Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Translation Related Abstracts

48 An Investigation on the Perception and Adoption of Terminology Management Applications by the Iranian English Language Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

In recent years, there have been increasing requests in the field of translation studies to develop software facilitating the analysis of corpora. One of the specialized tools in that regard are Terminology Management Tools. Briefly explaining, Terminology Management Tools are applications developed to help create and store terminological data in the form which allows for a controlled use of the data. While it has a long history and an established ground in translation market in most parts of the globe, the Iranian translators and translation market still seem to be unaware or unfamiliar with Terminology Management Tools. In order to provide a preview on the perception and adoption of Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators, the present survey was carried out among 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 different universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators.

Keywords: Translation, translation technology, terminology management tools, terminology management survey

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47 Translation of Scientific and Technological Terms into Hausa Language: A Guide to Hausa Language Translator in an Electronic Media (Radio)

Authors: Surajo Ladan

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There is no doubt nowadays, the media plays a crucial role in the development of languages. Media practitioners influence and set our linguistic norms to a greater extent. Their strategic position makes them influential than school teachers as linguistic pacesetters and models. This is so because of the direct access to the general public that media enjoys being public, oriented and at the same time being patronized by the public, the media is regarded as an authority as far as language use is concerned. In the modern world, listening to the news has become part and parcel of our daily lives. Easy communication has made the world a global village. Contact between countries and people are increasing daily. In Nigeria and indeed the whole of West Africa, radio is the most widely spread out of the three types of media (radio, television, and print). This is because of its (radio) cheapness and less cumbersome and flexibility. Therefore, the positive or negative effect of radio on the lives of a typical Nigerian or African cannot be over emphasized. Hausa language, on the other hand, is one of the most widely spoken languages in West Africa and, of course, the lingua franca in the Northern part of Nigeria and Southern Niger. The language has been in use to a large extent by almost all the popular foreign media houses of BBC, VOA, Deutsche Welle Radio, Radio France International, Radio China, etc. The many people in Nigeria and West Africa depend so much on the news in this language. In fact even government programmes, mobilization, education and sensitization of the populace are done in this language through the broadcast media. It is against this background, for effective and efficient work of this nature it requires the services of a trained translator for the purpose of translating scientific and technological terms. The main thrust of this paper was necessitated for the fact that no nation develops using foreign or borrowed language. This is in lined with UNESCO declaration of 1953 where it says 'the best Language of Instruction (LOI) is the vernacular or the Mother Tongue (MT) of the learner'. This idea is in the right direction especially nowadays that the developing nations have come to terms with realities that their destiny is really in their own hands, not in the hands of the so-called developed nations.

Keywords: Media, Language, Scientific, Radio, Translation, Technological

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46 The Study of Idiom Translation in Fiction from English into Thai

Authors: Chinchira Bunchutrakun

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The purposes of the study are to investigate the problems that the translators encountered when translating English idioms into Thai and study the strategies they applied in solving the problems. The original English version and the Thai translated version of each of two works of fiction were purposively selected for the study. The first was Mr. Maybe, written by Jane Green and translated by Montharat Songphao. The second was The Trials of Tiffany Trott, written by Isabel Wolff and translated by Jitraporn Notoda. Thirty idioms of two translated works of fiction were, then, analyzed. Questionnaires and interviews with the translators of each novel were conducted to obtain the best possible information. The results indicated that the only type of problem that occurred was cultural problems, and these were solved differently by the two translators.

Keywords: Translation, idiom translation, fiction translation, problem-solution strategies

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45 Visual Analytics in K 12 Education: Emerging Dimensions of Complexity

Authors: Linnea Stenliden

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The aim of this paper is to understand emerging learning conditions, when a visual analytics is implemented and used in K 12 (education). To date, little attention has been paid to the role visual analytics (digital media and technology that highlight visual data communication in order to support analytical tasks) can play in education, and to the extent to which these tools can process actionable data for young students. This study was conducted in three public K 12 schools, in four social science classes with students aged 10 to 13 years, over a period of two to four weeks at each school. Empirical data were generated using video observations and analyzed with help of metaphors by Latour. The learning conditions are found to be distinguished by broad complexity characterized by four dimensions. These emerge from the actors’ deeply intertwined relations in the activities. The paper argues in relation to the found dimensions that novel approaches to teaching and learning could benefit students’ knowledge building as they work with visual analytics, analyzing visualized data.

Keywords: visual analytics, Complexity, Translation, analytical reasoning, data use, problem space, visual storytelling

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44 The Effects of High Technology on Communicative Translation: A Case Study of Yoruba Language

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

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European Languages are languages of literature, science and technology. Whereas, African languages are of literature, both written and oral, making it difficult for Yoruba, the African language of Kwa linguistic classification, to neatly and accurately translate European scientific and technological words, expressions and technologies. Unless a pragmatic and communicative approach is adopted, equivalence of European technical and scientific texts might be a mission impossible for Yoruba scholars. In view of the aforementioned difficult task, this paper tends to highlight the need for a thorough study and evaluation of English or French words, expressions, idiomatic expressions, technical and scientific terminologies then, trying to find ways of adopting them to Yoruba environment through interpretative translation.

