Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Transportation Related Abstracts

43 Accessibility of the Labor Market in Indonesian Cities

Authors: Hananto Prakoso, Jean-Pierre Orfeuil

Abstract:

The relationship between city size, urban transport efficiency (speed), employment proximity (distance) and accessibility of labour market is rarely examined especially in developing countries. This paper reveals the relationship using 2 points of views (active population and company). Then the analysis is divided according to 3 transport modes (car, public transport and motorcycle) and takes into account the vehicle ownership rate. We employ data across 111 districts in 4 big cities of Indonesia. In our result, speed indicator contributed positively to accessibility of labour market while distance elasticity is negative. In absolute value, elasticity of speed indicator is higher than that of distance.

Keywords: Transportation, labour market, travel time, travel cost threshold

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42 Providing a Road Pricing and Toll Allocation Method for Toll Roads

Authors: Ali Babaei

Abstract:

There is a worldwide growing tendency toward construction of infrastructures with the possibility of private sector participation instead of free exploitation of public infrastructures. The construction and development of roads through private sector participation is performed by different countries because of appropriate results and benefits such as compensation of public budget deficit in road construction and maintenance and responding to traffic growth (demand). Toll is the most definite form of budget provision in road development. There are two issues in the toll rate assignment: A. costing of transport, B. Cost allocation and distribution of cost between different types of vehicles as each vehicle pay its own share. There can be different goals in toll collection and its extent is variable according to the strategy of toll collection. Costing principles in different countries are based on inclusion of the whole transport and not peculiar to the toll roads. For example, fuel tax policy functions where the road network users pay transportation cost (not just users of toll road). Whereas transportation infrastructures in Iran are free, these methods are not applicable. In Iran, different toll freeways have built by public investment and government provides participation in the road construction through encouragement of financial institutions. In this paper, the existing policies about the toll roads are studied and then the appropriate method of costing and cost allocation to different vehicles is introduced.

Keywords: Transportation, Financial and Industrial Systems, toll allocation, road pricing

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41 A Novel Solution Methodology for Transit Route Network Design Problem

Authors: Ghada Moussa, Mamoud Owais

Abstract:

Transit Route Network Design Problem (TrNDP) is the most important component in Transit planning, in which the overall cost of the public transportation system highly depends on it. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel solution methodology for the TrNDP, which goes beyond pervious traditional sophisticated approaches. The novelty of the solution methodology, adopted in this paper, stands on the deterministic operators which are tackled to construct bus routes. The deterministic manner of the TrNDP solution relies on using linear and integer mathematical formulations that can be solved exactly with their standard solvers. The solution methodology has been tested through Mandl’s benchmark network problem. The test results showed that the methodology developed in this research is able to improve the given network solution in terms of number of constructed routes, direct transit service coverage, transfer directness and solution reliability. Although the set of routes resulted from the methodology would stand alone as a final efficient solution for TrNDP, it could be used as an initial solution for meta-heuristic procedures to approach global optimal. Based on the presented methodology, a more robust network optimization tool would be produced for public transportation planning purposes.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transportation, Integer Programming, transit route design

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40 A Comparative Analysis of Conventional and Organic Dairy Supply Chain: Assessing Transport Costs and External Effects in Southern Sweden

Authors: Vivianne Aggestam

Abstract:

Purpose: Organic dairy products have steadily increased with consumer popularity in recent years in Sweden, permitting more transport activities. The main aim of this study was to compare the transport costs and the environmental emissions made by the organic and conventional dairy production in Sweden. The objective was to evaluate differences and environmental impacts of transport between the two different production systems, allowing a more transparent understanding of the real impact of transport within the supply chain. Methods: A partial attributional Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted based on a comprehensive survey of Swedish farmers, dairies and consumers regarding their transport needs and costs. Interviews addressed the farmers and dairies. Consumers were targeted through an online survey. Results: Higher transport inputs from conventional dairy transportation are mainly via feed and soil management on farm level. The regional organic milk brand illustrate less initial transport burdens on farm level, however, after leaving the farm, it had equal or higher transportation requirements. This was mainly due to the location of the dairy farm and shorter product expiry dates, which requires more frequent retail deliveries. Organic consumers tend to use public transport more than private vehicles. Consumers using private vehicles for shopping trips primarily bought conventional products for which price was the main deciding factor. Conclusions: Organic dairy products that emphasise its regional attributes do not ensure less transportation and may therefore not be a more “climate smart” option for the consumer. This suggests that the idea of localism needs to be analysed from a more systemic perspective. Fuel and regional feed efficiency can be further implemented, mainly via fuel type and the types of vehicles used for transport.

