Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Translation Techniques Related Abstracts

3 Language Errors Used in “The Space between Us” Movie and Their Effects on Translation Quality: Translation Study toward Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Mochamad Nuruz Zaman, Mangatur Rudolf Nababan, M. A. Djatmika

Abstract:

Both society and education areas teach to have good communication for building the interpersonal skills up. Everyone has the capacity to understand something new, either well comprehension or worst understanding. Worst understanding makes the language errors when the interactions are done by someone in the first meeting, and they do not know before it because of distance area. “The Space between Us” movie delivers the love-adventure story between Mars Boy and Earth Girl. They are so many missing conversations because of the different climate and environment. As the moviegoer also must be focused on the subtitle in order to enjoy well the movie. Furthermore, Indonesia subtitle and English conversation on the movie still have overlapping understanding in the translation. Translation hereby consists of source language -SL- (English conversation) and target language -TL- (Indonesia subtitle). These research gap above is formulated in research question by how the language errors happened in that movie and their effects on translation quality which is deepest analyzed by translation study toward discourse analysis approach. The research goal is to expand the language errors and their translation qualities in order to create a good atmosphere in movie media. The research is studied by embedded research in qualitative design. The research locations consist of setting, participant, and event as focused determined boundary. Sources of datum are “The Space between Us” movie and informant (translation quality rater). The sampling is criterion-based sampling (purposive sampling). Data collection techniques use content analysis and questioner. Data validation applies data source and method triangulation. Data analysis delivers domain, taxonomy, componential, and cultural theme analysis. Data findings on the language errors happened in the movie are referential, register, society, textual, receptive, expressive, individual, group, analogical, transfer, local, and global errors. Data discussions on their effects to translation quality are concentrated by translation techniques on their data findings; they are amplification, borrowing, description, discursive creation, established equivalent, generalization, literal, modulation, particularization, reduction, substitution, and transposition.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Translation Techniques, language errors, The Space between Us movie, translation quality instruments

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2 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: Translation Techniques, conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, untranslatability

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1 Machine Translation Analysis of Chinese Dish Names

Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Olga Torres-Hostench

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study evaluating and comparing the quality of machine translation (MT) output of Chinese gastronomy nomenclature. Chinese gastronomic culture is experiencing an increased international acknowledgment nowadays. The nomenclature of Chinese gastronomy not only reflects a specific aspect of culture, but it is related to other areas of society such as philosophy, traditional medicine, etc. Chinese dish names are composed of several types of cultural references, such as ingredients, colors, flavors, culinary techniques, cooking utensils, toponyms, anthroponyms, metaphors, historical tales, among others. These cultural references act as one of the biggest difficulties in translation, in which the use of translation techniques is usually required. Regarding the lack of Chinese food-related translation studies, especially in Chinese-Spanish translation, and the current massive use of MT, the quality of the MT output of Chinese dish names is questioned. Fifty Chinese dish names with different types of cultural components were selected in order to complete this study. First, all of these dish names were translated by three different MT tools (Google Translate, Baidu Translate and Bing Translator). Second, a questionnaire was designed and completed by 12 Chinese online users (Chinese graduates of a Hispanic Philology major) in order to find out user preferences regarding the collected MT output. Finally, human translation techniques were observed and analyzed to identify what translation techniques would be observed more often in the preferred MT proposals. The result reveals that the MT output of the Chinese gastronomy nomenclature is not of high quality. It would be recommended not to trust the MT in occasions like restaurant menus, TV culinary shows, etc. However, the MT output could be used as an aid for tourists to have a general idea of a dish (the main ingredients, for example). Literal translation turned out to be the most observed technique, followed by borrowing, generalization and adaptation, while amplification, particularization and transposition were infrequently observed. Possibly because that the MT engines at present are limited to relate equivalent terms and offer literal translations without taking into account the whole context meaning of the dish name, which is essential to the application of those less observed techniques. This could give insight into the post-editing of the Chinese dish name translation. By observing and analyzing translation techniques in the proposals of the machine translators, the post-editors could better decide which techniques to apply in each case so as to correct mistakes and improve the quality of the translation.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Translation Techniques, Chinese dish names, cultural references

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