Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Transport Related Abstracts

28 Planning and Design Criteria to Make Urban Transport More Sustainable: The Case of Baku

Authors: Gulnar Bayramoglu Barman

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, technological developments and increased population have caused environmental damages. To protect the nature and architectural environment, firstly, green architecture, ecological architecture and then sustainability occurred. This term has been proposed not to be a new term but a response to environmental disturbances caused by human activities and it is re-conceptualization of architecture. Sustainable architecture or sustainability is lot more extensive than ecological and green architecture. It contains the imbalance between environmental problems that is natural environment and consumption that occurred all around the world. An important part of sustainability debate focused on urban planning and design for more sustainable forms and patterns. In particular, it is discussed that planning and design of urban areas have a major effect on transport and therefore can help reduce car usage, emissions, global warming and climate change. There are many planning and design approaches and movement that introduce certain criteria and strategies to prevent car dependency and encourage people to use public transportation and walking. However, when review the literature, it is seen that planning movements, such as New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development originated and were implemented mostly in West European and North American Cities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether all those criteria, principles and strategies are also relevant planning approaches for more non-western cities like Baku, which has a very different planning background and therefore possibly different urban form and transport issues. In order to answer the above mentioned question, planning and design approaches in the literature and these recent planning movements were studied and a check list was formed which indicate planning and design approaches that can help attain a more sustainable transport outcome. The checklist was then applied to the case of Baku.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, urban Design, Transport, Sustainability, Sustainable Transportation

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27 ASEAN Air Transport Liberalization and Its Impact to Indonesian Air Service

Authors: Oentoeng Wahjoe

Abstract:

Liberalisation of air transportation practically is known as open sky policy. In the practice, the liberalisation of air transportation is divided into two group of services, i.e.: air transportation services, for passengers and goods (air service) which is categorized as hard rights and supporting services of the air transportation services (ancillary services) which is categorized as soft rights. The research in this paper focused in air transportation services for passengers and goods, consists of nine freedom of the air. The impact of the policy such as the Agreement regarding ASEAN open sky policy, is the readiness of Indonesian air transportation companies to compete with foreign air transportation companies. The goverment of Indonesia has to regulate the implementation of ASEAN Open Sky Policy to be projected in order to comply with national development, i.e. the function of air law in national development. The policy has been implemented by enact or amend the existing law as air law that regulate flight lines, the following provisions: To regulate flight line for foreign airlines to open flight lines in Indonesia region which may not or have not land and sea transportation. The regulation is intended to supprot mobility of humans, goods and services that may fulfil the needs of the people of Indonesia, which materially and spiritually and the development of the region. The regulation of flight lines of foreign air transportation for region of tourism, industrial and trade centre. The regulation is intended to support the national economic development of Indonesia.

Keywords: Transport, Impact, liberalization, Indonesian air service

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26 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

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Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: Transport, Fish, retention rate, fish resiliance

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25 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova

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Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: Transport, Salinity, chloride, one dimensional diffusion, UHPC

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24 Green Transport Solutions for Developing Cities: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Benedict O. Muyale, Emmanuel S. Murunga

Abstract:

Cities have always been the loci for nationals as well as growth of cultural fusion and innovation. Over 50%of global population dwells in cities and urban centers. This means that cities are prolific users of natural resources and generators of waste; hence they produce most of the greenhouse gases which are causing global climate change. The root cause of increase in the transport sector carbon curve is mainly the greater numbers of individually owned cars. Development in these cities is geared towards economic progress while environmental sustainability is ignored. Infrastructure projects focus on road expansion, electrification, and more parking spaces. These lead to more carbon emissions, traffic congestion, and air pollution. Recent development plans for Nairobi city are now on road expansion with little priority for electric train solutions. The Vision 2030, Kenya’s development guide, has shed some light on the city with numerous road expansion projects. This chapter seeks to realize the following objectives; (1) to assess the current transport situation of Nairobi; (2) to review green transport solutions being undertaken in the city; (3) to give an overview of alternative green transportation solutions, and (4) to provide a green transportation framework matrix. This preliminary study will utilize primary and secondary data through mainly desktop research and analysis, literature, books, magazines and on-line information. This forms the basis for formulation of approaches for incorporation into the green transportation framework matrix of the main study report.The main goal is the achievement of a practical green transportation system for implementation by the City County of Nairobi to reduce carbon emissions and congestion and promote environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Transport, Green technologies, cities, Nairobi

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23 Assessment of Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Means of Transport in Agriculture

Authors: Piotr Lijewski, Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Sylwester Weymann

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The paper discusses the problem of load transport using farm tractors and road tractor units. This type of carriage of goods is often done with farm vehicles. The tests were performed with the PEMS equipment (Portable Emission Measurement System) under actual traffic conditions. The vehicles carried a load of 20000 kg. This research method is one of the most desired because it provides reliable information on the actual vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (carbon balance method). For the tests, a route was selected that simulated a trip from a small town to a food-processing facility located in a city. The analysis of the obtained results gave a clear answer as to what vehicles need to be used for the carriage of this type of cargo in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.