Keywords: Transportation, Distribution, Supply Chains, organic food productions, conventional food production, agricultural fossil fuel use

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39 Impact Logistic Management to Reduce Costs

Authors: Waleerak Sittisom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to analyze transportation route management, to identify potential cost reductions in logistic operation. In-depth interview techniques and small group discussions were utilized with 25 participants from various backgrounds in the areas of logistics. The findings of this research revealed that there were four areas that companies are able to effectively manage a logistic cost reduction: managing the space within the transportation vehicles, managing transportation personnel, managing transportation cost, and managing control of transportation. On the other hand, there were four areas that companies were unable to effectively manage a logistic cost reduction: the working process of transportation, the route planning of transportation, the service point management, and technology management. There are five areas that cost reduction is feasible: personnel management, process of working, map planning, service point planning, and technology implementation. To be able to reduce costs, the transportation companies should suggest that customers use a file system to save truck space. Also, the transportation companies need to adopt new technology to manage their information system so that packages can be reached easy, safe, and fast. Staff needs to be trained regularly to increase knowledge and skills. Teamwork is required to effectively reduce the costs.

Keywords: Management, Logistics, Transportation, Cost Reduction

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38 Effects of Methods of Confinement during Transportation of Market Pigs on Meat Quality

Authors: Pongchan Na-Lampang

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the results of transport of slaughter pigs to slaughterhouse by 2 methods, i.e. individual confined and group confined on the truck on meat quality. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35 m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for group and individual crate treatment, respectively. It was found that meat quality of pigs transported by 2 different methods as measured in terms of pH level (at 45 min and 48 hr post mortem), color (brightness, redness and yellowness) and water holding capacity was not significantly different.

Keywords: Transportation, Meat Quality, confinement, market pig

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37 A Novel Technological Approach to Maintaining the Cold Chain during Transportation

Authors: Philip J. Purnell

Abstract:

Innovators propose to use the Internet of Things to solve the problem of maintaining the cold chain during the transport of biopharmaceutical products. Sending a data logger with refrigerated goods is only useful to inform the recipient of the goods that they have either breached the cold chain and are therefore potentially spoiled or that they have not breached it and are therefore assumed to be in good condition. Connecting the data logger to the Internet of Things means that the supply chain manager will be informed in real-time of the exact location and the precise temperature of the material at any point on earth. Readable using a simple online interface, the supply chain manager will watch the progress of their material on a Google map together with accurate and crucially real-time temperature readings. The data logger will also send alarms to the supply chain manager if a cold chain breach becomes imminent allowing them time to contact the transporter and restore the cold chain before the material is affected. This development is expected to save billions of dollars in wasted biologics that currently arrive either spoiled or in an unreliable condition.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Transportation, Cold Chain, data logger

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36 Assessing the Community Change Effects of Transit Oriented Development in Jabodetabek, Indonesia

Authors: Hayati Sari Hasibuan, Tresna P. Soemardi, Raldi H. Koestoer, Setyo S. Moersidik

Abstract:

Facing the severe transportation system in daily basis, the government of Indonesia were searching an alternative solution to combat the acute traffic jam and the socio-economic negative effects and pollutions resulted. Transit-oriented development as a strategy in reformulating and restructuring of the urban land uses as well as the transport system will be implemented in many urban areas in Indonesia, especially in Jabodetabek. Jabodetabek is the greatest metropolitan area in Indonesia with 27.9 million inhabitants. The Jabodetabek is also the center of economic activity with gross domestic product around 22 percent of gross national product. This study aims to assess the potential of economic development and community change effects with implementing the transit oriented development. This study found that using transit oriented development as an alternative approach in reconstructing of urban land uses in metropolitan region will effect to the behaviour of urban mobilities, the housing choices, and the cost of transportation. The sustainable of socio-economic aspects resulting from the transit oriented development is the main focus of this paper. The challenge here is to explore the characteristics of transit oriented development that suitable for metropolitan region in developing country,which considering the uniqueness of nature and socio-cultural that shapes this urban.