Keywords: Communication, Translation, high technology, Yoruba language

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43 Reading against the Grain: Transcodifying Stimulus Meaning

Authors: Aba-Carina Pârlog

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On translating, reading against the grain results in a wrong effect in the TL. Quine’s ocular irradiation plays an important part in the process of understanding and translating a text. The various types of textual radiation must be rendered by the translator by paying close attention to the types of field that produce it. The literary work must be seen as an indirect cause of an expressive effect in the TL that is supposed to be similar to the effect it has in the SL. If the adaptive transformative codes are so flexible that they encourage the translator to repeatedly leave out parts of the original work, then a subversive pattern emerges which changes the entire book. In this case, the translator is a writer per se who decides what goes in and out of the book, how the style is to be ciphered and what elements of ideology are to be highlighted. Figurative language must not be flattened for the sake of clarity or naturalness. The missing figurative elements make the translated text less interesting, less challenging and less vivid which reflects poorly on the writer. There is a close connection between style and the writer’s person. If the writer’s style is very much changed in a translation, the translation is useless as the original writer and his / her imaginative world can no longer be discovered. Then, a different writer appears and his / her creation surfaces. Changing meaning considered as a “negative shift” in translation defines one of the faulty transformative codes used by some translators. It is a dangerous tool which leads to adaptations that sometimes reflect the original less than the reader would wish to. It contradicts the very essence of the process of translation which is that of making a work available in a foreign language. Employing speculative aesthetics at the level of a text indicates the wish to create manipulative or subversive effects in the translated work. This is generally achieved by adding new words or connotations, creating new figures of speech or using explicitations. The irradiation patterns of the original work are neglected and the translator creates new meanings, implications, emphases and contexts. Again s/he turns into a new author who enjoys the freedom of expressing his / her ideas without the constraints of the original text. The stimulus meaning of a text is very important for a translator which is why reading against the grain is unadvisable during the process of translation. By paying attention to the waves of the SL input, a faithful literary work is produced which does not contradict general knowledge about foreign cultures and civilizations. Following personal common sense is essential in the field of translation as well as everywhere else.

Keywords: Translation, stimulus meaning, substance of expression, transformative code

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42 Westernization of Islamic Culture, A Historical Analysis

Authors: Saidalavi Kannattippadi

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It is a culture based study on revealing how the indebtedness of the west belongs to the moral and scientific culture of Islam, even to such a way to be said there was no room for renaissance and the enlightment of the west without the active intervention of the Islamic culture in thoughts and activities of the European thinkers. The study focuses on the exact causes that led the west to the renaissance and goes through analyzing each of historical evidences for confirming the continuous cultural assimilations that occurred between east and west, through transmissions of knowledge, translations of unique treatises, study trips and so on. The west had deeply influenced by the thought and culture of Islam after having a long bitter experience from the blind rituals and customs introduced by the church and was expecting for a movement that can raise them upwards from the bankruptcy of morality and spirituality. The sequence of crusades and voyages of thinkers from west to eastern wards made the western people aware of the best culture ever found in the world as in name of Islam and they become ready to assimilate its notable cultural values and to borrow its cultural achievements. The west had two types of influences from the Islam; moral and scientific. the uprooting of untouchablitlity and racism from western society and their accepting the ideologies of equality and fraternity are moral influence and the innumerable inventions and discoveries found in modern science and technology are the scientific influences. Without the frantic efforts of Muslims in translating, modifying and commenting the science and philosophy of the Greek the west would not have even a chance to peep to the cultural values of the Greek. Here the Muslims are the guides and channels through which the west got educated and well cultured. The study also briefly sheds light on the cultural achievements of Muslims in material science, human science, etc.

Keywords: Transmission, Translation, Cultural assimilation, West, muslim world, culture and civilization, indebtedness

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41 Mistakes in Translation Causing Translation Problems for Undergraduate Students in Thailand

Authors: Benjawan Tipprachaban

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This research aims to investigate mistakes in translation, particularly from Thai to English, which cause translation problems for undergraduate students in Thailand. The researcher had the non-English major students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The data were collected by having 27 non-English major students translate 50 Thai sentences into English. After the translation, lots of mistakes were found and the researcher categorized them into 3 main types which were the grammatical mistake, the usage mistake, and the spelling mistake. However, this research is currently in the process of analyzing the data and shall be completed in August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that, of all the mistakes, the grammatical mistake will principally be made, the usage mistake and the spelling one respectively, which will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the grammatical mistake, mainly caused by language transfer, essentially leads to considerable translation problems; 2) the usage mistake is another critical problem that causes translation problems; 3) basic knowledge in Thai to English translation of undergraduate students in Thailand is at low level.

