Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Transmission Electron Microscopy Related Abstracts

11 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt

Authors: Nourhan Hussein Fanaki, Hoda Mohamed Gamal El-Din Omar, Nihal Kadry Moussa, Eva Adel Edward Farid


The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Polymerase chain reaction, Glycopeptides, diclofenac, combinations, induction

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10 Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: S. Wisutmethangoon, S. Pannaray, T. Plookphol, J. Wannasin


2024 Aluminium alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175 °C for 36 h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, gas induced semi solid, T6 heat treatment, aged hardening

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9 Initiation of Paraptosis-Like PCD Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line by Hep88 mAb through the Binding of Mortalin (HSPA9) and Alpha-Enolase

Authors: Panadda Rojpibulstit, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Songchan Puthong, Sirikul Manochantr, Pornpen Gamnarai, Sasichai Kangsadalampai, Sittiruk Roytrakul


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most primary hepatic cancer worldwide. Nowadays a targeted therapy via monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to tumor-associated antigen is continually developed in HCC treatment. In this regard, after establishing and consequently exploring Hep88 mAb’s tumoricidal effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cell line), the Hep88 mAb’s specific Ag from both membrane and cytoplasmic fractions of HepG2 cell line was identified by 2-D gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis. After in-gel digestion and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), mortalin (HSPA9) and alpha-enolase were identified. The recombinant proteins specific to Hep88 mAb were cloned and expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3). Moreover, alteration of HepG2 and Chang liver cell line after being induced by Hep88 mAb for 1-3 days was investigated using a transmission electron microscope. The result demonstrated that Hep88 mAb can bind to the recombinant mortalin (HSPA9) andalpha-enolase. In addition, gradual appearance of mitochondria vacuolization and endoplasmic reticulum dilatation were observed. Taken together, paraptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) of HepG2 is induced by binding of mortalin (HSPA9) and alpha-enolase to Hep88 mAb. Mortalin depletion by formation of Hep88 mAb-mortalin (HSPA9) complex might initiate transcription-independent of p53-mediated apoptosis. Additionally, Hep88 mAb-alpha-enolase complex might initiate HepG2 cells energy exhaustion by glycolysis pathway obstruction. These results imply that Hep88 mAb might be a promising tool for development of an effective treatment of HCC in the next decade.

Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Monoclonal Antibody, Paraptosis-like program cell death, mortalin (HSPA9), alpha-enolase

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8 Role of NaCl and Temperature in Glycerol Mediated Rapid Growth of Silver Nanostructures

Authors: L. R. Shobin, S. Manivannan


One dimensional silver nanowires and nanoparticles gained more interest in developing transparent conducting films, catalysis, biological and chemical sensors. Silver nanostructures can be synthesized by varying reaction conditions such as the precursor concentration, molar ratio of the surfactant, injection speed of silver ions, etc. in the polyol process. However, the reaction proceeds for greater than 2 hours for the formation of silver nanowires. The introduction of etchant in the medium promotes the growth of silver nanowires from silver nanoparticles along the [100] direction. Rapid growth of silver nanowires is accomplished using the Cl- ions from NaCl and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant. The role of Cl- ion was investigated in the growth of the nanostructured silver. Silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) were harvested from glycerol medium in the absence of Cl- ions. Trace amount of Cl- ions (2.5 mM -NaCl) produced the edge joined nanowires of length upto 2 μm and width ranging from 40 to 65 nm. Formation and rapid growth (within 25 minutes) of long, uniform silver nanowires (upto 5 μm) with good yield were realized in the presence of 5 mM NaCl at 200ºC. The growth of nanostructures was monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal the morphology of the silver nano harvests. The role of temperature in the reduction of silver ions, growth mechanism for nanoparticles, edge joined and straight nanowires will be discussed.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, silver nanowires, glycerol mediated polyol process, UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy

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7 Chromia-Carbon Nanocomposite Materials for Energy Storage Devices

Authors: Muhammad A. Nadeem, Shaheed Ullah


The article reports the synthesis of Cr2O3/C nanocomposites obtained by the direct carbonization of PFA/MIL-101(Cr) bulk composite. The nanocomposites were characterized by various instrumental techniques like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and the surface characterized were investigated via N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. TEM and SAED analysis shows that turbostatic graphitic carbon was obtained with high crystallinity. The nanocomposites were tested for electrochemical supercapacitor and the faradic and non-Faradic processes were checked through cyclic voltammetry (CV). The maximum specific capacitance calculated for Cr2O3/C 900 sample from CV measurement is 301 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 due to its maximum charge storing capacity as confirm by frequency response analysis.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Transmission Electron Microscopy, non-faradic process

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6 Morphological Process of Villi Detachment Assessed by Computer-Assisted 3D Reconstruction of Intestinal Crypt from Serial Ultrathin Sections of Rat Duodenum Mucosa