Keywords: Transport, Emission, Fuel Consumption, PEMS

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22 Dynamic Model Conception of Improving Services Quality in Railway Transport

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Jaroslav Mašek, Eva Nedeliakova

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This article describes the results of research focused on quality of railway freight transport services. Improvement of these services has a crucial importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. Processes filling the customer demands and output quality assessment were defined as a part of the research. In this, contribution is introduced the map of quality planning and the algorithm of applied methodology. It characterises a model which takes into account characters of transportation with linking a perception services quality in ordinary and extraordinary operation. Despite the fact that rail freight transport has its solid position in the transport market, lots of carriers worldwide have been experiencing a stagnation for a couple of years. Therefore, specific results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport not only by creating a single railway area or reducing noise but also by promoting railway services. This contribution is focused also on the application of dynamic quality models which represent an innovative method of evaluation quality services. Through this conception, time factor, expected and perceived quality in each moment of the transportation process can be taken into account.

Keywords: Transport, railway, Service, Quality

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21 Life-Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: Addressing the Influence of Commuting

Authors: J. Bastos, P. Marques, S. Batterman, F. Freire

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Due to demands of a growing urban population, it is crucial to manage urban development and its associated environmental impacts. While most of the environmental analyses have addressed buildings and transportation separately, both the design and location of a building affect environmental performance and focusing on one or the other can shift impacts and overlook improvement opportunities for more sustainable urban development. Recently, several life-cycle (LC) studies of residential buildings have integrated user transportation, focusing exclusively on primary energy demand and/or greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, most papers considered only private transportation (mainly car). Although it is likely to have the largest share both in terms of use and associated impacts, exploring the variability associated with mode choice is relevant for comprehensive assessments and, eventually, for supporting decision-makers. This paper presents a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a residential building in Lisbon (Portugal), addressing building construction, use and user transportation (commuting with private and public transportation). Five environmental indicators or categories are considered: (i) non-renewable primary energy (NRE), (ii) greenhouse gas intensity (GHG), (iii) eutrophication (EUT), (iv) acidification (ACID), and (v) ozone layer depletion (OLD). In a first stage, the analysis addresses the overall life-cycle considering the statistical model mix for commuting in the residence location. Then, a comparative analysis compares different available transportation modes to address the influence mode choice variability has on the results. The results highlight the large contribution of transportation to the overall LC results in all categories. NRE and GHG show strong correlation, as the three LC phases contribute with similar shares to both of them: building construction accounts for 6-9%, building use for 44-45%, and user transportation for 48% of the overall results. However, for other impact categories there is a large variation in the relative contribution of each phase. Transport is the most significant phase in OLD (60%); however, in EUT and ACID building use has the largest contribution to the overall LC (55% and 64%, respectively). In these categories, transportation accounts for 31-38%. A comparative analysis was also performed for four alternative transport modes for the household commuting: car, bus, motorcycle, and company/school collective transport. The car has the largest results in all impact categories. When compared to the overall LC with commuting by car, mode choice accounts for a variability of about 35% in NRE, GHG and OLD (the categories where transportation accounted for the largest share of the LC), 24% in EUT and 16% in ACID. NRE and GHG show a strong correlation because all modes have internal combustion engines. The second largest results for NRE, GHG and OLD are associated with commuting by motorcycle; however, for ACID and EUT this mode has better performance than bus and company/school transport. No single transportation mode performed best in all impact categories. Integrated assessments of buildings are needed to avoid shifts of impacts between life-cycle phases and environmental categories, and ultimately to support decision-makers.

Keywords: Transport, Environmental Impacts, Lisbon, LCA

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20 Capacity Loss at Midblock Sections of Urban Arterials Due to Pedestrian Crossings

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

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Pedestrian crossings at grade in India are very common and pedestrian cross the carriageway at undesignated locations where they found the path to access the residential and commercial areas. Present paper aims to determine capacity loss on 4-lane urban arterials due to such crossings. Base capacity which is defined as the capacity without any influencing factor is determined on 4-lane roads by collecting speed-flow data in the field. It is observed that base capacity is varying from 1636 pcu/hr/lane to 2043 pcu/hr/lane which is attributed to the different operating conditions at different sections. The variation in base capacity is related with the operating speed on the road sections. Free flow speed of standard car is measured in the field and 85th percentile of this speed is reported as operating speed. Capacity of the 4-lane road sections with different pedestrian cross-flow is also determined and compared with the capacity of base section. The difference in capacity values is reported as capacity loss due to the average number of pedestrian crossings in one hour. It has been observed that capacity of 4-lane road section reduces from 18 to 30 percent with pedestrian cross-flow of 800 to 1550 peds/hr. A model is proposed between capacity loss and pedestrian cross-flow from the observed data.

