Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Transplantation Related Abstracts

7 Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: G. Anjan Babu, G. Sumana, M. Rajasekhar

Abstract:

Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multi-layered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinanalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Furthermore, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: Hereditary, Pathogenesis, Transplantation, Dialysis, polycystic

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6 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia

Abstract:

Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Transplantation, Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, AFP, Prox1

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5 Benign Osteoblastoma of the Mandible Resection and Replacement of the Defects with Decellularized Cattle Bone Scaffold with Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Authors: K. Mardaleishvili, G. Loladze, G. Shatirishivili, D. Chakhunashvili, A. Vishnevskaya, Z. Kakabadze

Abstract:

Benign osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of the bone, usually affecting the vertebrae and long tubular bones. It is a rarely seen tumor of the facial bones. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old male patient with a tumor in mandibular body. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The defect of the jaw was reconstructed with titanium implants and decellularized and lyophilized cattle bone matrix with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells transplantation. This presentation describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with decellularized bone scaffold in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Transplantation, facial bones, osteoblastoma

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4 Implementation of Cord- Blood Derived Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Two Experimental Models: Carbon Tetrachloride and S. Mansoni Induced Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Zeinab A. Demerdash, Hanan G. El-Baz, Salwa M. Hassan, Faten M. Salah, Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam

Abstract:

Cord blood (CB) derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) with their multipotentiality hold great promise in liver regeneration. This work aims at evaluation of the therapeutic potentiality of USSCs in two experimental models of chronic liver injury induced either by S. mansoni infection in balb/c mice or CCL4 injection in hamsters. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of USSCs from CB samples were performed. USSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Cells of the third passage were transplanted in two models of liver fibrosis: (1) Twenty hamsters were induced to liver fibrosis by repeated i. p. injection of 100 μl CCl4 /hamster for 8 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis and treated with i.h. injection of 3x106 USSCs (USSCs transplanted group), 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis (pathological control group), and 10 hamsters with healthy livers (normal control group). (2) Murine chronics S.mansoni model: twenty mice were induced to liver fibrosis with S. mansoni ceracariae (60 cercariae/ mouse) using the tail immersion method and left for 12 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 mice with liver fibrosis were transplanted with i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs (USSCs transplanted group). Other 2 groups were designed as in hamsters model. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after USSCs transplantation, and their liver sections were examined for detection of human hepatocyte-like cells by immunohistochemistry staining. Moreover, liver sections were examined for fibrosis level, and fibrotic indices were calculated. Sera of sacrificed animals were tested for liver functions. CB USSCs, with fibroblast-like morphology, expressed high levels of CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD105 and were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. USSCs showed high expression of transcripts for Oct4 and Sox2 and were in vitro differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes. In both animal models, in vitro induced hepatocyte-like cells were confirmed by cytoplasmic expression of glycogen, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin18. Livers of USSCs transplanted group showed engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as proved by cytoplasmic expression of human alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin18, and OV6. In addition, livers of this group showed less fibrosis than the pathological control group. Liver functions in the form of serum AST & ALT level and serum total bilirubin level were significantly lowered in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the fibrotic index was significantly lower (p< 0.001) in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group. In addition liver sections, of i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs of mice, stained with either H&E or sirius red showed diminished granuloma size and a relative decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Our experimental liver fibrosis models transplanted with CB-USSCs showed liver engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as well as signs of liver regeneration in the form of improvement in liver function assays and fibrosis level. These data provide hope that human CB- derived USSCs are introduced as multipotent stem cells with great potentiality in regenerative medicine & strengthens the concept of cellular therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Transplantation, Liver Fibrosis, Cord Blood

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3 Expansion of Cord Blood Cells Using a Mix of Neurotrophic Factors

Authors: Francisco Dos Santos, Diogo Fonseca-Pereira, Sílvia Arroz-Madeira, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes

Abstract:

Haematopoiesis is a developmental process that generates all blood cell lineages in health and disease. This relies on quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are able to differentiate, self renew and expand upon physiological demand. HSCs have great interest in regenerative medicine, including haematological malignancies, immunodeficiencies and metabolic disorders. However, the limited yield from existing HSC sources drives the global need for reliable techniques to expand harvested HSCs at high quality and sufficient quantities. With the extensive use of cord blood progenitors for clinical applications, there is a demand for a safe and efficient expansion protocol that is able to overcome the limitations of the cord blood as a source of HSC. StemCell2MAXTM developed a technology that enhances the survival, proliferation and transplantation efficiency of HSC, leading the way to a more widespread use of HSC for research and clinical purposes. StemCell2MAXTM MIX is a solution that improves HSC expansion up to 20x, while preserving stemness, when compared to state-of-the-art. In a recent study by a leading cord blood bank, StemCell2MAX MIX was shown to support a selective 100-fold expansion of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (when compared to a 10-fold expansion of Total Nucleated Cells), while maintaining their multipotent differentiative potential as assessed by CFU assays. The technology developed by StemCell2MAXTM opens new horizons for the usage of expanded hematopoietic progenitors for both research purposes (including quality and functional assays in Cord Blood Banks) and clinical applications.

Keywords: Transplantation, expansion, Cord Blood, hematopoietic stem cell

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2 Growth and Bone Health in Children following Liver Transplantation

Authors: Faris Alkhalil, Rana Bitar, Amer Azaz, Hisham Natour, Noora Almeraikhi, Mohamad Miqdady

Abstract:

Background: Children with liver transplantation are achieving very good survival and so there is now a need to concentrate on achieving good health in these patients and preventing disease. Immunosuppressive medications have side effects that need to be monitored and if possible avoided. Glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors are detrimental to bone and mineral homeostasis in addition steroids can also affect linear growth. Steroid sparing regimes in renal transplant children has shown to improve children’s height. Aim: We aim to review the growth and bone health of children post liver transplant by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and assessing if there is a clear link between poor growth and impaired bone health and use of long term steroids. Subjects and Methods: This is a single centre retrospective Cohort study, we reviewed the medical notes of children (0-16 years) who underwent a liver transplantation between November 2000 to November 2016 and currently being followed at our centre. Results: 39 patients were identified (25 males and 14 females), the median transplant age was 2 years (range 9 months - 16 years), and the median follow up was 6 years. Four patients received a combined transplant, 2 kidney and liver transplant and 2 received a liver and small bowel transplant. The indications for transplant included, Biliary Atresia (31%), Acute Liver failure (18%), Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (15%), transplantable metabolic disease (10%), TPN related liver disease (8%), Primary Hyperoxaluria (5%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (3%) and other causes (10%). 36 patients (95%) were on a calcineurin inhibitor (34 patients were on Tacrolimus and 2 on Cyclosporin). The other three patients were on Sirolimus. Low dose long-term steroids was used in 21% of the patients. A considerable proportion of the patients had poor growth. 15% were below the 3rd centile for weight for age and 21% were below the 3rd centile for height for age. Most of our patients with poor growth were not on long term steroids. 49% of patients had a DEXA scan post transplantation. 21% of these children had low bone mineral density, one patient had met osteoporosis criteria with a vertebral fracture. Most of our patients with impaired bone health were not on long term steroids. 20% of the patients who did not undergo a DEXA scan developed long bone fractures and 50% of them were on long term steroid use which may suggest impaired bone health in these patients. Summary and Conclusion: The incidence of impaired bone health, although studied in limited number of patients; was high. Early recognition and treatment should be instituted to avoid fractures and improve bone health. Many of the patients were below the 3rd centile for weight and height however there was no clear relationship between steroid use and impaired bone health, reduced weight and reduced linear height.

Keywords: Bone, Pediatric, Growth, Transplantation, Liver

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1 Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model

Authors: Mehdi Abbasi, Shadan Navid, Mohammad Pourahmadi, M. Majidi Zolbin

Abstract:

We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.

Keywords: Transplantation, colonization, Melatonin, spermatogonial stem cell

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