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Ivna Mororó, Raquel G. Bastos, Maria Isabel G. Severo, Arno H. de Oliveira


This work presents an alternative mode of intestine mucosa renewal that may allow to better understand the total loss of villi after irradiation. It was tested a morphological method of 3d reconstruction using micrographs of serial sections of rat duodenum. We used hundreds of sections of each specimen of duodenum placed on glass slides and examined under a light microscope. Those containing the detachment, approximately a dozen, were chosen for observation under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Each of these sections was glued on a block of epon resin and recut into a hundred of 60 nm-thick sections. Ribbons of these ultrathin sections were distributed on a series of copper grids in the same order of appearance than during the process of microstomia. They were then stained by solutions of uranyl and lead salts and observed under a TEM. The sections were pictured and the electron micrographs showing signs of cells detachment were transferred into two softwares, ImageJ to align the cellular structures and Reconstruct to realize the 3d reconstruction. It has been detected epithelial cells that exhibited all signs of programmed cell death and localized at the villus-crypt junction. Their nucleus was irregular in shape with a condensed chromatin in clumps. Their cytoplasm was darker than that of neighboring cells, containing many swollen mitochondria. In some places of the sections, we could see intercellular spaces enlarged by the presence of shrunk cells which displayed a plasma membrane with an irregular shape in thermowell as if the cell interdigitations would distant from each other. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the crypts has allowed observe gradual loss of intercellular contacts of crypt cells in the longitudinal plan of the duodenal mucosa. In the transverse direction, there was a gradual increase of the intercellular space as if these cells moved away from one another. This observation allows assume that the gradual remoteness of the cells at the villus-crypt junction is the beginning of the mucosa detachment. Thus, the shrinking of cells due to apoptosis is the way that they detach from the mucosa and progressively the villi also. These results are in agreement with our initial hypothesis and thus have demonstrated that the villi become detached from the mucosa at the villus-crypt junction by the programmed cell death process. This type of loss of entire villus helps explain the rapid denudation of the intestinal mucosa in case of irradiation.

Keywords: apoptosis, Transmission Electron Microscopy, ionizing radiations, rat small intestine

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5 Ultrastructural Characterization of Lipid Droplets of Rat Hepatocytes after Whole Body 60-Cobalt Gamma Radiation

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Ivna Mororó, Stephanie Ribeiro, Kely Almeida


Lipid droplets (LDs) are normally presented in greater or lesser number in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells. They are independent organelles composed of a lipid ester core and a surface phospholipid monolayer. As a lipid storage form, they provide an available source of energy for the cell. Recently it was demonstrated that they play an important role in other many cellular processes. Among the many unresolved questions about them, it is not even known how LDs is formed, how lipids are recruited to LDs and how they interact with the other organelles. Excess fat in the organism is pathological and often associated with the development of some genetic, hormonal or behavioral diseases. The formation and accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm can be increased by exogenous physical or chemical agents. It is well known that ionizing radiation affects lipid metabolism resulting in increased lipogenesis in cells, but the details of this process are unknown. To better understand the mode of formation of LDs in liver cells, we investigate their ultrastructural morphology after irradiation. For that, Wistar rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation from 60-cobalt at various single doses. Samples of the livers were processed for analysis under a conventional transmission electron microscope. We found that when compared to controls, morphological changes in liver cells were evident at the higher doses of radiation used. It was detected a great number of lipid droplets of different sizes and homogeneous content and some of them merged each other. In some cells, it was observed diffused LDs, not limited by a monolayer of phospholipids. This finding suggests that the phospholipid monolayer of the LDs was disrupted by ionizing radiation exposure that promotes lipid peroxydation of endo membranes. Thus the absence of the phospholipid monolayer may prevent the realization of some cellular activities as follow: - lipid exocytosis which requires the merging of LDs membrane with the plasma membrane; - the interaction of LDs with other membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the golgi and mitochondria and; - lipolysis of lipid esters contained in the LDs which requires the presence of enzymes located in membrane-bound organelles as ER. All these impediments can contribute to lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm and the development of diseases such as liver steatosis, cirrhosis and cancer.

