Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Transgender Related Abstracts

15 Mental Health Status among the Transgender Community: A Study of Mumbai

Authors: Mithlesh Chourase

Abstract:

Health of the transgender is as important as any other population sub-groups. However, little is known about the issues of mental health problems and health seeking behaviour of transgender in India. This paper examines the depression, stigma problem and suicidality (risk of suicide) among the transgender people in Mumbai city. The study used the primary survey data conducted in Mumbai city among the transgender community with a total sample of 120 among the transgender. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected on demographic and socio-economic characteristic, general health and sexual health problems, mental health and health seeking behaviour among transgender. The quantitative results revealed that among the transgender, the prevalence of depression was very high. In this community 58.3% and 45.8 % of the transgender were suffered from depression and stigma problem respectively. On the other hand 42% and 48% of the transgender attempted suicide and experienced discrimination in the society. The qualitative results also revealed that the transgender were suffered from physical violence especially due to being a transgender, stressed due to being a transgender, experienced discrimination everywhere, experienced sexual health problems especially HIV, partner problem etc. As a result the prevalence of depression, self-harm attempt and suicidal attempt was common among this community.

Keywords: Mental Health, Depression, Transgender, Mumbai

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14 Transgender Practices as Queer Politics: African a Variant

Authors: Adekeye Joshua Temitope

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“Transgender” presents a complexion of ambiguity in the African context and it remains a contested topography in the discourse of sexual identity. The casts and stigmatisations towards transgender unveils vital facts and intricacies often ignored in the academic communities; the problems and oppressions of given sex/gender system, the constrain of monogamy and ignorance of fluidity of human sexuality thereby generating dual discords of “enforced heterosexual” and “unavoidable homosexual.” The African culture voids transgender movements and perceive same-sex sexual behavior as “taboo or bad habits” and this provide reasonable explanations for the failure of asserting for the sexual rights in GLBT movement in most discourse on sexuality in the African context. However, we could not deny the real existence of active flowing and fluidity of human sexuality even though its variants could be latent. The incessant consciousness of the existence of transgender practices in Africa either in form of bisexual desire or bisexual behavior with or without sexual identity, including people who identify themselves as bisexual opens up the vision for us to reconsider and reexamine what constitutes such ambiguity and controversy of transgender identity at present time. The notion of identity politics in gay, lesbian, and transgender community has its complexity and debates in its historical development. This paper analyses the representation of the historical trajectory of transgender practices by presenting the dynamic transition of how people cognize transgender practices under different historical conditions since the understanding of historical transition of bisexual practices would be very crucial and meaningful for gender/sexuality liberation movement at present time and in the future. The paper did a juxtaposition of the trajectories of bisexual practices between Anglo-American world and Africa, as it has certain similarities and differences within diverse historical complexities. The similar condition is the emergence of gay identity under the influence of capitalism but within different cultural context. Therefore, the political economy of each cultural context plays very important role in understanding the formation of sexual identities historically and its development and influence for the GLBT movement afterwards and in the future. By reexamining Kinsey’s categorization and applying Klein’s argument on individual’s sexual orientation this paper is poised to break the given and fixed connection among sexual behavior/sexual orientation/sexual identity, on the other hand to present the potential fluidity of human sexuality by reconsidering and reexamining the present given sex/gender system in our world. The paper concludes that it is obligatory for the essentialist and exclusionary trend at this historical moment since gay and lesbian communities in Africa need to clearly demonstrate and voice for themselves under the nuances of gender/sexuality liberation.

Keywords: Identity politics, Transgender, Queer Politics, heterosexual, homosexual

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13 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle

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South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: Sexual Orientation, Inclusive Education, Homosexuality, Transgender

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12 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee

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The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: Ideology, Transgender, Sociology Of Gender, story, music teachers, autoethnography as research

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11 From Name-Calling to Insidious Rhetoric: Construction and Evolution of the Transgender Imagery in News Discourse, 1953-2016

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This essay aims to examine how the transgender imagery has been constructed in the Taiwanese news media and its evolution from 1953 to 2016. It also explores the discourse patterns and rhetorical strategies in the transgender-related issues which contributed to levels of evaluation in forming ‘social deviance.’ Samples for analysis were selected from mainstream newspapers, including China Times, United Daily and Apple Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported in Taiwan) to June 2016. To enhance understanding of media representation as nominalistic-based, the author refers to the representative of critical rhetoric Raymie McKerrow for his study on remembrance and forgetfulness in public discourse (especially in his model of ‘critique of domination’); thereby categorizing the 64 years of transgender discourse into five periods: (1) transgender as ‘intersex’ of surgical-reparative medical treatment; (2) transgender as ‘freak gender-bender’ with criminal behaviors; (3) transgender as ‘ladyboy’ (‘katoey in a Thai term) of bar girls or sex workers; (4) transgender as ‘cross dresser’ of transvestite performance; and (5) transgender as ‘life-style or human right’ of spontaneous gender identification. Based on the research findings, this essay argues that the characterization of transgender reporting as a site for the production of compulsory sexism and gender stereotype by the specific forms of name-calling. Besides, the evolution of word-image addressing to transgender issues also pinpoints media as a reflection of fashion of the day. While the transgender imagery might be crystallized as ‘still social problems’ or ‘gender transgression’ in insidious rhetoric; and while the so-called ‘phobia’ persistently embodies in media discourse to exercise name-calling in an ambiguous (rather than in a bullying) way or under the cover of humanist-liberalist rationales, these emergent rhetorical dilemma should be resolved without any delay.