Keywords: Transport, Capacity, urban arterial, pedestrian, free flow speed

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19 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Lei Chen, Hao Yang, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng

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Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: Transport, Sensitization, stoichiometry, polycrystalline PbSe

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18 Urban Innovations: Towards a Comprehensive and Sustainable City Development

Authors: Sarang Yeola

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A smart city can be defined as a city that uses Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance its sustainability, workability and livability. It can be viewed as a ‘System of Systems’. We propose decentralization of power and centralization of system. We are presenting a bird's eye view of the system as a whole. The holistic view includes the entirety of human activity in an area including city governments, schools, hospitals, infrastructure, resources, business and people. The main objective for development of Nashik as a smart city is to identify the flaws of the existing systems, eliminate them and come up with innovative and feasible solutions for the betterment of masses. The Make in India is a visionary proposal for FDI in India. It should be managed that the campaign and the industrial estates work in synchronization for boosting the setup of new industrial units in and around Nashik. A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information. We have identified major domains for making Nashik a smart city by surveying the existing infrastructure, challenges and problems faced and the proposed solutions through innovative ideas.

Keywords: Transport, (bus rapid transit system) BRTS, metrorail, autos

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17 Reducing Accidents Using Text Stops

Authors: Benish Chaudhry

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Most of the accidents these days are occurring because of the ‘text-and-drive’ concept. If we look at the structure of cities in UAE, there are great distances, because of which it is impossible to drive without using or merely checking the cellphone. Moreover, if we look at the road structure, it is almost impossible to stop at a point and text. With the introduction of TEXT STOPs, drivers will be able to stop different stops for a maximum of 1 and a half-minute in order to reply or write a message. They can be introduced at a distance of 10 minutes of driving on the average speed of the road, so the drivers can look forward to a stop and can reply to a text when needed. A user survey indicates that drivers are willing to NOT text-and-drive if they have such a facility available.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transport, accidents, road planning

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16 Urban Transport System Resilience Guidelines

Authors: Evangelia Gaitanidou, Evangelos Bekiaris

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Considering that resilience implies the ability of a system to adapt continuously in order to respond to its operational goals, a system is considered as more or less resilient depending on the level and time of recovering from disruptive events and/or shocks to its initial state. Regarding transport systems, enhancing resilience is considered imperative for two main reasons: Such systems provide critical support to every socio-economic activity, while being one of the most important economic sectors and, secondly, the paths that convey people, goods and information, are the same through which risks are propagated. RESOLUTE (RESilience management guidelines and Operationalization appLied to Urban Transport Environment) Horizon 2020 research project is answering those needs, by proposing and testing a set of guidelines for resilience management of the urban transport system. The methods and steps towards this goal, through a step-wise methodology, taking into account established models like FRAM (Functional Resonance Analysis Model), and upon gathering existing practices are described in this paper, together with an overview of the produced guidelines. The overall aim is to create a framework which public transport authorities could consult and apply, for rendering their infrastructure resilient against natural disaster and other threats.

Keywords: Transport, Infrastructure, Resilience, guidelines

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15 Carbon Footprint of Educational Establishments: The Case of the University of Alicante