Keywords: Economic Development, Transportation, Environment, Land Use, community change, restructuring

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35 Exposure to Particulate Matter Taking Various Transportation Modes in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Mona Loraine M. Barabad, Duckshin Park, Michael E. Versoza

Abstract:

This study gives a comparison of the commuters’ exposure to particulate matter while taking different transportation mode (jeepney, motorcycle and taxi) in Cebu City, Philippines. A personal aerosol monitor (Sidepak AM510) was used for data collection; in addition, both temperature and humidity were also documented. Analysis was done and showed that Jeepney, which is the most commonly used mode in the country, has the highest PM collected having an average of 358.0μg/m^3, followed by the motorcycle with an average of 244.6 μg/m^3. The taxi recorded to have an average of 50.0 μg/m^3 and the lowest between the microenvironments sampled. The outcome was greatly significant to the traffic volume together with several factors that could possibly affect the result. However, due to the lack of time and resources, the data collected was limited. Further and thorough investigation should be implemented to provide more essential information regarding the subject.

Keywords: Air quality, Transportation, Particulate Matter, Philippines

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34 An Exact Algorithm for Location–Transportation Problems in Humanitarian Relief

Authors: Chansiri Singhtaun

Abstract:

This paper proposes a mathematical model and examines the performance of an exact algorithm for a location–transportation problems in humanitarian relief. The model determines the number and location of distribution centers in a relief network, the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution center and the vehicles to take the supplies to meet the needs of disaster victims under capacity restriction, transportation and budgetary constraints. The computational experiments are conducted on the various sizes of problems that are generated. Branch and bound algorithm is applied for these problems. The results show that this algorithm can solve problem sizes of up to three candidate locations with five demand points and one candidate location with up to twenty demand points without premature termination.

Keywords: Transportation, Disaster Response, humanitarian relief, facility location

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33 Modified Approximation Methods for Finding an Optimal Solution for the Transportation Problem

Authors: N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

This paper presents a modification of approximation method for transportation problems. The initial basic feasible solution can be computed using either Russel's or Vogel's approximation methods. Russell’s approximation method provides another excellent criterion that is still quick to implement on a computer (not manually) In most cases Russel's method yields a better initial solution, though it takes longer than Vogel's method (finding the next entering variable in Russel's method is in O(n1*n2), and in O(n1+n2) for Vogel's method). However, Russel's method normally has a lesser total running time because less pivots are required to reach the optimum for all but small problem sizes (n1+n2=~20). With this motivation behind we have incorporated a variation of the same – what we have proposed it has TMC (Total Modified Cost) to obtain fast and efficient solutions.

Keywords: Transportation, Computation, Efficiency, Vogel’s approximation method, modified cost, Russell’s approximation method

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32 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu

Abstract:

In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: Transportation, Regional Planning, Traffic Flow, brake light, car-following model

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31 Students' ExperiEnce Enhancement Through Simulaton. A Process Flow in Logistics and Transportation Field

Authors: Nizamuddin Zainuddin, Adam Mohd Saifudin, Ahmad Yusni Bahaudin, Mohd Hanizan Zalazilah, Roslan Jamaluddin

Abstract:

Students’ enhanced experience through simulation is a crucial factor that brings reality to the classroom. The enhanced experience is all about developing, enriching and applications of a generic process flow in the field of logistics and transportations. As educational technology has improved, the effective use of simulations has greatly increased to the point where simulations should be considered a valuable, mainstream pedagogical tool. Additionally, in this era of ongoing (some say never-ending) assessment, simulations offer a rich resource for objective measurement and comparisons. Simulation is not just another in the long line of passing fads (or short-term opportunities) in educational technology. It is rather a real key to helping our students understand the world. It is a way for students to acquire experience about how things and systems in the world behave and react, without actually touching them. In short, it is about interactive pretending. Simulation is all about representing the real world which includes grasping the complex issues and solving intricate problems. Therefore, it is crucial before stimulate the real process of inbound and outbound logistics and transportation a generic process flow shall be developed. The paper will be focusing on the validization of the process flow by looking at the inputs gains from the sample. The sampling of the study focuses on multi-national and local manufacturing companies, third party companies (3PL) and government agency, which are selected in Peninsular Malaysia. A simulation flow chart was proposed in the study that will be the generic flow in logistics and transportation. A qualitative approach was mainly conducted to gather data in the study. It was found out from the study that the systems used in the process of outbound and inbound are System Application Products (SAP) and Material Requirement Planning (MRP). Furthermore there were some companies using Enterprises Resources Planning (ERP) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) as part of the Suppliers Own Inventories (SOI) networking as a result of globalized business between one countries to another. Computerized documentations and transactions were all mandatory requirement by the Royal Custom and Excise Department. The generic process flow will be the basis of developing a simulation program that shall be used in the classroom with the objective of further enhanced the students’ learning experience. Thus it will contributes to the body of knowledge on the enrichment of the student’s employability and also shall be one of the way to train new workers in the logistics and transportation filed.

Keywords: Simulation, Logistics, Transportation, Enhancement, process flow

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30 Requirements to Establish a Taxi Sharing System in an Urban Area

Authors: Ilgin Gökaşar, Saman Ghaffarian, Morteza Ahmadpur

Abstract:

That Transportation system plays an important role in management of societies is an undeniable fact and it is one of the most challenging issues in human beings routine life. But by increasing the population in urban areas, the demand for transportation modes also increase. Accordingly, it is obvious that more flexible and dynamic transportation system is required to satisfy peoples’ requirements. Nowadays, there is significant increase in number of environmental issues all over the world which is because of human activities. New technological achievements bring new horizons for humans and so they changed the life style of humans in every aspect of their life and transportation is not an exception. By using new technology, societies can modernize their transportation system and increase the feasibility of their system. Real–time Taxi sharing systems is one of the novel and most modern systems all over the world. For establishing this kind of system in an urban area it is required to use the most advanced technologies in a transportation system. GPS navigation devices, computers and social networks are just some parts of this kind of system. Like carpooling, real-time taxi sharing is one of the best ways to better utilize the empty seats in most cars and taxis, thus decreasing energy consumption and transport costs. It can serve areas not covered by a public transit system and act as a transit feeder service. Taxi sharing is also capable of serving one-time trips, not only recurrent commute trips or scheduled trips. In this study, we describe the requirements and parameters that we need to establish a useful real-time ride sharing system for an urban area. The parameters and requirements of this study can be used in any urban area.

Keywords: Transportation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, ride-sharing, taxi sharing

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29 Design of Collection and Transportation System of Municipal Solid Waste in Meshkinshahr City

Authors: Ebrahim Fataei, Seiied Taghi Seiied Safavian, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Zahra Arabi, Habib farhadi, Mehdi Aalipour Erdi

Abstract:

Solid waste production is an integral part of human life and management of waste require full scientific approach and essential planning. The allocation of most management cost to collection and transportation and also the necessity of operational efficiency in this system, by limiting time consumption, and on the other hand optimum collection system and transportation is the base of waste design and management. This study was done to optimize the exits collection and transportation system of solid waste in Meshkinshahr city. So based on the analyzed data of municipal solid waste components in seven zones of Meshkinshahr city, and GIS software, applied to design storage place based on origin recycling and a route to collect and transport. It was attempted to represent an appropriate model to store, collect and transport municipal solid waste. The result shows that GIS can be applied to locate the waste container and determine a waste collection direction in an appropriate way.

