by head and face, upper limbs and torso respectively. It also revealed that not only there is a difference in the rate of injury between playing the position, but also in the types of injury sustain at a different position.

Keywords: Trauma, strain, sprain, astroturf, acute injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
27 Predictors of Recent Work-Related Injury in a Rapidly Developing Country: Results from a Worker Survey in Qatar

Authors: Ruben Peralta, Sam Thomas, Nazia Hirani, Ayman El-Menyar, Hassan Al-Thani, Mohammed Al-Thani, Mohammed Al-Hajjaj, Rafael Consunji

Abstract:

Moderate to severe work-related injuries [WRI's] are a leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar but information on risk factors for their incidence are lacking. This study aims to document and analyze the predictive characteristics for WRI to inform the creation of targeted interventions to improve worker safety in Qatar. This study was conducted as part of the NPRP grant # 7 - 1120 - 3 - 288, titled "A Unified Registry for Occupational Injury Prevention in Qatar”. 266 workers were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, during ‘World Day for Safety and Health at Work’, a Ministry of Public Health event, none refused interview. Nurses and doctors from the Hamad Trauma Center conducted the interviews. Questions were translated into the worker’s native language when it was deemed necessary. Standard information on epidemiologic characteristics and incidence of work-related injury were collected and compared between nationalities and those injured versus those not injured. 262 males and 4 females were interviewed. 17 [6.4%] reported a WRI in the last 24 months. More than half of the injured worked in construction [59%] followed by water supply [11.8%]. Factors significantly associated with recent injury were: Working for a company with > 500 employees and speaking Hindi. Protective characteristics included: Being from the Philippines or Sri Lanka, speaking Arabic, working in healthcare, an office or trading and company size between 100-500 employees. Years of schooling and working in Qatar were not predictive factor for WRI. The findings from this survey should guide future research that will better define worker populations at an increased risk for WRI and inform recruiters and sending countries. A focus on worker language skills, interventions in the construction industry and occupational safety in large companies is needed.

Keywords: Trauma, Safety, Prevention, occupational injury, work related injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
26 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: S. Kumar, A. Gupta, G. Kaushik, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Sagar

Abstract:

Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: Trauma, Alcohol, Emergency Department, Road Traffic Injuries

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
25 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Medicine, Electrolyte, Maintenance, Fluid, Emergency Department, Major trauma, intravenous, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluid therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
24 Primary Care Physicians in Urgent Care Centres of the United Kingdom

Authors: Ahmed Ismail, Mohammad Ansari, Satinder Mann

Abstract:

Overcrowding in Emergency departments (ED) of United Kingdom has become a common problem. Urgent Care centres were developed nearly a decade ago to reduce pressure on EDs. Unfortunately, the development of Urgent Care centres has failed to produce the projected effects. It was thought that nearly 40% patients attending ED would go to Urgent Care centres and these would be staffed by Primary care Physicians. Data reveals that no more than 20% patients were seen by Primary Care Physicians even when the Urgent Care Centre was based in the ED. This study was carried out at the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK where the Urgent Care centre was based in the ED and employed Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma for nearly one year. This was then followed by a Primary Care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number of patients seen during these periods and the cost-effectiveness of the service.We randomly selected a week of patients seen by Primary Care Physicians with special interest in Trauma and by Primary Care Physicians and the Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number and type of patients seen during these two periods. Nearly 38% patients were seen by Primary care Physician with special interest in Trauma, whilst only 14.3% patients were seen by the Primary care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. The Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma were paid less. Our study confirmed that unless Primary Care Physicians are able to treat minor trauma and interpret x-rays, the urgent care service is not going to be cost effective. Numerous previous studies have shown that 15 to 20% patients attending ED can be treated by Primary Care Physicians who do not require any investigations for their management. It is advantageous to have Urgent Care Centres within the ED because if the patient deteriorates they can be transferred to ED. We recommend that the Urgent care Centres should be a part of ED. Our study shows that Urgent care Centres in the ED can be helpful and cost effective if staffed by either senior Emergency Physicians or Primary Care Physicians with special interest and experience in the management of minor trauma.