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Maria R. Mula-Molina

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Environmental concerns are increasingly obtaining higher priority in sustainability agenda of educational establishments. This is important not only for its environmental performance in its own right as an organization, but also to present a model for its students. On the other hand, universities play an important role on research and innovative solutions for measuring, analyzing and reducing environmental impacts for different activities. The assessment and decision-making process during the activity of educational establishments is linked to the application of robust indicators. In this way, the carbon footprint is a developing indicator for sustainability that helps understand the direct impact on climate change. But it is not easy to implement. There is a large amount of considering factors involved that increases its complexity, such as different uses at the same time (research, lecturing, administration), different users (students, staff) or different levels of activity (lecturing, exam or holidays periods). The aim of this research is to develop a simplified methodology for calculating and comparing carbon emissions per user at university campus considering two main aspects for carbon accountings: Building operations and transport. Different methodologies applied in other Spanish university campuses are analyzed and compared to obtain a final proposal to be developed in this type of establishments. First, building operation calculation considers the different uses and energy sources consumed. Second, for transport calculation, the different users and working hours are calculated separately, as well as their origin and traveling preferences. For every transport, a different conversion factor is used depending on carbon emissions produced. The final result is obtained as an average of carbon emissions produced per user. A case study is applied to the University of Alicante campus in San Vicente del Raspeig (Spain), where the carbon footprint is calculated. While the building operation consumptions are known per building and month, it does not happen with transport. Only one survey about the habit of transport for users was developed in 2009/2010, so no evolution of results can be shown in this case. Besides, building operations are not split per use, as building services are not monitored separately. These results are analyzed in depth considering all factors and limitations. Besides, they are compared to other estimations in other campuses. Finally, the application of the presented methodology is also studied. The recommendations concluded in this study try to enhance carbon emission monitoring and control. A Carbon Action Plan is then a primary solution to be developed. On the other hand, the application developed in the University of Alicante campus cannot only further enhance the methodology itself, but also render the adoption by other educational establishments more readily possible and yet with a considerable degree of flexibility to cater for their specific requirements.

Keywords: Climate Change, Transport, Built Environment, Carbon Footprint, building operations

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14 Climate Change Impact Due to Timber Product Imports in the UK

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Allan L. Nantel, Talib E. Butt

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Buildings are thought to consume about 50% of the total energy in the UK. The use stage in a building life cycle has the largest energy consumption, although different assessments are showing that the construction can equal several years of maintenance and operations. The selection of materials with lower embodied energy is very important to reduce this consumption. For this reason, timber is one adequate material due to its low embodied energy and the capacity to be used as carbon storage. The use of timber in the construction industry is very significant. Sawn wood, for example, is one of the top 5 construction materials consumed in the UK according to National Statistics. Embodied energy for building products considers the energy consumed in extraction and production stages. However, it is not the same consideration if this product is produced locally as when considering the resource produced further afield. Transport is a very relevant matter that profoundly influences in the results of embodied energy. The case of timber use in the UK is important because the balance between imports and exports is far negative, industry consuming more imported timber than produced. Nearly 80% of sawn softwood used in construction is imported. The imports-exports deficit for sawn wood accounted for more than 180 million pounds during the first four-month period of 2016. More than 85% of these imports come from Europe (83% from the EU). The aim of this study is to analyze climate change impact due to transport for timber products consumed in the UK. An approximate estimation of energy consumed and carbon emissions are calculated considering the timber product’s import origin. The results are compared to the total consumption of each product, estimating the impact of transport on the final embodied energy and carbon emissions. The analysis of these results can help deduce that one big challenge for climate change is the reduction of external dependency, with the associated improvement of internal production of timber products. A study of different types of timber products produced in the UK and abroad is developed to understand the possibilities for this country to improve sustainability and self-management. Reuse and recycle possibilities are also considered.

Keywords: Climate Change, Transport, Timber, Co2 Emissions, embodied energy

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13 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

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The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: Transport, Infrastructure, Economic growth, South Africa

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12 A Review on Trends in Measurement of Port Performance

Authors: J. Torres, J. Racedo

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Globalization has led to a worldwide competition for participation in markets of goods and productive factors, with significant effects on transports requirements. The port industry has not been an exception to this event, in fact, it has received increasing attention in recent years due to its crucial role on international trade. Because of this, the measurement of port performance has become an important issue in transport policy. Port performance and port efficiency has been widely studied in the last decades, resulting in noteworthy contributions to improving the industry competitiveness. In this paper, we aim to present a review of the literature on port performance and the relation between this concept and transport policies. This study has the objective to describe the approaches that have been developed in recent years, and especially those that include the modeling of public policies. Finally, we highlight existing gaps in this field, as well as possible directions for future research.

Keywords: Transport, Policy, Port Efficiency, port performance

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11 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, H. C. Chen, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang

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In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: Transport, Radionuclide, Dose, removal, PWR, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP)

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10 Microstructure, Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes Containing Natural Pumice and Zeolite

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

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Due to the difficult placement and vibration between reinforcements of reinforced concrete and the defects that it may cause, the use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is becoming more widespread. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most widely used binder in the construction industry. However, the manufacture of this cement results in a significant amount of CO2 being released, which is detrimental to the environment. Thus, an alternative to reduce the cost of SCC is the use of more economical and environmental mineral additives in partial or total substitution of Portland cement. Our study is in this context and aims to develop SCCs both economic and ecological. Two natural pozzolans such as pumice and zeolite are chosen in this research. This research tries to answer questions including the microstructure of the two types of natural pozzolan and their influence on the mechanical properties as well as on the transport property of SCC. Based on the findings of this study, the studied zeolite is a clinoptilolite that presents higher pozzolan activity compared to pumice. However, the use of zeolite decreases the compressive strength of SCC composites. On the contrary, the compressive strength in SCC containing of pumice increases at both early and long term ages with a remarkable increase at long term. A correlation is obtained between the compressive strength with permeable pore and capillary absorption. Also, the results concerning compressive strength and transport property are well justified by evaporable and non-evaporable water content measurement. This paper shows that the substitution of Portland cement by 15% of pumice or 10% of zeolite in HSSCC is suitable in all aspects. 