Keywords: Language, English, Translation, Thai

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40 Problems in English into Thai Translation Normally Found in Thai University Students

Authors: Anochao Phetcharat

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This research aims to study problems of translation basic knowledge, particularly from English into Thai. The researcher used 38 2nd-year non-English speaking students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The samples were required to translate an A4-sized article from English into Thai assigned as a part of BEN0202 Translation for Business, a requirement subject for Business English Department, which was also taught by the researcher. After completion of the translation, numerous problems were found and the research grouped them into 4 major types. The normally occurred problems in English-Thai translation works are the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, word-by-word translation employment, misspellings as well as the poor knowledge in English language structure. However, this research is currently under the process of data analysis and shall be completed by the beginning of August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that all the above-mentioned problems, will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, that are; 1) the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech causes the mistranslation problem; 2) employing word-by-word translation technique hugely results in the mistranslation problem; 3) misspellings yields the mistranslation problem; and 4) the poor knowledge in English language structure also brings about translation errors. The research also predicts that, of all the aforementioned problems, the following ones are found the most, respectively: the poor knowledge in English language structure, word-by-word translation employment, the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, and misspellings.

Keywords: Translation, Student, problem, Thai

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39 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

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Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: Translation, Translation Quality, degree in translation, professional experience

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38 Translation and Ideology: New Perspectives

Authors: Hamza Salih

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Since translation is no longer viewed as a mere replacement of linguistic codes from one language to another, it has increasingly been considered, especially with the advent of the cultural turn in the late 70's, in relation to the broader external context in which it takes place. According to scholars in the field, the translation process is determined by the political, economic and cultural values which exert external pressures on the translator. Correspondingly, the relationship between translation as an act of re-writing the original text and ideology has already been established. This paper addresses the issue of how ideology comes into play in the translational process and what strategies the translator adopts to foreground or circumvent ideological constraints. Along with this, the paper will touch upon the notions of censorship, manipulation, subversion and domestication which are deemed of relevance to this very topic. In fact, after the domination of the empirically-oriented linguistic approaches in translation studies, the relationship between translation and ideology has to be foregrounded to draw attention to the fact that the translation process is not a mere text-to-text linguistic transfer, but, on the contrary, takes place in the midst of economic, political, cultural and religious variables, which some scholars subsume under the category ideology.

Keywords: Language, Translation, Ideology, subversion, censorship and manipulation

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37 Going Global by Going Local-How Website Localization and Translation Can Break the Internet Language Barrier and Contribute to Globalization

Authors: Hela Fathallah

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With 6,500 spoken languages all over the world but 80 percent of online content available only in 10 languages – English, Chinese, Spanish, Japanese, Arabic, Portuguese, German, French, Russian, and Korean – language represents a barrier to the universal access to knowledge, information and services that the internet wants to provide. Translation and its related fields of localization, interpreting, globalization, and internationalization, remove that barrier for billions of people worldwide, unlocking new markets for technology companies, mobile device makers, service providers and language vendors as well. This paper gathers different surveys conducted in different regions of the world that demonstrate a growing demand for consumption of web content with distinctive values and in languages others than the aforementioned ones. It also adds new insights to the contribution of translation in languages preservation. The idea that English is the language of internet and that, in a globalized world, everyone should learn English to cope with new technologies is no longer true. This idea has reached its limits. It collides with cultural diversity and differences around the world and generates an accelerated rate of languages extinction. Studies prove that internet exacerbates this rate and web giants such as Facebook or Google are, today, facing the impact of such a misconception of globalization. For internet and dot-com companies, localization is the solution; they are spending a significant amount of time to understand what people want and to figure out how to provide it. They are committed to making their content accessible, if not in all the languages spoken today, at least in most of them, and to adapting it to most cultures. Technology has broken down the barriers of time and space, and it will break down the language barrier as well by undertaking a process of translation and localization and through a new definition of globalization that takes into consideration these two processes.