Keywords: Transportation, GIS, Iran, optimizing, municipal solid waste management

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28 Design of an Automatic Bovine Feeding Machine

Authors: Ali Göksenli, Huseyin A. Yavasoglu, Yusuf Ziya Tengiz

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In this study, an automatic feeding machine for different type and class of bovine animals is designed. Daily nutrition of a bovine consists of grass, corn, straw, silage, oat, wheat and different vitamins and minerals. The amount and mixture amount of each of the nutrition depends on different parameters of the bovine. These parameters are; age, sex, weight and maternity of the bovine, also outside temperature. The problem in a farm is to constitute the correct mixture and amount of nutrition for each animal. Faulty nutrition will cause an insufficient feeding of the animal concluding in an unhealthy bovine. To solve this problem, a new automatic feeding machine is designed. Travelling of the machine is performed by four tires, which is pulled by a tractor. The carrier consists of eight bins, which each of them carries a nutrition type. Capacity of each unit is 250 kg. At the bottom of each chamber is a sensor measuring the weight of the food inside. A funnel is at the bottom of each chamber by which open/close function is controlled by a valve. Each animal will carry a RFID tag including ID on its ear. A receiver on the feeding machine will read this ID and by given previous information by the operator (veterinarian), the system will detect the amount of each nutrition unit which will be given to the selected animal for feeding. In the system, each bin will open its exit gate by the help of the valve under the control of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The amount of each nutrition type will be controlled by measuring the open/close time. The exit canals of the bins are collected in a reservoir. To achieve a homogenous nitration, the collected feed will be mixed by a worm gear. Further the mixture will be transported by a help of a funnel to the feeding unit of the animal. The feeding process can be performed in 100 seconds. After feeding of the animal, the tractor pulls the travelling machine to the next animal. By the help of this system animals can be feeded by right amount and mixture of nutrition

Keywords: Nutrition, Transportation, Feeding, Bovine, automatic

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27 Evaluation Performance of Transport Vehicle on Different Surfaces

Authors: Hussein Abbas Jebur, Yasir Abd Ulrazzaq

Abstract:

This study was carried out at the farm of El-Gemmaiza Agriculture Research Station, El-Garbia Governorate Egypt, to determine the performance characteristics of an agricultural transport. The performance of this transportation was compared between three surfaces (asphalt, dusty and field). The study was concentrated on the rate of drawbar pull, slip ratio, tractive efficiency and specific energy per unit area. The comparison was made under three different surfaces (asphalt, dusty and field), different traveling speeds from (3.38 to 6.55 km/h) and variable weights (0 and 300 kg). The results showed that the highest value of the tractive efficiency 60.20% was obtained at traveling speed 4.00 km/h with weight on the rear wheel on the asphalt surface. The highest value of specific energy 1.93 kW.h/ton during use of ballast on rear tractor wheels at traveling speed 3.38 km/h on the field surface.

Keywords: Energy, Power, Transportation, weight, tractor

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26 Transportation Language Register as One of Language Community

Authors: Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

Abstract:

Language register refers to a variety of a language used for particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Language register also means as a concept of adapting one’s use of language to conform to standards or tradition in a given professional or social situation. This descriptive study tends to discuss about the form of language register in transportation aspect, factors, also the function of use it. Mostly, language register in transportation aspect uses short sentences in form of informal register. The factor caused language register used are speaker, word choice, background of language. The functions of language register in transportations aspect are to make communication between crew easily, also to keep safety when they were in bad condition. Transportation language register developed naturally as one of variety of language used.

Keywords: Communication, Transportation, language register, language variety

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25 The Proposal of a Shared Mobility City Index to Support Investment Decision Making for Carsharing

Authors: S. Murr, S. Phillips

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges entering a market with a carsharing or any other shared mobility (SM) service is sound investment decision-making. To support this process, the authors think that a city index evaluating different criteria is necessary. The goal of such an index is to benchmark cities along a set of external measures to answer the main two challenges: financially viability and the understanding of its specific requirements. The authors have consulted several shared mobility projects and industry experts to create such a Shared Mobility City Index (SMCI). The current proposal of the SMCI consists of 11 individual index measures: general data (demographics, geography, climate and city culture), shared mobility landscape (current SM providers, public transit options, commuting patterns and driving culture) and political vision and goals (vision of the Mayor, sustainability plan, bylaws/tenders supporting SM). To evaluate the suitability of the index, 16 cities on the East Coast of North America were selected and secondary research was conducted. The main sources of this study were census data, organisational records, independent press releases and informational websites. Only non-academic sources where used because the relevant data for the chosen cities is not published in academia. Applying the index measures to the selected cities resulted in three major findings. Firstly, density (city area divided by number of inhabitants) is not an indicator for the number of SM services offered: the city with the lowest density has five bike and carsharing options. Secondly, there is a direct correlation between commuting patterns and how many shared mobility services are offered. New York, Toronto and Washington DC have the highest public transit ridership and the most shared mobility providers. Lastly, except one, all surveyed cities support shared mobility with their sustainability plan. The current version of the shared mobility index is proving a practical tool to evaluate cities, and to understand functional, political, social and environmental considerations. More cities will have to be evaluated to refine the criteria further. However, the current version of the index can be used to assess cities on their suitability for shared mobility services and will assist investors deciding which city is a financially viable market.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transportation, carsharing, shared mobility city index