Keywords: Durability, Transport, Concrete, Zeolite, pumice, SCC

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9 Imputation of Urban Movement Patterns Using Big Data

Authors: Eusebio Odiari, Mark Birkin, Susan Grant-Muller, Nicolas Malleson

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Big data typically refers to consumer datasets revealing some detailed heterogeneity in human behavior, which if harnessed appropriately, could potentially revolutionize our understanding of the collective phenomena of the physical world. Inadvertent missing values skew these datasets and compromise the validity of the thesis. Here we discuss a conceptually consistent strategy for identifying other relevant datasets to combine with available big data, to plug the gaps and to create a rich requisite comprehensive dataset for subsequent analysis. Specifically, emphasis is on how these methodologies can for the first time enable the construction of more detailed pictures of passenger demand and drivers of mobility on the railways. These methodologies can predict the influence of changes within the network (like a change in time-table or impact of a new station), explain local phenomena outside the network (like rail-heading) and the other impacts of urban morphology. Our analysis also reveals that our new imputation data model provides for more equitable revenue sharing amongst network operators who manage different parts of the integrated UK railways.

Keywords: Mobility, Transport, Population, Big-Data, micro-simulation, ticketing-data, commuters, synthetic

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8 Uranium Migration Process: A Multi-Technique Investigation Strategy for a Better Understanding of the Role of Colloids

Authors: Emmanuelle Maria, Pierre Crançon, Gaëtane Lespes

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The knowledge of uranium migration processes within underground environments is a major issue in the environmental risk assessment associated with nuclear activities. This process is identified as strongly controlled by adsorption mechanisms, thus leading to strongly delayed migration paths. Colloidal ligands are likely to significantly increase the mobility of uranium in natural environments. The ability of colloids to mobilize and transport uranium depends on their origin, their nature, their structure, their stability and their reactivity with uranium. Thus, the colloidal mobilization and transport properties are often described as site-specific. In this work, the colloidal phases of two leachates obtained from two different horizons of the same podzolic soil were characterized with a speciation approach. For this purpose, a multi-technique strategy was used, based on Field-Flow Fractionation coupled to Ultraviolet, Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (AF4-UV-MALS-ICPMS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Electrospray Ionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (ESI-Orbitrap), and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS-EEM). Thus, elemental composition, size distribution, microscopic structure, colloidal stability and possible organic and/or inorganic content of colloids were determined, as well as their association with uranium. The leachates exhibit differences in their physical and chemical characteristics, mainly in the nature of organic matter constituents. The multi-technique investigation strategy used provides original data about colloidal phase structure and composition, offering a new vision of the way the uranium can be mobilized and transported in the considered soil. This information is a real significant contribution opening the way to our understanding and predicting of the colloidal transport.

Keywords: Migration, Colloids, Transport, Speciation, Uranium, multi-technique

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7 In Search of Seaplanes in Andhra Pradesh: In View of UDAN

Authors: Priyadarshini Alok

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The present situation in India envisages that because of the surge in population and the economy, cities are expected to spill over to hinterland areas. The consumption-led factors such as land, labor, etc. will be boosted. Hence, the need for regional connectivity becomes obligatory. But, there is enormous pressure upon the land; proving itself through rising traffic congestion, roads, and railway accidents. Air transport is practical, but due to decreasing availability of land, this will not be a wise solution. What with the introduction of seaplanes in the country which was once the vital asset in the world prior to Second World War. Maldives has proved it. Seaplanes offer natural landing site and are time and cost-efficient. Seaplanes in accordance with UDAN can prove to be the solution in linking various regions with other states. This research paper aims to offer the feasibility analysis along with site justification of the potential areas in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India; for the operation of seaplanes. The standards are taken from the US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration for the analysis. The conflation of Seaplanes with UDAN will offer an alternate mode of air connectivity, strengthen the transport network by simulation of connectivity to unserved and under-served areas and boost the nation's economy.

