Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

transformer Related Abstracts

16 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek


In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: Vibration Measurements, vibrations and noise, transformer, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic

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15 Experimental Partial Discharge Localization for Internal Short Circuits of Transformers Windings

Authors: Jalal M. Abdallah


This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a three phase transformer to investigate and develop the transformer models, which help in testing procedures, describing and evaluating the transformer dielectric conditions process and methods such as: the partial discharge (PD) localization in windings. The measurements are based on the transfer function methods in transformer windings by frequency response analysis (FRA). Numbers of tests conditions were applied to obtain the sensitivity frequency responses of a transformer for different type of faults simulated in a particular phase. The frequency responses were analyzed for the sensitivity of different test conditions to detect and identify the starting of small faults, which are sources of PD. In more detail, the aim is to explain applicability and sensitivity of advanced PD measurements for small short circuits and its localization. The experimental results presented in the paper will help in understanding the sensitivity of FRA measurements in detecting various types of internal winding short circuits in the transformer.

Keywords: measurements, transformer, frequency response analysis (FRA), transfer function

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14 Applying Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Chun-Wei Huang


Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits, which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, transformer, ferroresonance, intelligent electronic device

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13 A Novel Approach of Power Transformer Diagnostic Using 3D FEM Parametrical Model

Authors: M. Brandt, A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus


This paper deals with a novel approach of power transformers diagnostics. This approach identifies the exact location and the range of a fault in the transformer and helps to reduce operation costs related to handling of the faulty transformer, its disassembly and repair. The advantage of the approach is a possibility to simulate healthy transformer and also all faults, which can occur in transformer during its operation without its disassembling, which is very expensive in practice. The approach is based on creating frequency dependent impedance of the transformer by sweep frequency response analysis measurements and by 3D FE parametrical modeling of the fault in the transformer. The parameters of the 3D FE model are the position and the range of the axial short circuit. Then, by comparing the frequency dependent impedances of the parametrical models with the measured ones, the location and the range of the fault is identified. The approach was tested on a real transformer and showed high coincidence between the real fault and the simulated one.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, fault, transformer, parametrical model of transformer, sweep frequency response analysis

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12 Dissolved Gas Analysis Based Regression Rules from Trained ANN for Transformer Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Deepika Bhalla, Raj Kumar Bansal, Hari Om Gupta


Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) has been widely used for fault diagnosis in a transformer. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have high accuracy but are regarded as black boxes that are difficult to interpret. For many problems it is desired to extract knowledge from trained neural networks (NN) so that the user can gain a better understanding of the solution arrived by the NN. This paper applies a pedagogical approach for rule extraction from function approximating neural networks (REFANN) with application to incipient fault diagnosis using the concentrations of the dissolved gases within the transformer oil, as the input to the NN. The input space is split into subregions and for each subregion there is a linear equation that is used to predict the type of fault developing within a transformer. The experiments on real data indicate that the approach used can extract simple and useful rules and give fault predictions that match the actual fault and are at times also better than those predicted by the IEC method.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, transformer, dissolved gas analysis, rules extraction

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11 Rejuvenation of Aged Kraft-Cellulose Insulating Paper Used in Transformers

Authors: J. Lin, Y. Jeon, A. Bissessur, P. Ndungu


Most transformers employ the usage of cellulose paper, which has been chemically modified through the Kraft process that acts as an effective insulator. Cellulose ageing and oil degradation are directly linked to fouling of the transformer and accumulation of large quantities of waste insulating paper. In addition to technical difficulties, this proves costly for power utilities to deal with. Currently there are no cost effective method for the rejuvenation of cellulose paper that has been documented nor proposed, since renewal of used insulating paper is implemented as the best option. This study proposes and contrasts different rejuvenation methods of accelerated aged cellulose insulating paper by chemical and bio-bleaching processes. Of the three bleaching methods investigated, two are, conventional chlorine-based sodium hypochlorite (m/v), and chlorine-free hydrogen peroxide (v/v), whilst the third is a bio-bleaching technique that uses a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2. Through chemical bleaching, varying the strengths of the bleaching reagents at 0.3 %, 0.6 %, 0.9 %, 1.2 %, 1.5 % and 1.8 % over 4 hrs. were analyzed. Bio-bleaching implemented a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2, to bleach the aged Kraft paper over 4 hrs. The determination of the amount of alpha cellulose, degree of polymerization and viscosity carried out on Kraft-cellulose insulating paper before and after bleaching. Overall the investigated techniques of chemical and bio-bleaching were successful and effective in treating degraded and accelerated aged Kraft-cellulose insulating paper, however, to varying extents. Optimum conditions for chemical bleaching were attained at bleaching strengths of 1.2 % (m/v) NaOCl and 1.5 % (v/v) H2O2 yielding alpha cellulose contents of 82.4 % and 80.7 % and degree of polymerizations of 613 and 616 respectively. Bio-bleaching using Acinetobacter strain V2 proved to be the superior technique with alpha cellulose levels of 89.0 % and a degree of polymerization of 620. Chemical bleaching techniques require careful and controlled clean-up treatments as it is chlorine and hydrogen peroxide based while bio-bleaching is an extremely eco-friendly technique.