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24 Development of a Decision Model to Optimize Total Cost in Food Supply Chain

Authors: Dilupa Nakandala, Henry Lau, Li Zhao

Abstract:

All along the length of the supply chain, fresh food firms face the challenge of managing both product quality, due to the perishable nature of the products, and product cost. This paper develops a method to assist logistics managers upstream in the fresh food supply chain in making cost optimized decisions regarding transportation, with the objective of minimizing the total cost while maintaining the quality of food products above acceptable levels. Considering the case of multiple fresh food products collected from multiple farms being transported to a warehouse or a retailer, this study develops a total cost model that includes various costs incurred during transportation. The practical application of the model is illustrated by using several computational intelligence approaches including Genetic Algorithms (GA), Fuzzy Genetic Algorithms (FGA) as well as an improved Simulated Annealing (SA) procedure applied with a repair mechanism for efficiency benchmarking. We demonstrate the practical viability of these approaches by using a simulation study based on pertinent data and evaluate the simulation outcomes. The application of the proposed total cost model was demonstrated using three approaches of GA, FGA and SA with a repair mechanism. All three approaches are adoptable; however, based on the performance evaluation, it was evident that the FGA is more likely to produce a better performance than the other two approaches of GA and SA. This study provides a pragmatic approach for supporting logistics and supply chain practitioners in fresh food industry in making important decisions on the arrangements and procedures related to the transportation of multiple fresh food products to a warehouse from multiple farms in a cost-effective way without compromising product quality. This study extends the literature on cold supply chain management by investigating cost and quality optimization in a multi-product scenario from farms to a retailer and, minimizing cost by managing the quality above expected quality levels at delivery. The scalability of the proposed generic function enables the application to alternative situations in practice such as different storage environments and transportation conditions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Transportation, Fuzzy Sets, Cost Optimization, Food Supply Chain, Product Quality

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23 2023 Targets of the Republic of Turkey State Railways

Authors: Hicran Açıkel, Hüseyin Arak, D. Ali Açıkel

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Train or high-speed train is a land transportation vehicle, which is safe and offers passengers flight-like comfort while it is preferred for busy lines with respect to passengers. In this study, TCDD’s (Turkish State Railroads Company) targets for the year of 2023, the planned high-speed train lines, improvements, which are considered for the existing lines, and achievability of these targets are examined.

Keywords: Transportation, high-speed train, train, TCDD

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22 Tabu Search Algorithm for Ship Routing and Scheduling Problem with Time Window

Authors: Khaled Moh. Alhamad

Abstract:

This paper describes a tabu search heuristic for a ship routing and scheduling problem (SRSP). The method was developed to address the problem of loading cargos for many customers using heterogeneous vessels. Constraints relate to delivery time windows imposed by customers, the time horizon by which all deliveries must be made and vessel capacities. The results of a computational investigation are presented. Solution quality and execution time are explored with respect to problem size and parameters controlling the tabu search such as tenure and neighbourhood size.

Keywords: Transportation, Scheduling, tabu search, heuristic

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21 Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) for Mobile Applications: Economic Feasibility in Different Transportation Sectors

Authors: Roberto Pili, Alessandro Romagnoli, Hartmut Spliethoff, Christoph Wieland