Keywords: Transport, Connectivity, seaplanes, UDAN

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6 Analysis of Vibration and Shock Levels during Transport and Handling of Bananas within the Post-Harvest Supply Chain in Australia

Authors: Hossein Enshaei, Indika Fernando, Jiangang Fei, Roger Stanley

Abstract:

Delicate produce such as fresh fruits are increasingly susceptible to physiological damage during the essential post-harvest operations such as transport and handling. Vibration and shock during the distribution are identified factors for produce damage within post-harvest supply chains. Mechanical damages caused during transit may significantly diminish the quality of fresh produce which may also result in a substantial wastage. Bananas are one of the staple fruit crops and the most sold supermarket produce in Australia. It is also the largest horticultural industry in the state of Queensland where 95% of the total production of bananas are cultivated. This results in significantly lengthy interstate supply chains where fruits are exposed to prolonged vibration and shocks. This paper is focused on determining the shock and vibration levels experienced by packaged bananas during transit from the farm gate to the retail market. Tri-axis acceleration data were captured by custom made accelerometer based data loggers which were set to a predetermined sampling rate of 400 Hz. The devices recorded data continuously for 96 Hours in the interstate journey of nearly 3000 Km from the growing fields in far north Queensland to the central distribution centre in Melbourne in Victoria. After the bananas were ripened at the ripening facility in Melbourne, the data loggers were used to capture the transport and handling conditions from the central distribution centre to three retail outlets within the outskirts of Melbourne. The quality of bananas were assessed before and after transport at each location along the supply chain. Time series vibration and shock data were used to determine the frequency and the severity of the transient shocks experienced by the packages. Frequency spectrogram was generated to determine the dominant frequencies within each segment of the post-harvest supply chain. Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration levels were calculated to characterise the vibration intensity during transport. Data were further analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the Power Spectral Density (PSD) profiles were generated to determine the critical frequency ranges. It revealed the frequency range in which the escalated energy levels were transferred to the packages. It was found that the vertical vibration was the highest and the acceleration levels mostly oscillated between ± 1g during transport. Several shock responses were recorded exceeding this range which were mostly attributed to package handling. These detrimental high impact shocks may eventually lead to mechanical damages in bananas such as impact bruising, compression bruising and neck injuries which affect their freshness and visual quality. It was revealed that the frequency range between 0-5 Hz and 15-20 Hz exert an escalated level of vibration energy to the packaged bananas which may result in abrasion damages such as scuffing, fruit rub and blackened rub. Further research is indicated specially in the identified critical frequency ranges to minimise exposure of fruits to the harmful effects of vibration. Improving the handling conditions and also further study on package failure mechanisms when exposed to transient shock excitation will be crucial to improve the visual quality of bananas within the post-harvest supply chain in Australia.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Transport, Vibration, Handling, post-harvest, shocks, bananas

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5 A Risk-Based Comprehensive Framework for the Assessment of the Security of Multi-Modal Transport Systems

Authors: Mireille Elhajj, Washington Ochieng, Deeph Chana

Abstract:

The challenges of the rapid growth in the demand for transport has traditionally been seen within the context of the problems of congestion, air quality, climate change, safety, and affordability. However, there are increasing threats including those related to crime such as cyber-attacks that threaten the security of the transport of people and goods. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents for the first time, a comprehensive framework for the assessment of the current and future security issues of multi-modal transport systems. The approach or method proposed is based on a structured framework starting with a detailed specification of the transport asset map (transport system architecture), followed by the identification of vulnerabilities. The asset map and vulnerabilities are used to identify the various approaches for exploitation of the vulnerabilities, leading to the creation of a set of threat scenarios. The threat scenarios are then transformed into risks and their categories, and include insights for their mitigation. The consideration of the mitigation space is holistic and includes the formulation of appropriate policies and tactics and/or technical interventions. The quality of the framework is ensured through a structured and logical process that identifies the stakeholders, reviews the relevant documents including policies and identifies gaps, incorporates targeted surveys to augment the reviews, and uses subject matter experts for validation. The approach to categorising security risks is an extension of the current methods that are typically employed. Specifically, the partitioning of risks into either physical or cyber categories is too limited for developing mitigation policies and tactics/interventions for transport systems where an interplay between physical and cyber processes is very often the norm. This interplay is rapidly taking on increasing significance for security as the emergence of cyber-physical technologies, are shaping the future of all transport modes. Examples include: Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) in road transport; the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in rail transport; Automatic Identification System (AIS) in maritime transport; advanced Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) technologies in air transport; and the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework adopts a risk categorisation scheme that considers risks as falling within the following threat→impact relationships: Physical→Physical, Cyber→Cyber, Cyber→Physical, and Physical→Cyber). Thus the framework enables a more complete risk picture to be developed for today’s transport systems and, more importantly, is readily extendable to account for emerging trends in the sector that will define future transport systems. The framework facilitates the audit and retro-fitting of mitigations in current transport operations and the analysis of security management options for the next generation of Transport enabling strategic aspirations such as systems with security-by-design and co-design of safety and security to be achieved. An initial application of the framework to transport systems has shown that intra-modal consideration of security measures is sub-optimal and that a holistic and multi-modal approach that also addresses the intersections/transition points of such networks is required as their vulnerability is high. This is in-line with traveler-centric transport service provision, widely accepted as the future of mobility services. In summary, a risk-based framework is proposed for use by the stakeholders to comprehensively and holistically assess the security of transport systems. It requires a detailed understanding of the transport architecture to enable a detailed vulnerabilities analysis to be undertaken, creates threat scenarios and transforms them into risks which form the basis for the formulation of interventions.