Keywords: Radiobiology, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Lipid Metabolism, hepatocytes

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4 Neutron Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steels: An Applied Methodology for Nanoindentation and Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies

Authors: P. Bublíkova, P. Halodova, H. K. Namburi, J. Stodolna, J. Duchon, O. Libera


Neutron radiation-induced microstructural changes cause degradation of mechanical properties and the lifetime reduction of reactor internals during nuclear power plant operation. Investigating the effects of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of the irradiated material (hardening, embrittlement) is challenging and time-consuming. Although the fast neutron spectrum has the major influence on microstructural properties, the thermal neutron effect is widely investigated owing to Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking firstly observed in BWR stainless steels. In this study, 300-series austenitic stainless steels used as material for NPP's internals were examined after neutron irradiation at ~ 15 dpa. Although several nanoindentation experimental publications are available to determine the mechanical properties of ion irradiated materials, less is available on neutron irradiated materials at high dpa tested in hot-cells. In this work, we present particular methodology developed to determine the mechanical properties of neutron irradiated steels by nanoindentation technique. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage in the specimens was investigated by High Resolution - Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) that showed the defect features, particularly Frank loops, cavity microstructure, radiation-induced precipitates and radiation-induced segregation. The results of nanoindentation measurements and associated nanoscale defect features showed the effect of irradiation-induced hardening. We also propose methodologies to optimized sample preparation for nanoindentation and microscotructural studies.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nanoindentation, thermal neutrons, radiation hardening

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3 Pufferfish Skin Collagens and Their Role in Inflation

Authors: Kirti, Samanta Sekhar Khora


Inflation serves different purposes in different organisms and adds beauty to their behavioral attributes. Pufferfishes are also known as blowfish, swellfish, and globefish due to their remarkable ability to puff themselves up like a balloon when threatened. This ability to inflate can be correlated with anatomical features that are unique to pufferfishes. Pufferfish skin provides a rigid framework to support the body contents and a flexible covering to allow whatever changes are necessary for remarkable inflation mechanism. Skin, the outer covering of animals is made up of collagen fibers arranged in more or less ordered arrays. The ventral skin of pufferfish stretches more than dorsal skin during inflation. So, this study is of much of the interest in comparing the structure and mechanical properties of these two skin regions. The collagen fibers were found to be arranged in different ordered arrays for ventral and dorsal skin and concentration of fibers were also found to be different for these two skin parts. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ventral skin showed a unidirectional arrangement of the collagen fibers, which provide more stretching capacity. Dorsal skin, on the other hand, has an orthogonal arrangement of fibers. This provides more stiffness to the ventral skin at the time of inflation. In this study, the possible role of collagen fibers was determined which significantly contributed to the remarkable inflation mechanism of pufferfishes.

Keywords: Histology, Inflation, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, collagen, pufferfish, Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)

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2 Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Mitochondria on Transmission Electron Microscopy Images Using Live-Wire and Surface Dragging Methods

Authors: Mahdieh Farzin Asanjan, Erkan Unal Mumcuoglu


Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles of the cell, which have a significant role in the variety of cellular metabolic functions. Mitochondria act as the power plants of the cell and are surrounded by two membranes. Significant morphological alterations are often due to changes in mitochondrial functions. A powerful technique in order to study the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mitochondria and its alterations in disease states is Electron microscope tomography. Detection of mitochondria in electron microscopy images due to the presence of various subcellular structures and imaging artifacts is a challenging problem. Another challenge is that each image typically contains more than one mitochondrion. Hand segmentation of mitochondria is tedious and time-consuming and also special knowledge about the mitochondria is needed. Fully automatic segmentation methods lead to over-segmentation and mitochondria are not segmented properly. Therefore, semi-automatic segmentation methods with minimum manual effort are required to edit the results of fully automatic segmentation methods. Here two editing tools were implemented by applying spline surface dragging and interactive live-wire segmentation tools. These editing tools were applied separately to the results of fully automatic segmentation. 3D extension of these tools was also studied and tested. Dice coefficients of 2D and 3D for surface dragging using splines were 0.93 and 0.92. This metric for 2D and 3D for live-wire method were 0.94 and 0.91 respectively. The root mean square symmetric surface distance values of 2D and 3D for surface dragging was measured as 0.69, 0.93. The same metrics for live-wire tool were 0.60 and 2.11. Comparing the results of these editing tools with the results of automatic segmentation method, it shows that these editing tools, led to better results and these results were more similar to ground truth image but the required time was higher than hand-segmentation time

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, medical image segmentation, semi-automatic methods, surface dragging using splines, live-wire

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1 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Using Water Extract of Satureja hortensis L. and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Capacities

Authors: Sajjad Sedaghat


In this work, facile and green biosynthesis and characterization of silver–montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite is reported at room temperature. Silver nanoparticles (Ag–NPs) were synthesized into the interlamellar space of (MMT) by using water extract of Satureja hortensis L as reducing agent. The MMT was suspended in the aqueous AgNO₃ solution, and after the absorption of silver ions, Ag⁺ was reduced using water extract of Satureja hortensis L to Ag°. Evaluation of the antibacterial properties are also reported. The nanocomposite was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM study showed the formation of nanocomposite using water extract of Satureja hortensis L in the 4.88 – 26.70 nm range and average particles size were 15.79 nm also the XRD study showed that the particles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The nanocomposite showed the antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Transmission Electron Microscopy, montmorillonite, antibacterial effects, Satureja hortensis l

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