Keywords: Internet, Globalization, Translation, Localization

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36 Evaluation Means in English and Russian Academic Discourse: Through Comparative Analysis towards Translation

Authors: Albina Vodyanitskaya

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Given the culture- and language-specific nature of evaluation, this phenomenon is widely studied around the linguistic world and may be regarded as a challenge for translators. Evaluation penetrates all the levels of a scientific text, influences its composition and the reader’s attitude towards the information presented. One of the most challenging and rarely studied phenomena is the individual style of the scientific writer, which is mostly reflected in the use of evaluative language means. The evaluative and expressive potential of a scientific text is becoming more and more welcoming area for researchers, which stems in the shift towards anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics. Other reasons include: the cognitive and psycholinguistic processes that accompany knowledge acquisition, a genre-determined nature of a scientific text, the increasing public concern about the quality of scientific papers and some such. One more important issue, is the fact that linguists all over the world still argue about the definition of evaluation and its functions in the text. The author analyzes various approaches towards the study of evaluation and scientific texts. A comparative analysis of English and Russian dissertations and other scientific papers with regard to evaluative language means reveals major differences and similarities between English and Russian scientific style. Though standardized and genre-specific, English scientific texts contain more figurative and expressive evaluative means than the Russian ones, which should be taken into account while translating scientific papers. The processes that evaluation undergoes while being expressed by means of a target language are also analyzed. The author offers a target-language-dependent strategy for the translation of evaluation in English and Russian scientific texts. The findings may contribute to the theory and practice of translation and can increase scientific writers’ awareness of inter-language and intercultural differences in evaluative language means.

Keywords: Evaluation, Translation, scientific writing, academic discourse, scientific text

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35 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

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Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: Translation, Cell Therapy, Commercialization, clinical adoption

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34 Procedures and Strategies in Translation: Two Marathi Translations of Train to Pakistan by Khushwant Singh

Authors: Manoj Gujar

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The present paper is an attempt to interpret two Marathi translations of Khushwant Singh’s (1915-2014) novel Train to Pakistan (1956). The 20th century was branded as an era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization. Different countries and cultures have enunciated interaction with one another in an unprecedented manner. The world is becoming multilingual and multicultural. The democratic countries such as the U.S.A., the U.K., and India have become pivotal centers of interlingual and cross-cultural exchange. People belonging to different nationalities showed keen interest in knowing the characteristic features of different languages and of their cultures. Here, ‘Translation’ plays an important role in such multilingual and multicultural contexts. Translation is not only translation of a language but a translation of a culture. However, in the act of translation a translator makes use of such procedures as borrowing, definition, literal translation, substitution, lexical creation, omission, addition as well as their various combinations. To him, a text produced in one linguistic and cultural context can reach other linguistic and cultural contexts through these processes of translation. A worthy work of art appeals many readers. India, being a multilingual country we find that there goes multiple translations of the same text in different Indian languages. But sometimes, if can be found that a same text appeals to different ages and the same text gets translated into the same language by the two or more authors. In this reference, the present paper is an attempt to study how different translations of the same text differ in terms of procedures and strategies during the process of the translation of culture. The source text is Khushwant Singh’s historical novel Train to Pakistan (1956). The novel was widely appreciated and so translated into different regional languages in India. The novel has two Marathi translations: Agniratha (1972) by Hidayatkhan and Train to Pakistan (1980) by Anil Kinikar. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the strategies and procedures in translation to analyze these two Marathi translations. Hidayat Khan made a lot of omissions of the significant details and distorted the original text to a large extent, whereas, Anil Kinikar has done justice to the Source Text by rendering it in Marathi as faithfully as possible.

Keywords: Culture, Translation, multilingual, procedures and strategies

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33 Translation, War and Humanitarian Action: A Case Study of the Kindertransporte to Switzerland

Authors: Lisa Mockli, Chelsea Sambells

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By combining the methodologies of history and translation studies, this study will explore the interplay between humanitarian action, politics, and translation within the advertising for a lesser-known Swiss child evacuation project of some 60.000 Belgium and French children to Switzerland for three month periods from 1940 to 1945. Inspired by Descriptive-Explanatory Translation Studies, this project compares Swiss speeches published between May and September 1942 (the termination of the evacuations). Radio broadcasts, leaflets and newspapers will triangulate the data. First, linguistic and content-related differences will be identified and described. Second, based on findings from the Swiss Federal Archives, the evidence from the comparative textual analysis will then be evaluated in order to explore how the speeches were modified, for what purpose, and which key issues were raised during their modification. By exploring these questions, this paper provides new insights into (I) Switzerland’s understanding of Swiss neutrality and humanitarianism during the Second World War, (II) the role of children in war and (III) the role of translation in shaping political discourse and humanitarian action. Moreover, this interdisciplinary approach also demonstrates how scholarly collaboration may help to make some elements of humanitarian action more self-reflexive and effective.

Keywords: History, Politics, Children, Translation, Humanitarianism

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32 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

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Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: Translation, Arabic, poem, novel

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31 Translation and Sociolinguistics of Classical Books

Authors: Laura de Almeida

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This paper aims to present research involving the translation of classical books originally in English and translated into the Portuguese language. The objective is to analyze the linguistic varieties evident and how they appear in the other language the work was translated into. We based our study on the sociolinguistics theory, more specifically, the study of the Black English Vernacular. Our methodology is built on collecting data from the speech characters of the Black English Vernacular from some books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. On doing so, we compare the two versions of a book and how they reflected the linguistic variety. Our purpose is to show that some translators do not worry when dealing with linguistic variety. In other words, they just translate the story without taking into account some important linguistic aspects which need attention, such as language variation.