Keywords: Security, Transport, Risk, vulnerabilities, mitigations

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4 The Transport of Coexisting Nanoscale Zinc Oxide Particles, Cu(Ⅱ) and Cr(Ⅵ) Ions in Simulated Landfill Leachate

Authors: Xiaoyu Li, Wenchuan Ding, Yujia Yia

Abstract:

As the nanoscale zinc oxide particles (nano-ZnO) accumulate in the landfill, nano-ZnO will enter the landfill leachate and come into contact with the heavy metal ions in leachate, which will change their transport process in the landfill and, furthermore, affect each other's environmental fate and toxicity. In this study, we explored the transport of co-existing nano-ZnO, Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions by column experiments under different stages of landfill leachate conditions (flow rate, pH, ionic strength, humic acid). The results show that Cu(II) inhibits the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by increasing the surface potential of nano-ZnO, and nano-ZnO increases the retention of Cu(II) in the quartz sand column by adsorbing Cu(II) ions. Cr(VI) promotes the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by neutralizing the surface potential of the nano-ZnO which reduces electrostatic attraction between nZnO and quartz sand, but the nano-ZnO has no effect on the transport of Cr(VI). The nature of landfill leachates such as flow rate, pH, ionic strength (IS) and humic acid (HA) has a certain effect on the transport of coexisting nano-ZnO and heavy metal ions. For leachate containing Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions, at the initial stage of landfilling, the pH of leachate is acidic, ionic strength value is high, the humic acid concentration is low, and the transportability of nano-ZnO is weak. As the landfill age increased, the pH value in the leachate gradually increases, when the ions are raised to alkaline, these ions are trending to precipitated or adsorbed to the solid wastes in landfill, which resulting in low IS value of leachate. At the same time, more refractory organic matter gradually increases such as HA, which provides repulsive steric effects, so the nano-ZnO is more likely to migrate. Overall, the Cr(VI) can promote the transport of nano-ZnO more than Cu(II).

Keywords: Transport, Landfill Leachate, Heavy Metal Ions, nano-ZnO

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3 The Multiplier Effects of Intelligent Transport System to Nigerian Economy

Authors: Festus Okotie

Abstract:

Nigeria is the giant of Africa with great and diverse transport potentials yet to be fully tapped into and explored.it is the most populated nation in Africa with nearly 200 million people, the sixth largest oil producer overall and largest oil producer in Africa with proven oil and gas reserves of 37 billion barrels and 192 trillion cubic feet, over 300 square kilometers of arable land and significant deposits of largely untapped minerals. A world bank indicator which measures trading across border ranked Nigeria at 183 out of 185 countries in 2017 and although different governments in the past made efforts through different interventions such as 2007 ports reforms led by Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, a former minister of Finance and world bank managing director also attempted to resolve some of the challenges such as infrastructure shortcomings, policy and regulatory inconsistencies, overlapping functions and duplicated roles among the different MDA’S. It is one of the fundamental structures smart nations and cities are using to improve the living conditions of its citizens and achieving sustainability. Examples of some of its benefits includes tracking high pedestrian areas, traffic patterns, railway stations, planning and scheduling bus times, it also enhances interoperability, creates alerts of transport situation and has swift capacity to share information among the different platforms and transport modes. It also offers a comprehensive approach to risk management, putting emergency procedures and response capabilities in place, identifying dangers, including vandalism or violence, fare evasion, and medical emergencies. The Nigerian transport system is urgently in need of modern infrastructures such as ITS. Smart city transport technology helps cities to function productively, while improving services for businesses and lives of is citizens. This technology has the ability to improve travel across traditional modes of transport, such as cars and buses, with immediate benefits for city dwellers and also helps in managing transport systems such as dangerous weather conditions, heavy traffic, and unsafe speeds which can result in accidents and loss of lives. Intelligent transportation systems help in traffic control such as permitting traffic lights to react to changing traffic patterns, instead of working on a fixed schedule in traffic. Intelligent transportation systems is very important in Nigeria’s transportation sector and so would require trained personnel to drive its efficiency to greater height because the purpose of introducing it is to add value and at the same time reduce motor vehicle miles and traffic congestion which is a major challenge around Tin can island and Apapa Port, a major transportation hub in Nigeria. The need for the federal government, state governments, houses of assembly to organise a national transportation workshop to begin the process of addressing the challenges in our nation’s transport sector is highly expedient and so bills that will facilitate the implementation of policies to promote intelligent transportation systems needs to be sponsored because of its potentials to create thousands of jobs for our citizens, provide farmers with better access to cities and a better living condition for Nigerians.