Keywords: Trauma, Primary Care Physician, urgent care centres, advanced nurse practitioner

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
23 Development of a Nurse Led Tranexamic Acid Administration Protocol for Trauma Patients in Rural South Africa

Authors: Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith

Abstract:

Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within 3 hours of injury. Due to geographical distance and lack of emergency medical services patients often present late, following trauma, to our emergency department. Additionally, we found patients that may have benefited from TXA did not receive it, often due to lack of staff awareness, staff shortages out of hours and lack of equipment for delivering infusions. Our objective was to develop a protocol for nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency department. We developed a protocol using physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We will monitor the use of the protocol to ensure appropriate compliance and for any adverse events reported.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Nursing, Rural healthcare, Emergency Department, triage, tranexamic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
22 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: Trauma, Acute Kidney Injury, lactate, transfusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
21 The Juxtaposition of Home in Toni Morrison's Home: Ironic Functions as Trauma and Healing

Authors: Imas Istiani

Abstract:

The concept of home is usually closely related to the place of safety and security. For people who have travelled far and long, they long to be united with home to feel safe, secure and comfortable. However, for some people, especially for veterans, home cannot offer them those feelings, on the contrary, it can give them the sense of insecurity as well as guilty. Thus, its juxtaposed concept can also put home as an uncanny place that represses and haunt its occupant. As for veterans, 'survivor guilt' overpowers them in the way that it will be hard for them to embrace the comfort that home offers. In Home, Toni Morrison poignantly depicts Frank’s life upon returning from the war. Burdened with his traumatic experiences, Frank finds home full with terror, guilt, fear, grief, and loss. Using Dominick laCapra’s 'Trauma Theory,' the study finds that Frank works through his trauma by being able to distinguish between past and present so that he can overcome those repressed feelings. Aside from his inner healing power, Frank digests the process of working through with the help of home and community, as proposed by Evelyn Jaffe Schreiber claiming that community can help survivors to heal from traumatic experiences. Thus, Home has two juxtaposed functions; both as traumatizing and healing place.

Keywords: Trauma, Healing, trauma theory, home

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
20 The Effect of Parental Incarceration on Early Adolescent’s Eating and Sleeping Habits

Authors: Lauren Booker

Abstract:

In the United States, over 2.5 million children have incarcerated parents. Recent studies have shown 13% of young adults and one-fourth of African Americans will experience parental incarceration. The increasing numbers of incarcerated citizens have left these children as collateral damage and are often forgotten, their special needs inadequately meet or understood. Parental arrest and incarceration creates a uniquely traumatic experience in childhood and has long-term consequences for these children. Until recently, the eating and sleeping habits following parental incarceration had been nonexistent in the literature. However, even this groundbreaking study on eating habits and sleeping disorders following parental incarceration did not touch on the root causes of unhealthy eating which may be influenced by food and housing insecurity and environmental factors that may impact a child’s healthy eating and sleeping behaviors. This study will examine those factors as it could greatly aid in the policies and programs that affect children’s health and development. This proposed study will examine the impact of traumatic stress reactions to parental incarceration by studying sleep and eating habits as the hypothesis is that parental incarceration will lead to disordered eating and sleep disturbances in early adolescents.

Keywords: Trauma, Eating Disorder, parental incarceration, family instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
19 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Problem Alcohol Use in Women: Systematic Analysis

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaitė

Abstract:

Study Aims: The current study aimed to systematically analyse various research done in the area of female post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse, and to critically review these results on the basis of theoretical models as well as answer following questions: (I) What is the reciprocal relationship between PTSD and problem alcohol use among females; (II) What are the moderating/mediating factors of this relationship? Methods: The computer bibliographic databases Ebsco, Scopus, Springer, Web of Science, Medline, Science Direct were used to search for scientific articles. Systematic analyses sample consisted of peer-reviewed, English written articles addressing mixed gender and female PTSD and alcohol abuse issues from Jan 2012 to May 2017. Results: Total of 1011 articles were found in scientific databases related to searched keywords of which 29 met the selection criteria and were analysed. The results of longitudinal studies indicate that (I) various trauma, especially interpersonal trauma exposure in childhood is linked with increased risk of revictimization in later life and problem alcohol use; (II) revictimization in adolescence or adulthood, rather than victimization in childhood has a greater impact on the onset and progression of problematic alcohol use in adulthood. Cross-sectional and epidemiological studies also support significant relationships between female PTSD and problem alcohol use. Regards to the negative impact of alcohol use on PTSD symptoms results are yet controversial; some evidence suggests that alcohol does not exacerbate symptoms of PTSD over time, while others argue that problem alcohol use worsens PTSD symptoms and is linked to chronicity of both disorders, especially among women with previous alcohol use problems. Analysis of moderating/mediating factors of PTSD and problem alcohol use revealed, that higher motives/expectancies, specifically distress coping motives for alcohol use significantly moderates the relationship between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Whereas negative affective states mediate relationship between symptoms of PTSD and alcohol use, but only among woman with alcohol use problems already developed. Conclusions: Interpersonal trauma experience, especially in childhood and its reappearance in lifetime is linked with PTSD symptoms and problem drinking among women. Moreover, problem alcohol use can be both a cause and a consequence of trauma and PTSD, and if used for coping it, increases the likelihood of chronicity of both disorders. In order to effectively treat both disorders, it’s worthwhile taking into account this dynamic interplay of women's PTSD symptoms and problem drinking.

Keywords: Trauma, Female, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, problem alcohol use, systemic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
18 Use of Selected Cytokines in the Early SIRS/MODS Diagnostic Testing at Patients after Trauma

Authors: Slawomir Pilip, Daniel Celinski, Grzegorz Michalak, Aneta Binkowska, Lukasz Bondaruk, Robert Slotwinski

Abstract:

Post-traumatic mortality rates are still very high and show an increasing tendency. Early identification of patients at high risk of severe complications has a significant impact on treatment outcomes. The aim of the study was to better understand the early pathological inflammatory response to injury and infection and to determine the usefulness of the assessment of TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in the peripheral blood as early indicators of severe post-traumatic complications. The study was carried out in a group of 51 patients after trauma treated in the ED, including 32 patients that met inclusion criteria for immunological analysis. Patients were divided into two groups using the ISS scale (group A with ISS ≥20, group B with ISS <20). Serum levels of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were determined after admission to the ED and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The highest TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in both groups were recorded at admission and were significantly higher in group A compared to group B (A vs B TNF-α 2.46 pg/ml vs 1.78 pg/ml; sTNFR1 1667.5 pg/ml vs 875.2 p<0.005). The concentration of sTNFR1 in patients with severe complications was significantly higher compared to patients without complications and preceded clinical symptoms of complications ( C+ vs C- 1561.5 pg/ml vs 930.6 pg/ml). Spearman's correlation showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the baseline concentrations of IL-6 (r=0.38, p<0.043) and sTNFR1 (r=0.59, p=0.001) and the ISS scores. The high diagnostic sensitivity calculated from the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves was found for the concentrations of both cytokines: TNF α (AUC=0.91, p=0.004) and sTNFR1 (AUC=0.86, p=0.011). Elevated levels of sTNFR1, determined in the peripheral blood shortly after injury, is significantly associated with the occurrence of later complications, which in some patients lead to death. In contrast, high levels of TNF-α shortly after injury are associated with high mortality.

Keywords: Trauma, cytokine, SIRS, MODS

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
17 Assessing the Efficiency of Pre-Hospital Scoring System with Conventional Coagulation Tests Based Definition of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

Authors: Venencia Albert, Arulselvi Subramanian, Hara Prasad Pati, Asok K. Mukhophadhyay

Abstract:

Acute traumatic coagulopathy in an endogenous dysregulation of the intrinsic coagulation system in response to the injury, associated with three-fold risk of poor outcome, and is more amenable to corrective interventions, subsequent to early identification and management. Multiple definitions for stratification of the patients' risk for early acute coagulopathy have been proposed, with considerable variations in the defining criteria, including several trauma-scoring systems based on prehospital data. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant definition for acute coagulopathy of trauma based on conventional coagulation assays and to assess its efficacy in comparison to recently established prehospital prediction models. Methodology: Retrospective data of all trauma patients (n = 490) presented to our level I trauma center, in 2014, was extracted. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to establish cut-offs for conventional coagulation assays for identification of patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy was done. Prospectively data of (n = 100) adult trauma patients was collected and cohort was stratified by the established definition and classified as "coagulopathic" or "non-coagulopathic" and correlated with the Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score and Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score for identifying trauma coagulopathy and subsequent risk for mortality. Results: Data of 490 trauma patients (average age 31.85±9.04; 86.7% males) was extracted. 53.3% had head injury, 26.6% had fractures, 7.5% had chest and abdominal injury. Acute traumatic coagulopathy was defined as international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s. Of the 100 adult trauma patients (average age 36.5±14.2; 94% males), 63% had early coagulopathy based on our conventional coagulation assay definition. Overall prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score was 118.7±58.5 and trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score was 3(0-8). Both the scores were higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score 123.2±8.3 vs. 110.9±6.8, p-value = 0.31; trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score 4(3-8) vs. 3(0-8), p-value = 0.89), but not statistically significant. Overall mortality was 41%. Mortality rate was significantly higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (75.5% vs. 54.2%, p-value = 0.04). High prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score also significantly associated with mortality (134.2±9.95 vs. 107.8±6.82, p-value = 0.02), whereas trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score did not vary be survivors and non-survivors. Conclusion: Early coagulopathy was seen in 63% of trauma patients, which was significantly associated with mortality. Acute traumatic coagulopathy defined by conventional coagulation assays (international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s) demonstrated good ability to identify coagulopathy and subsequent mortality, in comparison to the prehospital parameter-based scoring systems. Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score may be more suited for predicting mortality rather than early coagulopathy. In emergency trauma situations, where immediate corrective measures need to be taken, complex multivariable scoring algorithms may cause delay, whereas coagulation parameters and conventional coagulation tests will give highly specific results.

Keywords: Trauma, model, prediction, coagulopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
16 Utility of Thromboelastography Derived Maximum Amplitude and R-Time (MA-R) Ratio as a Predictor of Mortality in Trauma Patients

Authors: Arulselvi Subramanian, Albert Venencia, Sanjeev Bhoi

Abstract:

Coagulopathy of trauma is an early endogenous coagulation abnormality that occurs shortly resulting in high mortality. In emergency trauma situations, viscoelastic tests may be better in identifying the various phenotypes of coagulopathy and demonstrate the contribution of platelet function to coagulation. We aimed to determine thrombin generation and clot strength, by estimating a ratio of Maximum amplitude and R-time (MA-R ratio) for identifying trauma coagulopathy and predicting subsequent mortality. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of acutely injured trauma patients of the adult age groups (18- 50 years), admitted within 24hrs of injury, for one year at a Level I trauma center and followed up on 3rd day and 5th day of injury. Patients with h/o coagulation abnormalities, liver disease, renal impairment, with h/o intake of drugs were excluded. Thromboelastography was done and a ratio was calculated by dividing the MA by the R-time (MA-R). Patients were further stratified into sub groups based on the calculated MA-R quartiles. First sampling was done within 24 hours of injury; follow up on 3rd and 5thday of injury. Mortality was the primary outcome. Results: 100 acutely injured patients [average, 36.6±14.3 years; 94% male; injury severity score 12.2(9-32)] were included in the study. Median (min-max) on admission MA-R ratio was 15.01(0.4-88.4) which declined 11.7(2.2-61.8) on day three and slightly rose on day 5 13.1(0.06-68). There were no significant differences between sub groups in regard to age, or gender. In the lowest MA-R ratios subgroup; MA-R1 (<8.90; n = 27), injury severity score was significantly elevated. MA-R2 (8.91-15.0; n = 23), MA-R3 (15.01-19.30; n = 24) and MA-R4 (>19.3; n = 26) had no difference between their admission laboratory investigations, however slight decline was observed in hemoglobin, red blood cell count and platelet counts compared to the other subgroups. Also significantly prolonged R time, shortened alpha angle and MA were seen in MA-R1. Elevated incidence of mortality also significantly correlated with on admission low MA-R ratios (p 0.003). Temporal changes in the MA-R ratio did not correlated with mortality. Conclusion: The MA-R ratio provides a snapshot of early clot function, focusing specifically on thrombin burst and clot strength. In our observation, patients with the lowest MA-R time ratio (MA-R1) had significantly increased mortality compared with all other groups (45.5% MA-R1 compared with <25% in MA-R2 to MA-R3, and 9.1% in MA-R4; p < 0.003). Maximum amplitude and R-time may prove highly useful to predict at-risk patients early, when other physiologic indicators are absent.