Keywords: Linguistic variation, Sociolinguistics, Translation, classical books

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30 Shaking the Iceberg: Metaphoric Shifting and Loss in the German Translations of 'The Sun Also Rises'

Authors: Christopher Dick

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While the translation of 'literal language' poses numerous challenges for the translator, the translation of 'figurative language' creates even more complicated issues. It has been only in the last several decades that scholars have attempted to propose theories of figurative language translation, including metaphor translation. Even less work has applied these theories to metaphoric translation in literary texts. And almost no work has linked an analysis of metaphors in translation with the recent scholarship on conceptual metaphors. A study of literature in translation must not only examine the inevitable shifts that occur as specific metaphors move from source language to target language but also analyze the ways in which these shifts impact conceptual metaphors and, ultimately, the text as a whole. Doing so contributes to on-going efforts to bridge the sometimes wide gulf between considerations of content and form in literary studies. This paper attempts to add to the body of scholarly literature on metaphor translation and the function of metaphor in a literary text. Specifically, the study examines the metaphoric expressions in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. First, the issue of Hemingway and metaphor is addressed. Next, the study examines the specific metaphors in the original novel in English and the German translations, first in Annemarie Horschitz’s 1928 German version and then in the recent Werner Schmitz 2013 translation. Hemingway’s metaphors, far from being random occurrences of figurative language, are linguistic manifestations of deeper conceptual metaphors that are central to an interpretation of the text. By examining the modifications that are made to these original metaphoric expressions as they are translated into German, one can begin to appreciate the shifts involved with metaphor translation. The translation of Hemingway’s metaphors into German represents significant metaphoric loss and shifting that subsequently shakes the important conceptual metaphors in the novel.

Keywords: Stylistics, Translation, Conceptual Metaphor, Hemingway

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29 American Slang: Perception and Connotations – Issues of Translation

Authors: Lison Carlier

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The English language that is taught in school or used in media nowadays is defined as 'standard English,' although unstandardized Englishes, or 'parallel' Englishes, are practiced throughout the world. The existence of these 'parallel' Englishes has challenged standardization by imposing its own specific vocabulary or grammar. These non-standard languages tend to be regarded as inferior and, therefore, pose a problem regarding their translation. In the USA, 'slanguage', or slang, is a good example of a 'parallel' language. It consists of a particular set of vocabulary, used mostly in speech, and rarely in writing. Qualified as vulgar, often reduced to an urban language spoken by young people from lower classes, slanguage – or the language that is often first spoken between youths – is still the most common language used in the English-speaking world. Moreover, it appears that the prime meaning of 'informal' (as in an informal language) – a language that is spoken with persons the speaker knows – has been put aside and replaced in the general mind by the idea of vulgarity and non-appropriateness, when in fact informality is a sign of intimacy, not of vulgarity. When it comes to translating American slang, the main problem a translator encounters is the image and the cultural background usually associated with this 'parallel' language. Indeed, one will have, unwillingly, a predisposition to categorize a speaker of a 'parallel' language as being part of a particular group of people. The way one sees a speaker using it is paramount, and needs to be transposed into the target language. This paper will conduct an analysis of American slang – its use, perception and the image it gives of its speakers – and its translation into French, using the novel Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (and other concerns) by way of example. In her autobiography/personal essay book, comedy writer, actress and author Mindy Kaling speaks with a very familiar English, including slang, which participates in the construction of her own voice and style, and enables a deeper connection with her readers.

Keywords: French, English, Translation, Slang

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28 Adaptation and Validation of Voice Handicap Index in Telugu Language