Keywords: Transgender, media representation, critical rhetoric, McKerrow, nominalistic, social deviance

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10 The Queer Language: A Case Study of the Hyderabadi Queers

Authors: Sreerakuvandana Vandana

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Although the term third gender is relatively new, the language that is in use has already made its way to the concept of identity. With the vast recognition and the transparency in expressing their identity without a tint of embarrassment, it is highly essential to take into account the idea of “identity” and “language”. The community however picks up language as a tool to assert their presence in the “mainstream”, albeit contradictory practices. The paper is an attempt to see how Koti claims and tries to be a language just like any other language. With that, it also identifies how the community wants to be identified as a unique group, but yet want to remain grounded to the ‘mainstream’. The work is an attempt to bring out the secret language of the LGBT community and understand their desire to be recognized as "main stream." The paper is also an attempt to bring into light this language and see if it qualifies to be a language at all.

Keywords: Language, Identity, Transgender, queer

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9 Mental Health and Well-Being: Capacity Building of Community to Respond to Mental Health Needs of Transgender Populations

Authors: Harjyot Khosa

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In India and south Asia, stigma and discrimination against transgender community remain disproportionately high. Lack of mental health care restricts effective treatment and care for both physical and mental health. Knowledge assessment of 80 counsellors across India reflected that only 28% counsellors knew about the transgender community. Whereas, only 6% of them felt, that transgender community require a specific mental health support, considering the stigma they face in day to day life. Lastly, 62% did agree that they require specific training to address unmet needs of transgender community. A robust counselling module was developed with focus on technical counselling skills and strategies, specific counselling issues, identity and sexuality, disclosure, hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery. Mental health related support should be an integral part of government and non-government programs for the overall well-being of transgender community who face stigma and discrimination at every level. Needs based capacity building and technical assistance is required towards providing mental health support for transgender populations and their partners.

Keywords: Mental Health, Transgender, stigma, identity and sexuality

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8 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka

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At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: Transgender, stigma, addiction treatment, gender segregation

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7 Toward a Radical/Populist Democracy from the Dialectical Tensions between Transgender Movement and Gay Movement in Taiwan: A Rhetorical Analysis

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This paper aims to elaborate the rhetorical strategies and its inherent dialectical tensions between transgender movement and gay movement in Taiwan; thereby, a radical/populist democratic model will be reproblematized for theorizing the internal dialogicity of the 'umbrella metaphor' of the so-called 'LGBT' label. Firstly, it examined how the representative gay community in Taiwan defined the category of 'LGBT' by its visual rhetoric of pride parade during the last two decades, and how the imaginary of 'transgender' was systematically precluded or even silenced by 'cisgender privilege' or 'cisnormativity' of the gay community in general. Secondly, it employed Laclau & Mouffe’s (1985) perspective of 'empty signifier' which derives from their radical democratic theorization and populist reason, to explore the rhetorical strategies and language tactics on which transgender activists relied for arguing or mapping both the cooperative and competitive relationship with cisgender allies intentionally. Based on research findings, this paper argued that a relationship between rather than an amalgamation of sexual orientation and gender identity should be recognized. Moreover, that resisting defining transgender as other and everyone else as normal could be the critical issue of LGBT community as a whole, especially while it proceeds toward to a radical/populist democracy.

Keywords: Rhetoric, Transgender, Radical Democracy, LGBT, empty signifier, populist reason

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6 A Rhetorical History of Legalization of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Taiwan: 'Transing-Nationalism' and Its Discursive Formation as the Case

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This essay aims to examine how the discursive formation of the 'transing-nationalism' (which is extended and slightly modified from 'homonationalism') had been constructed in the Taiwanese news media before the legalization of 'sex reassignment surgery (SRS)' in 1988. Samples for rhetorical analysis were selected from two mainstream newspapers, including China Times, and United Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported) to 1988, while the SRS was legalized in Taiwan. To enhance understanding of media representation as contextualized-based, the author refers to the representative of spatial rhetoric Mikhail Bakhtin for his late study on 'emergence' and 'visualization of time' in Bildungsroman; thereby categorizing the media discourse of transgender into two critical period: (1) transgender as 'misrecognized' and 'included' into the rhetoric of modern medical space; (2) transgender as 'institutionalized' into discourse of protection and salvation by the reified sympathy of nation-state. These two periods and relevant spatial rhetoric were of no immediate concern on the vital interest of transgender individuals; therefore constructed the imagery of transgender for the service of nationalism rather than gender consciousness or human right rhetoric. Based on the research findings, this essay concludes that 'queer multiplicity' should be regarded as not only the guideline for the amendment of the gendered policies and laws but the rhetorical resources for the mobilization of transgender movement in Taiwan from now on.