Keywords: Trauma, Mortality, coagulopathy, thromboelastography

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
15 Implementation of an Accessible State-Wide Trauma Education Program

Authors: Christine Lassen, Elizabeth Leonard, Matthew Oliver

Abstract:

The management of trauma is often complex and outcomes dependent on clinical expertise, effective teamwork, and a supported trauma system. The implementation of a statewide trauma education program should be accessible to all clinicians who manage trauma, but this can be challenging due to diverse individual needs, trauma service needs and geography. The NSW Institute of Trauma and Injury Management (ITIM) is a government funded body, responsible for coordinating and supporting the NSW Trauma System. The aim of this presentation is to describe how education initiatives have been implemented across the state. Simulation: In 2006, ITIM developed a Trauma Team Training Course - aimed to educate clinicians on the technical and non-technical skills required to manage trauma. The course is now independently coordinated by trauma services across the state at major trauma centres as well as in regional and rural hospitals. ITIM is currently in the process of re-evaluating and updating the Trauma Team Training Course to allow for the development of new resources and simulation scenarios. Trauma Education Evenings: In 2013, ITIM supported major trauma services to develop trauma education evenings which allowed the provision of free education to staff within the area health service and local area. The success of these local events expanded to regional hospitals. A total of 75 trauma education evenings have been conducted within NSW, with over 10,000 attendees. Wed-Based Resources: Recently, ITIM commenced free live streaming of the trauma education evenings which have now had over 3000 live views. The Trauma App developed in 2015 provides trauma clinicians with a centralised portal for trauma information and works on smartphones and tablets that integrate with the ITIM website. This supports pre-hospital and bedside clinical decisions and allows for trauma care to be more standardised, evidence-based, timely, and appropriate. Online e-Learning modules have been developed to assist clinicians, reduce unwarranted clinical variation and provide up to date evidence based education. The modules incorporate clinically focused education content with summative and formative assessments. Conclusion: Since 2005, ITIM has helped to facilitate the development of trauma education programs for doctors, nurses, pre-hospital and allied health clinicians. ITIM has been actively involved in more than 100 specialized trauma education programs, seminars and clinical workshops - attended by over 12,000 staff. The provision of state-wide trauma education is a challenging task requiring collaboration amongst numerous agencies working towards a common goal – to provide easily accessible trauma education.

Keywords: Education, Simulation, Trauma, team-training

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
14 Demographic Characteristics and Factors Affecting Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients Who Are Admitted to Emergency Service

Authors: Latif Duran, Erdem Aydin, Ahmet Baydin, Ali Kemal Erenler, Iskender Aksoy

Abstract:

Aim: In this retrospective study, we aim to contribute to the literature by presenting the proposals for taking measures to reduce the mortality by examining the demographic characteristics of the pediatric age group patients presenting with trauma and the factors that may cause mortality Material and Method: This study has been performed by retrospectively investigating the data obtained from the patient files and the hospital automation registration system of the pediatric trauma patients who applied to the Adult Emergency Department of the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Results: 289 of 415 patients involved in our study, were males. The median age was 11.3 years. The most common trauma mechanism was falling from the high. A significant statistical difference was found on the association between trauma mechanisms and gender. An increase in the number of trauma cases was found especially in the summer months. The study showed that thoracic and abdominal trauma was relevant to the increased mortality. Computerized tomography was the most common diagnostic imaging modality. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage has increased the risk of mortality by 62.3 fold. Eight of the patients (1.9%) died. Scoring systems were statistically significant to predict mortality. Conclusion: Children are vulnerable to trauma because of their unique anatomical and physiological differences compared to adult patient groups. It will be more successful in the mortality rate and in the post-traumatic healing process by administering the patient triage fast and most appropriate trauma centers in the prehospital period, management of the critical patients with the scoring systems and management with standard treatment protocols