Authors: B. S. Premalatha, Kausalya Sahani

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Background: Voice is multidimensional which convey emotion, feelings, and communication. Voice disorders have an adverse effect on the physical, emotional and functional domains of an individual. Self-rating by clients about their voice problem helps the clinicians to plan intervention strategies. Voice handicap index is one such self-rating scale contains 30 questions that quantify the functional, physical and emotional impacts of a voice disorder on a patient’s quality of life. Each subsection has 10 questions. Though adapted and validated versions of VHI are available in other Indian languages but not in Telugu, which is a Dravidian language native to India. It is mainly spoken in Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states in southern India. Objectives: To adapt and validate the English version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) into Telugu language and evaluate its internal consistency and clinical validate in Telugu speaking population. Materials: The study carried out in three stages. First stage was a forward translation of English version of VHI, was given to ten experts, who were well proficient in writing and reading Telugu and five speech-language pathologists to translate into Telugu. Second Stage was backward translation where translated version of Telugu was given to a different group of ten experts (who were well proficient in writing and reading Telugu) and five speech-language pathologists who were native Telugu speakers and had good proficiency in Telugu and English. The third stage was an administration of translated version on Telugu to the targeted population. Totally 40 clinical subjects and 40 normal controls served as participants, and each group had 26 males and 14 females’ age range of 20 to 60 years. Clinical group comprised of individuals with laryngectomee with the Tracheoesophageal puncture (n=18), laryngitis (n=11), vocal nodules (n=7) and vocal fold palsy (n=4). Participants were asked to mark of their each experience on a 5 point equal appearing scale (0=never, 1=almost never, 2=sometimes, 3=almost always, 4=always) with a maximum total score of 120. Results: Statistical analysis was made by using SPSS software (22.0.0 Version). Mean, standard deviation and percentage (%) were calculated all the participants for both the groups. Internal consistency of VHI in Telugu was found to be excellent with the consistency scores for all the domains such as physical, emotional and functional are 0.742, 0.934and 0.938. The validity of scores showed a significant difference between clinical population and control group for domains like physical, emotional and functional and total scores. P value found to be less than 0.001( < 0.001). Negative correlation found in age and gender among self-domains such as physical, emotional and functional total scores in dysphonic and control group. Conclusion: The present study indicated that VHI in Telugu is able to discriminate participants having voice pathology from normal populations, which make this as a valid tool to collect information about their voice from the participants.

Keywords: Translation, Adaptation, Telugu Version, Voice Handicap Index (VHI)

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27 Metaphor Scenarios of Translation: An Applied Linguistic Approach to Discourse Analysis

Authors: Elizabeta Eduard Baltadzhyan

Abstract:

This work presents a stage of an investigation about the metaphorical conceptualization of translation in Bulgarian language. The material is a linguistic corpus consisting of 38 interviews with several generations Bulgarian translators and interpreters. The aim of this presentation is to inform about the results of the organization of the source concepts in scenarios that dominate the discursive manifestations of the source domains. The data show that, on the one hand, translators from different generations share some basic assignments of source and target domains, e. g. translation is a journey or translation is an artistic presentation. On the other hand, there are some specific scenarios motivated by significant changes in the socio-economic structure of the country and the valuation of the translator´s mission and work, e. g., the scenario of pleasure and addictive activity marks the generation that enjoy great support and stimulation from the socialist government, whereas the war scenario marks the generation during the Perestroika time.

Keywords: Translation, Metaphor, scenario, Bulgarian language

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26 Translation and Transculturality in Contemporary Chinese Art: A Case Study of Gu Wenda’s 'Forest of Stone Steles' and 'United Nations: Temple of Heaven'

Authors: Rui Zhang

Abstract:

Translation has been elevated to one of the key notions in contemporary cultural discourse for a wide range of fields. It focuses not only on communication or transmission of meaning between different languages, but also on ways in which the very act of translation can be understood as a metaphor for cultural process. In recent years, the notion of translation is employed by some contemporary Chinese artists in a conceptual way, whose works contribute to constructing/deconstructing global/local cultural discourse and their own cultural identities. This study examines two artworks by contemporary Chinese artist Gu Wenda from a translational perspective, namely Forest of Stone Steles - Retranslation & Rewriting of Tang Poetry and United Nations - China Monument: Temple of Heaven, aiming to broaden the scope of Translation Studies to investigate visual culture and enrich methodological approach to contemporary Chinese art. Focusing on the relationship between translation, visuality and materiality in these two works, this study explores the nature of translation as part of the production of cultural discourse in the age of globalization as well as a way of establishing cultural identity. Gu Wenda, one of the most prestigious artists in contemporary China, is considered a pioneer in ‘85 Art Movement of China, and thereafter he went abroad for his artistic pursuits. His transnational experience enriches his cultural identity and the underlying discourse constructed/deconstructed in many of his works. In the two works already mentioned, the concept of translation is deployed by Gu Wenda on both linguistic level and metaphorical level for artistic expression. These two works produce discourses in which the artist’s perception of cultural identity in a transnational context is articulated by the tension between source text and target text. Based on the conceptual framework of cultural identity proposed by Stuart Hall, analyses of Gu Wenda’s cultural identity revealed through translation in these two works are centred on two axes, i.e., the axis of similarity and continuity with Chinese intellectual culture and the axis of difference and rupture with it, and the dialogic relationship between these two vectors. It argues that besides serving as a means of constructing visuality in the two works, translation metaphorizes Gu Wenda’s journey from overcoming his cultural identity anxiety to re-establishing a transcultural identity embedded in the underlying discourse.