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines (ICE) are today the most common energy system to drive vehicles and transportation systems. Numerous studies state that 50-60% of the fuel energy content is lost to the ambient as sensible heat. ORC offers a valuable alternative to recover such waste heat from ICE, leading to fuel energy savings and reduced emissions. In contrast, the additional weight of the ORC affects the net energy balance of the overall system and the ORC occupies additional volume that competes with vehicle transportation capacity. Consequently, a lower income from delivered freight or passenger tickets can be achieved. The economic feasibility of integrating an ORC into an ICE and the resulting economic impact of weight and volume have not been analyzed in open literature yet. This work intends to define such a benchmark for ORC applications in the transportation sector and investigates the current situation on the market. The applied methodology refers to the freight market, but it can be extended to passenger transportation as well. The economic parameter X is defined as the ratio between the variation of the freight revenues and the variation of fuel costs when an ORC is installed as a bottoming cycle for an ICE with respect to a reference case without ORC. A good economic situation is obtained when the reduction in fuel costs is higher than the reduction of revenues for the delivered freight, i.e. X<1. Through this constraint, a maximum allowable change of transport capacity for a given relative reduction in fuel consumption is determined. The specific fuel consumption is influenced by the ORC in two ways. Firstly because the transportable freight is reduced and secondly because the total weight of the vehicle is increased. Note, that the generated electricity of the ORC influences the size of the ICE and the fuel consumption as well. Taking the above dependencies into account, the limiting condition X = 1 results in a second order equation for the relative change in transported cargo. The described procedure is carried out for a typical city bus, a truck of 24-40 t of payload capacity, a middle-size freight train (1000 t), an inland water vessel (Va RoRo, 2500 t) and handysize-like vessel (25000 t). The maximum allowable mass and volume of the ORC are calculated in dependence of its efficiency in order to satisfy X < 1. Subsequently, these values are compared with weight and volume of commercial ORC products. For ships of any size, the situation appears already highly favorable. A different result is obtained for road and rail vehicles. For trains, the mass and the volume of common ORC products have to be reduced at least by 50%. For trucks and buses, the situation looks even worse. The findings of the present study show a theoretical and practical approach for the economic application of ORC in the transportation sector. In future works, the potential for volume and mass reduction of the ORC will be addressed, together with the integration of an economic assessment for the ORC.

Keywords: Transportation, weight, volume, ORC

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20 Public Transportation Demand and Policy in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Samim Ranjbar, Shoshi Mizokami

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the Kabul fifth fastest growing city in the world, since 2001 with the establishment of new government Lack of adequate employment opportunities and basic utility services in remote provinces have prompted people to move to Kabul and other urban areas. From 2001 to the present, a rapid increase in population, and also less income of the people most of residence tend to use public transport, especially buses, however there is no proper bus system exist in Kabul city, because of wars, from 1992 to 2001 Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transit buses (e.g. Millie bus). This research is a primary and very important phase into Kabul city transportation and especially an initial and important step toward using large bus in Kabul city, which the main purpose of this research is to find the demand of Kabul city residence for public transport (Large Bus) and compare it with the actual supply from government. Finding of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residence for the public transport (Large Bus) exceed the supply from the government, means that current public transportation (Large Bus) is not sufficient to serve people of Kabul city, it is mentionable that according to this research there is no need to build a new road or exclusive way for bus, this research propose to government for investment on the public transportation and exceed the number of large buses to can handle the current demand for public transport.

Keywords: Planning, Transportation, public transport, Afghanistan, Kabul, large bus

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19 Constraint-Directed Techniques for Transport Scheduling with Capacity Restrictions of Automotive Manufacturing Components

Authors: Martha Ndeley, John Ikome

Abstract:

In this paper, we expand the scope of constraint-directed techniques to deal with the case of transportation schedule with capacity restrictions where the scheduling problem includes alternative activities. That is, not only does the scheduling problem consist of determining when an activity is to be executed, but also determining which set of alternative activities is to be executed at all level of transportation from input to output. Such problems encompass both alternative resource problems and alternative process plan problems. We formulate a constraint-based representation of alternative activities to model problems containing such choices. We then extend existing constraint-directed scheduling heuristic commitment techniques and propagators to reason directly about the fact that an activity does not necessarily have to exist in a final transportation schedule without being completed. Tentative results show that an algorithm using a novel texture-based heuristic commitment technique propagators achieves the best overall performance of the techniques tested.