Keywords: Transport, Intelligent, System, Nigeria

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2 Scenario-Based Analysis of Electric Vehicle Penetration in Road Transportation in Laos

Authors: Bouneua Khamphilavanh, Toshihiko Masui

Abstract:

The penetration of EV (electric vehicle) technology in Lao road transportation, in this study, was analyzed by using the AIM/CGE [Laos] model. The computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was developed by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) team. In line with the increase of the number of road vehicles, the energy demand in the transport sector has been gradually increased which resulted in a large amount of budget spent for importing fossil fuels during the last decade, and a high carbon dioxide emission from the transport sector, hence the aim of this research is to analyze the impact of EVs penetration on economic and CO₂ emission in short-term, middle-term, and long-term. By the year 2050, the expected gross domestic product (GDP) value, due to Laos will spend more budget for importing the EV, will be gradually lost up to one percent. The cumulative CO₂ emission from 2020 to 2050 in BAU case will be 12,000 GgCO₂eq, and those in the EV mitigation case will be 9,300 GgCO₂eq, which accounting for likely 77% cumulative CO₂ emission reduction in the road transport sector by introducing the EV technology.

Keywords: Transport, GDP, CO2 mitigation, CGE model, EV technology

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1 Analysis of Distance Travelled by Plastic Consumables Used in the First 24 Hours of an Intensive Care Admission: Impacts and Methods of Mitigation

Authors: Aidan N. Smallwood, Celestine R. Weegenaar, Jack N. Evans

Abstract:

The intensive care unit (ICU) is a particularly resource heavy environment, in terms of staff, drugs and equipment required. Whilst many areas of the hospital are attempting to cut down on plastic use and minimise their impact on the environment, this has proven challenging within the confines of intensive care. Concurrently, as globalization has progressed over recent decades, there has been a tendency towards centralised manufacturing with international distribution networks for products, often covering large distances. In this study, we have modelled the standard consumption of plastic single-use items over the course of the first 24-hours of an average individual patient’s stay in a 12 bed ICU in the United Kingdom (UK). We have identified the country of manufacture and calculated the minimum possible distance travelled by each item from factory to patient. We have assumed direct transport via the shortest possible straight line from country of origin to the UK and have not accounted for transport within either country. Assuming an intubated patient with invasive haemodynamic monitoring and central venous access, there are a total of 52 distincts, largely plastic, disposable products which would reasonably be required in the first 24-hours after admission. Each product type has only been counted once to account for multiple items being shipped as one package. Travel distances from origin were summed to give the total distance combined for all 52 products. The minimum possible total distance travelled from country of origin to the UK for all types of product was 273,353 km, equivalent to 6.82 circumnavigations of the globe, or 71% of the way to the moon. The mean distance travelled was 5,256 km, approximately the distance from London to Mecca. With individual packaging for each item, the total weight of consumed products was 4.121 kg. The CO2 produced shipping these items by air freight would equate to 30.1 kg, however doing the same by sea would produce 0.2 kg CO2. Extrapolating these results to the 211,932 UK annual ICU admissions (2018-2019), even with the underestimates of distance and weight of our assumptions, air freight would account for 6586 tons CO2 emitted annually, approximately 130 times that of sea freight. Given the drive towards cost saving within the UK health service, and the decline of the local manufacturing industry, buying from intercontinental manufacturers is inevitable However, transporting all consumables by sea where feasible would be environmentally beneficial, as well as being less costly than air freight. At present, the NHS supply chain purchases from medical device companies, and there is no freely available information as to the transport mode used to deliver the product to the UK. This must be made available to purchasers in order to give a fuller picture of life cycle impact and allow for informed decision making in this regard.

Keywords: Plastic, Transport, CO2, Intensive Care

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