Keywords: Translation, Cultural identity, contemporary Chinese art, transculturality

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25 Spatial Setting in Translation: A Comparative Evaluation of translations from Pre-Islamic Poetry

Authors: Raja Lahiani

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This study is concerned with scrutinising translations into English and French of references to locations in the desert of pre-Islamic Arabia. These references are used in the Source Text (ST) within a poetic image. Reference is made to the names of three different mountains in Arabia, namely Qatan, Sitar, and Yadhbul. As these mountains are referred to in the context of the poet’s description of the density and expansion of the clouds, it is crucial to know that while Sitar and Yadhbul are close to each other, Qatan is far away from them. This distance was functional for the poet to describe the expansion of the clouds. This reflects the spacious place (desert) he handled, and the fact that it was possible for him to physically see what he described. The purpose of this image is for the poet to communicate the vastness of the space he managed to see as he was in a moment of contemplation. Thus, knowledge of this characteristic about the setting is capital for the receiver to understand the communicative function of the verse. A corpus of eighteen translations is gathered. These vary between verse and prose renderings. The methodology adopted in this research work is comparative. Comparison is conducted at both the synchronic and diachronic levels; every translation shall be compared to the ST and then to previous translations. The comparative work will prove at the end that the translators who target historical facts do not necessarily succeed in preserving the image of the ST. It also proves that the more recent the translation is, the deeper the translator’s awareness is the link between imagery, setting, and point of view. Since the late eighteenth century and until nowadays, pre-Islamic poetry has been translated into Western languages. Translators differ as to motives, sources, priorities and intellectual backgrounds. A translator's skopoi undoubtedly affect the way s/he handles aspects of the ST. When it comes to culture-specific aspects and details related to setting, the problem is even more complex. Setting is a very important factor that reveals a great deal of the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as this is remote in place, historical framework and literary tradition from its translators. History is present in pre-Islamic poetry, which justifies the important literature that has been written to extract information and data from it. These are imbedded not only by signalling given facts, events, and meditations but also by means of references to specific locations and landmarks that used to exist at the time. Spatial setting is an integral part of a literary text as it places it within its historical context. The importance of the translator’s awareness of spatial anthropological data before indulging in the process of translation is tested. This is also crucial in measuring the effect of setting loss and setting gain in translation. The findings of this research would ultimately evaluate the extent to which a comparative methodology is reliable in investigating the role of spatial setting awareness in translation.

Keywords: Translation, Comparative Literature, historical context, spatial setting

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24 An Analysis of the Representation of the Translator and Translation Process into Brazilian Social Networking Groups

Authors: Érica Lima

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In the digital era, in which we have an avalanche of information, it is not new that the Internet has brought new modes of communication and knowledge access. Characterized by the multiplicity of discourses, opinions, beliefs and cultures, the web is a space of political-ideological dimensions where people (who often do not know each other) interact and create representations, deconstruct stereotypes, and redefine identities. Currently, the translator needs to be able to deal with digital spaces ranging from specific software to social media, which inevitably impact on his professional life. One of the most impactful ways of being seen in cyberspace is the participation in social networking groups. In addition to its ability to disseminate information among participants, social networking groups allow a significant personal and social exposure. Such exposure is due to the visibility of each participant achieved not only on its personal profile page, but also in each comment or post the person makes in the groups. The objective of this paper is to study the representations of translators and translation process on the Internet, more specifically in publications in two Brazilian groups of great influence on the Facebook: "Translators/Interpreters" and "Translators, Interpreters and Curious". These chosen groups represent the changes the network has brought to the profession, including the way translators are seen and see themselves. The analyzed posts allowed a reading of what common sense seems to think about the translator as opposed to what the translators seem to think about themselves as a professional class. The results of the analysis lead to the conclusion that these two positions are antagonistic and sometimes represent conflict of interests: on the one hand, the society in general consider the translator’s work something easy, therefore it is not necessary to be well remunerated; on the other hand, the translators who know how complex a translation process is and how much it takes to be a good professional. The results also reveal that social networking sites such as Facebook provide more visibility, but it takes a more active role from the translator to achieve a greater appreciation of the profession and more recognition of the role of the translator, especially in face of increasingly development of automatic translation programs.

Keywords: Translation, Facebook, translator, social representation

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23 Interlingual Translation of Manipuri Folktales with the Ideas of André Lefevere's Translation

Authors: Thoudam Jomita Devi

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This paper is an attempt to analyze the problems of translating Manipuri folktales into English and the strategies deployed. In Manipuri, folktales are known as Fungawari/Phungawari, which is similar to a western bed time story. The work is with the special reference to folktales of Meetei community. Meetei are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, India. For this paper’s purpose, two folktales Shandrembi Cheisra and Pebet will be chosen for analysis and discussion. The translation of folktales can contribute to intercultural communication and bridge the gap between the generations. Translating Manipuri Folktales is problematic on both cultural and linguistic levels. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to understand, how the idea of André Lefevere (1992) translation could be implicated in translating Manipuri folktales.