Keywords: Rhetoric, Transgender, Legalization, Bakhtin, sex reassignment surgery, transing-nationalism

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5 Need and Willingness to Use ‘Meditation on Twin Hearts’ for Management of Anxiety and Depression for the Transgender Community: A Pilot Study

Authors: Neha Joshi, Srikanth Jois, Hector J. Peughero, Poornima Jayakrishna, Moulya R., Purnima Madivanan, Kiran Kumar K. Salagame

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Transgenders are a marginalized section of the community, who are at high risk of mental health problems due to their stigmatization, abandonment by family, prejudice, discrimination by society at large, and the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse from both within and outside their community. Their mental healthcare needs remain largely unaddressed due to lack of access, discrimination by healthcare professions, and lack of resources, including time and money, to seek conventional medical and psychotherapeutic treatments. Meditation is increasingly receiving acceptance as a tool for managing stress and anxiety by the patients as well as mental healthcare professionals. “Meditation on Twin Hearts” is a no cost, self-administered intervention that a person can practice anywhere and at any time of the day. This pilot study evaluates the need for alternate traditional and ingenious interventions like “Meditation of Twin Hearts” to address the mental healthcare needs of the transgender community and acceptance of such an intervention by the community. Thirteen individuals identifying themselves as transgender were invited to participate in one (Hunsur Taluk) of the five scheduled free meditation camps in Mysore. After obtaining informed consent for participation in the study, their mental health status is captured using an anonymous survey using standard, validated, self-reported questionnaires Generalised Anxiety Disorders (GAD)-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for suicidality. Then, they were requested to attend a session on “Meditation on Twin Hearts.” After the session, their feedback on willingness to further explore the meditation technique for managing their mental healthcare need was assessed through another survey form. Out of the 13 participants, 92% scored for anxiety (4 mild, and 8 moderate anxiety). In the depression scale, 5 scored for mild and 5 for moderate depression, with a total of 77% (10/13) scoring positively on depression scale. Nearly 70% of participants (9/13), scored greater than the clinical cutoff for the need for clinical intervention. The proportion of individuals at risk for suicide was particularly high in this group, with 8/ 13 (61.5%) participants scoring the clinical cutoff score of ≥ 7. Surprisingly, none of the participants had ever consulted a mental healthcare professional. All the participants (13/13; 100%) responded in affirmative to the question, “Will you be willing to continue meditation for management of your anxiety?” Six out of 13 participants described their experience of meditation as “happy” and 3 described it as “peaceful”. None of the participants reported any negative beliefs or experience regarding the meditation. The study provides evidence for the urgent yet unmet mental healthcare need of the transgender community. The findings of the study also supports the rationale of conducting future systematic research to evaluate and explore ingenious and traditional practices, such as meditation, to meet the healthcare needs, especially in marginalized populations in a low income setting such as Lower and Middle Income countries. Based on these preliminary findings, the Principal Investigator (PI) is planning to cover 4 more areas of Mysore district.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Transgender, meditation on twin heart, suicidality

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4 Transgender Community in Pakistan through the Lens of Television Dramas

Authors: Ashbeelah Shafaqat Ali

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Pakistan is a country where the transgender community has not been accepted as a third gender yet, but in recent years Pakistani drama industry has taken an initiative to include Transgender characters in the past few years. This research based on qualitative method i.e. content analysis and in-depth interviews investigates the depiction of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas. This study examined two dramas i.e.' Khuda Mera Bhi Hai' and 'Alif Allah Aur Insaan' to analyze the representation of transgender community whereas, in-depth Interviews from 15 transgender people lived in Lahore to observe their opinion regarding their representation in Pakistani television dramas. Snow-ball sampling technique was used for conducting interviews from the transgender community. The results concluded that transgender community did not get equal coverage in Pakistani television dramas but inclusion as characters were observed. This study is helpful in providing a base for observing role of Pakistani television dramas in the development of transgender identity. The major finding revealed is that the inclusion of representation of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas has indicated a successful development towards positive representation. Although, it was suggested by the interviewers that before producing a television drama, appropriate research must be conducted to depict the real life story, problems and struggles of the transgender community. Furthermore, it was analyzed that only fair and equal representation of transgender community by Pakistani drama industry can be beneficial in promoting the third gender rights in the society.