Keywords: Production, Transportation, Scheduling, Integrated

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18 Investigation of Suitable Linkage System for Transportation Sustainability: The Instance of Bursa in Turkey

Authors: Elvan Ender, Ozge Celik

Abstract:

Transportation systems play a vital role in access and egress in our lives. Concerns about environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and the threat of climate change have converged to produce a growing interest in the concept of sustainability, sustainable development, and sustainable transportation. Cities should respect nature, consider the urban ecological environment as an asset, integrate environmental issues into urban planning and administration, and accelerate the transition to sustainable development. This paper reviews current pedestrian and bike transportation in Bursa and proves the effects of unbalanced distribution to neighbourhoods of this presence. In this way creating proposal map for walking and bicycling to constitute a preliminary base for the physical urban planning of Bursa, has been aimed.

Keywords: Transportation, Sustainability, Bursa, proposal map

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17 Bus Transit Demand Modeling and Fare Structure Analysis of Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada, Takuya Maruyama

Abstract:

Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Minimum income inclined most of Kabul residents to use public transport, especially buses, although there is no proper bus system, beside that there is no proper fare exist in Kabul city Due to wars. From 1992 to 2001 during civil wars, Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transport system (e.g. Millie bus). This research is mainly focused on Kabul city’s transportation system. In this research, the data used have been gathered by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2008 and this data will be used to find demand and fare structure, additionally a survey was done in 2016 to find satisfaction level of Kabul residents for fare structure. Aim of this research is to observe the demand for Large Buses, compare to the actual supply from the government, analyze the current fare structure and compare it with the proposed fare (distance based fare) structure which has already been analyzed. Outcome of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residents for the public transport (Large Buses) exceeds from the current supply, so that current public transportation (Large Buses) is not sufficient to serve public transport in Kabul city, worth to be mentioned, that in order to overcome this problem, there is no need to build new roads or exclusive way for buses. This research proposes government to change the fare from fixed fare to distance based fare, invest on public transportation and increase the number of large buses so that the current demand for public transport is met.

Keywords: Planning, Transportation, public transport, Afghanistan, Kabul, large buses

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16 Vibrancy in The City: The Problem of Sidi-Gaber Station Zone in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Gihan Mosaad, Bakr Gomaa, Rana Elbadri

Abstract:

Modern parts of Alexandria city lack in vibrancy, causing a number of problems such as urban areas with poor security measures as well as weak economic state. Vibrancy provides a livable, attractive and secure environments; it also boosts the city’s economy and social life. Vibrant city is a city full of energy and life. To achieve this, a number of resources are needed; namely specific urban density, the availability of alternative modes of transportation and finally diversity of land-uses. Literature review shows no comprehensive study that assesses vibrancy in the streets of modern Alexandria. This study aims to measure the vibrancy potential in Sidi-Gaber station area thought the assessment of existing resources performance. Methods include literature reviews, surveying of existing case, questionnaire as well as GIS techniques. Expected results include GIS maps defining the vibrancy potentials in land use, density and statistical study regarding public transportation use in the area.

Keywords: Transportation, Density, Alexandria, mixed use, vibrancy

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15 Trends of Public-Private Partnership Infrastructure in Thailand

Authors: Wasaporn Techapeeraparnich

Abstract:

Bringing private investor involving in providing public infrastructure have been increasingly used worldwide, and there is no exception for developing countries like Thailand. Recently, there is a huge investment opportunity for public-private partnership (PPP) in Thailand, especially in the transportation sector. This paper analyses the development of the PPP since the early beginning of PPP in different service sectors. It also summarizes the development of PPP and its application in terms of usage, opportunities and trends particularly in the transport sector. The results are aimed to draw some lessons learned for future development.

Keywords: Transportation, Case study, Thailand, public-private partnership

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14 Simulation Approach for Analyzing Transportation Energy System in South Korea

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Jongwook Kim, Youah Lee

Abstract:

In the last COP21 held in Paris on 2015, Korean government announced that Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was 37% based on BAU by 2030. The GHG reduction rate of the transportation sector is the strongest among all sectors by 2020. In order to cope with Korean INDC, Korean government established that 3rd eco-friendly car deployment national plans at the end of 2015. In this study, we make the energy system model for estimating GHG emissions using LEAP model.

Keywords: Transportation, Greenhouse gas, LEAP, INDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 98