Keywords: Trauma, emergency service, age groups, scoring systems, pediatric patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
13 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

Abstract:

According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: Trauma, Human Rights, Culture, Identity, Children, Memory, Indigenous, drama, Australia, audience, stage, setting, aboriginal, home, Jane Harrison, scenic effects, stage directions, Stolen

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
12 Secondary Traumatic Stress and Related Factors in Australian Social Workers and Psychologists

Authors: Cindy Davis, Samantha Rayner

Abstract:

Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an indirect form of trauma affecting the psychological well-being of mental health workers; STS is found to be a prevalent risk in mental health occupations. Various factors impact the development of STS within the literature; including the level of trauma individuals are exposed to and their level of empathy. Research is limited on STS in mental health workers in Australia; therefore, this study examined STS and related factors of empathetic behavior and trauma caseload among mental health workers. The research utilized an online survey quantitative research design with a purposive sample of 190 mental health workers (176 females) recruited via professional websites and unofficial social media groups. Participants completed an online questionnaire comprising of demographics, the secondary traumatic stress scale and the empathy scale for social workers. A standard hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the significance of covariates, traumatized clients, traumatic stress within workload and empathy in predicting STS. The current research found 29.5% of participants to meet the criteria for a diagnosis of STS. Age and past trauma within the covariates were significantly associated with STS. Amount of traumatized clients significantly predicted 4.7% of the variance in STS, traumatic stress within workload significantly predicted 4.8% of the variance in STS and empathy significantly predicted 4.9% of the variance in STS. These three independent variables and the covariates accounted for 18.5% of the variance in STS. Practical implications include a focus on developing risk strategies and treatment methods that can diminish the impact of STS.

Keywords: Trauma, Mental Health, Social Work, PTSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
11 The Severity of Electric Bicycle Injuries Compared to Classic Bicycle Injuries in Children: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Tali Capua, Karin Hermon, Miguel Glatstein, Oren Tavor, Ayelet Rimon

Abstract:

Background: Electric bicycles (E-bikes) are one of a wide range of light electric vehicles that provide convenient local transportation and attractive recreational opportunities. Along with their growing use worldwide, the E-bike related injury rate increases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically compare E-bike with classic bicycle related injuries in children. Methods: Data of all pediatric ( < 16 years of age) bicycle related injuries presenting to an urban level I trauma center between 2014 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. The recorded data included age, gender, details of the accident, as well severity of injury, medical diagnosis, and the outcome. Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were calculated for each patient. Data of E-bike related injuries and classic bicycle were then compared. Results: A total of 124 bicycle related injuries and 97 E-bike related injuries presented to the emergency department. Once pedestrians and bicycle passengers were removed, the groups of riders consisted of 111 bikers and 85 E-bikers. The mean age of bikers was 9.9 years (range 3-16 years) and of E-bikers was 13.7 years (range 7.5-16 years). Injuries to the head and the extremities were common in both groups. Compared to bikers, E-bikers had significantly more injuries to intra-abdominal organs (p = 0.04). Twenty patients (16%) with bicycle related injuries were admitted, and 13 (15%) patients with E-bike related injuries, of the latter group four underwent surgical intervention. ISS scores were low overall, but the injuries of higher severity (ISS > 9) were among the E-bikers. Conclusions: This study provides unique information which suggests that injuries in E-bikers tend to be more severe than in classic bikers. There is a need for regulation regarding the use of E-bikes to enhance the safety of both bikers and other road and pavement users.

Keywords: Trauma, Pediatric, Injury, bicycle, electric bicycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 32