Keywords: Transgender, portrayal, stereotypes, Pakistani dramas

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3 Determining the Prevalence and Correlates of Depression among Transgenders of a Developing Country

Authors: Muhammad Azeem, Usama Bin Zubair

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Introduction: Depression has been one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders in Pakistan. A Census conducted by the government of Pakistan in 2017 showed that more than 10000 trans-genders live in Pakistan. HIV, illicit substance use and mental health issues, including depression, have been the main health problems faced by them. Trans-gender population has been suffering from depressive illness more than normal population all over the world. Aim: To assess the prevalence of depression among the transgender population and analyze the relationship of socio-demographic factors with depression. Subjects and Methods: The sample population comprised of one hundred and forty-two transgender people of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Beck depressive inventory II (BDI-II) was used to record the presence and severity of the depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Relationship of the age, smoking, family income, illicit substance use and education were studied with the presence of depressive symptoms among these transgender people of twin cities of Pakistan. Results: A total of 142 transgender people were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 39.55 ± 6.18. Out of these, 45.1% had no depressive symptoms while 31.7% had mild, 12.7% had moderate and 10.6% had severe depressive symptomatology. After applying the binary logistic regression, we found that the presence of depressive symptoms had a significant association with illicit substance use among the target population. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the transgender population in the twin cities of Pakistan. Use of illicit substances like tobacco, cannabis, opiates, and alcohol should be discouraged to prevent mental health problems.

Keywords: Depression, Transgender, Prevalence, sociodemographic factors

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2 Genderqueerness in Polish: A Survey-Based Study of Linguistic Strategies Employed by Genderqueer Speakers of Polish

Authors: Szymon Misiek

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The genderqueer (or gender non-binary, both terms referring to those individuals who are identified as neither men nor women) community has been gaining greater visibility over the last few years. This includes legal recognition, representation in popular media, and inclusion of non-binary perspectives in research on transgender issues. Another important aspect of visibility is language. Gender-neutrality, often associated with genderqueer people, is relatively easy to achieve in natural-gender languages such as English. This can be observed in the growing popularity of the 'singular they' pronoun (used specifically with reference to genderqueer individuals) or the gender-neutral title 'Mx.' (as an alternative to 'Ms./Mr.'). 'Singular they' seems to have become a certain standard in the genderqueer community. Grammatical-gender languages, such as Polish, provide for a greater challenge to genderqueer speakers. In Polish, every noun is inherently gendered, while verbs, adjectives, and pronouns inflect for gender. Those who do not wish to settle for using only either masculine or feminine forms (which some genderqueer Polish speakers do choose) have to somehow mix the two, attempt to avoid gendered forms altogether, or turn to non-standard forms, such as neuter (not used for people in standard Polish), plurals (vaguely akin to English 'singular they'), or neologisms (such as verb forms using the '-u-' affix). The following paper presents the results of a survey conducted among genderqueer speakers of Polish regarding their choice of linguistic strategies. As no definitive standard such as 'singular they' has (yet) emerged, it rather seeks to emphasize the diversity of chosen strategies and their relation to a person's specific identity as well as the context an exchange takes place. The findings of the study may offer an insight into how heavily gendered languages deal with non-normatively gendered experiences, and to what extent English influences this process (e.g., the majority of genderqueer poles choose English terms to label their identity), as well as help design good practices aimed at achieving gender-equality in speech.

Keywords: Transgender, Non-Binary, genderqueer, grammatical gender in Polish

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1 Gender Dysphoria - a Neglected Area of Victimisation

Authors: Belsiya Manimaran

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Gender Dysphoria is the condition of feeling one's emotional and psychological identity as male or female to be opposite to one's biological sex. Gender dysphoria had always led the transgenders to the brim of social isolation which leads to serious aftermath consequences like truancy, fleeing, bullying, and various abuses, which even lead to suicides, and ends up intimidating their basic life sustenance. This affects the individual’s self esteem. The basic family support which is the thriving force for transgender is often deprived from them. The term transgender is often understood as hijras or transgender women. But this definition leaves out the identities like trans men who are yet to find recognition. Historically hijras have been visible and self organized. But, trans men are barely visible. There has always been the stereotype about the trans men while comparing to the trans women. The trans women on their defense were able to obtain rights however trans men were neglected as the society does not stand to accept the trans men but trans women. The peer group pressure, ostracism and prejudice had always deprived their basic livelihood rights however there is a veil covered on them with legislation back up. The study is based on Doctrinal research and the paper studies and scrutinizes the shortcomings faced by the transmen in establishing their life sustenance rights and how criminalizing them leading to societal seclusion of trans men.

Keywords: Transgender, vulnerable, gender dysphoria, Hijras, transman

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