Keywords: Cultural, Translation, Intercultural, interlingual, folktales

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22 Single Item Presenteeism Question Reliability and Validity of Persian Version in Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi

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Purpose: Our study aimed to validate single item presenteeism question (SIPQ) into the Persian language for patients with low back pain. Background information: low back pain is a common health problem, and it is one of the most prevalent disorder in working people. There are the different subjective way to evaluate the effect of back pain on work productivity that one of them is by implementing single item presenteeism question. This question has not been validated into the Persian language. Method: Patients were asked to answer SIPQ and pain from 0 to 10 according to numerical rating scale (NRS). The functional rating index was administrated to evaluate construct validity. For test-retest reliability, almost 50 patients re-completed the Persian SIPQ. The construct validity of SIPQ was assessed by analyzing Spearman rank correlation between this question and the Persian version of Functional rating index questionnaire. To analyze test-retest reliability, we assessed intraclass correlation coefficient (agreement) (ICC agreement) (two-way random effects model, single measure). Results: The SIPQ score of two groups of patients (84 males, 16 females, mean age ±SD: 33.85±11.16 years, range: 19-67 years) and healthy subjects (48 male, 2 female ones, mean age ±SD: 24.24 ±8.07 years) was statistically significant. (Mann-Whitney U =198.00, P<.001). The Spearman correlation of data showed that there is a significant correlation between Persian SIPQ score and Persian FRI band (r= .559, P<.001). The ICC was .62. So, the analysis indicated good, test-retest reliability. Conclusion: This study showed that Persian version of SIPQ is reliable and valid when applied to back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, Translation, economic burden, cross cultural adaptation, Persian language

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21 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

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Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Translation, Feedback, peer-review

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20 Investigating Differential Psychological Impact of Translated Movies: An Experimental Design

Authors: Sonakshi Saxena, Moosath Harishankar Vasudevan

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The current study seeks to investigate the differences in the psychological impact of movies in their original and translated versions. International cinema is exemplar of the success of globalization. The multitude of languages in the global village does not seem to impede the common cinematic goal of filmmakers across linguistic boundaries. To understand, hence, whether the psychological impact of movies, intentional or otherwise, is preserved when the original is translated into a different language, an experimental design was adopted. Multilingual participants in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for the same. A control group and an experimental group were randomly assigned and the psychological impacts of movies were studied under two conditions- a) watching the movie in its original language, and b) watching the movie in its original language as well as translated version. For the second condition, the experimental group was further divided into two groups randomly to balance order effects. The major aspects of psychological impact assessed were emotional impact and attitude towards the movie. The scores were compared for the two groups. It is further discussed whether the experience is salient across language or do languages inherently possess the ability to alter experiences of the audience.

Keywords: Translation, Experimental Design, movies, psychological impact

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19 Translation as a Foreign Language Teaching Tool: Results of an Experiment with University Level Students in Spain

Authors: Nune Ayvazyan

Abstract:

Since the proclamation of monolingual foreign-language learning methods (the Berlitz Method in the early 20ᵗʰ century and the like), the dilemma has been to allow or not to allow learners’ mother tongue in the foreign-language learning process. The reason for not allowing learners’ mother tongue is reported to create a situation of immersion where students will only use the target language. It could be argued that this artificial monolingual situation is defective, mainly because there are very few real monolingual situations in the society. This is mainly due to the fact that societies are nowadays increasingly multilingual as plurilingual speakers are the norm rather than an exception. More recently, the use of learners’ mother tongue and translation has been put under the spotlight as valid foreign-language teaching tools. The logic dictates that if learners were permitted to use their mother tongue in the foreign-language learning process, that would not only be natural, but also would give them additional means of participation in class, which could eventually lead to learning. For example, when learners’ metalinguistic skills are poor in the target language, a question they might have could be asked in their mother tongue. Otherwise, that question might be left unasked. Attempts at empirically testing the role of translation as a didactic tool in foreign-language teaching are still very scant. In order to fill this void, this study looks into the interaction patterns between students in two kinds of English-learning classes: one with translation and the other in English only (immersion). The experiment was carried out with 61 students enrolled in a second-year university subject in English grammar in Spain. All the students underwent the two treatments, classes with translation and in English only, in order to see how they interacted under the different conditions. The analysis centered on four categories of interaction: teacher talk, teacher-initiated student interaction, student-initiated student-to-teacher interaction, and student-to-student interaction. Also, pre-experiment and post-experiment questionnaires and individual interviews gathered information about the students’ attitudes to translation. The findings show that translation elicited more student-initiated interaction than did the English-only classes, while the difference in teacher-initiated interactional turns was not statistically significant. Also, student-initiated participation was higher in comprehension-based activities (into L1) as opposed to production-based activities (into L2). As evidenced by the questionnaires, the students’ attitudes to translation were initially positive and mainly did not vary as a result of the experiment.

Keywords: Learning, Foreign Language, Translation, Mother Tongue

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