Keywords: viscosity, transformer, alpha cellulose, bio-bleaching, degree of polymerization, Kraft-cellulose insulating paper

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10 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Mal Operation

Authors: R. Ramaprabha, K. N. Dinesh Babu, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan


In this paper, the various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance restricted earth fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The mal operation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methododlocy has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the problems related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: MATLAB, transformer, relay mal operation, low impedance REF, IEEE C37.91

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9 PWM Harmonic Injection and Frequency-Modulated Triangular Carrier to Improve the Lives of the Transformers

Authors: Mario J. Meco-Gutierrez, Francisco Perez-Hidalgo, Juan R. Heredia-Larrubia, Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Francisco Vargas-Merino


More and more applications power inverters connected to transformers, for example, the connection facilities to the power grid renewable generation. It is well known that the quality of signal power inverters it is not a pure sine. The harmonic content produced negative effects, one of which is the heating of electrical machines and therefore, affects the life of the machines. The decrease of life of transformers can be calculated by Arrhenius or Montsinger equation. Analyzing this expression any (long-term) decrease of a transformer temperature for 6º C - 7º C means doubles its life-expectancy. Methodologies: This work presents the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM) with an injection of harmonic and triangular frequency carrier modulated in frequency. This technique is used to improve the quality of the output voltage signal of the power inverters controlled PWM. The proposed technique increases in the fundamental term and a significant reduction in low order harmonics with the same commutations per time that control sine PWM. To achieve this, the modulating wave is compared to a triangular carrier with variable frequency over the period of the modulator. Therefore, it is, advantageous for the modulating signal to have a large amount of sinusoidal “information” in the areas of greater sampling. A triangular signal with a frequency that varies over the modulator’s period is used as a carrier, for obtaining more samples in the area with the greatest slope. A power inverter controlled by PWM proposed technique is connected to a transformer. Results: In order to verify the derived thermal parameters under different operation conditions, another ambient and loading scenario is involved for a further verification, which was sampled from the same power transformer. Temperatures of different parts of the transformer will be exposed for each PWM control technique analyzed. An assessment of the temperature be done with different techniques PWM control and hence the life of the transformer is calculated for each technique. Conclusion: This paper analyzes such as transformer heating produced by this technique and compared with other forms of PWM control. In it can be seen as a reduction the harmonic content produces less heat transformer and therefore, an increase in the life of the transformer.

Keywords: Heating, PWM, transformer, power-inverter

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8 The Effect of Power of Isolation Transformer on the Lamps in Airfield Ground Lighting Systems

Authors: Hossein Edrisi


To study the impact of the amount and volume of power of isolation transformer on the lamps in airfield Ground Lighting Systems. A test was conducted in Persian Gulf International Airport, This airport is situated in the south of Iran and it is one of the most cutting-edge airports, the same one that owns modern devices. Iran uses materials and auxiliary equipment which are made by ADB Company from Belgium. Airfield ground lighting (AGL) systems are responsible for providing visual issue to aircrafts and helicopters in the runways. In an AGL system a great deal of lamps are connected in serial circuits to each other and each ring has its individual constant current regulators (CCR), which through that provide energy to the lamps. Control of lamps is crucial for maintenance and operation in the AGL systems. Thanks to the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that is a cutting-edge technology can help the system to connect the elements from substations and ATC (TOWER). For this purpose, a test in real conditions of the airport done for all element that used in the airport such as isolation transformer in different power capacity and different consuming power and brightness of the lamps. The data were analyzed with Lux meter and Multimeter. The results had shown that the increase in the power of transformer caused a significant increase in brightness. According to the Ohm’s law and voltage division, without changing the characteristics of the light bulb, it is not possible to change the voltage, just need to change the amount of transformer with which it connects to the lamps. When the voltage is increased, the current through the bulb has to increase as well, because of Ohm's law: I=V/R and I=V/R which means that if V increases, so do I increase. The output voltage on the constant current regulator emerges between the lamps and the transformers.

Keywords: transformer, AGL, CCR, lamps, Ohm’s law

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7 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Aggarwal, Roopali Dogra


In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: simulink, transformer, computer aided teaching, open circuit test, short circuit test

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6 Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil-Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method

Authors: U. Amin, A. Talib, S. A. Qureshi, M. J. Hossain, G. Ahmad


The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, transformer, flux density, voltage gradient

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5 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır


In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: Simulation, transformer, equivalent model, parallel series combinations

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4 Analysis of Transformer by Gas and Moisture Sensor during Laboratory Time Monitoring

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Simko, Milan Chupac


Ensure the reliable and correct function of transformers is the main essence of on-line non-destructive diagnostic tool, which allows the accurately track of the status parameters. Devices for on-line diagnostics are very costly. However, there are devices, whose price is relatively low and when used correctly, they can be executed a complex diagnostics. One of these devices is sensor HYDRAN M2, which is used to detect the moisture and gas content in the insulation oil. Using the sensor HYDRAN M2 in combination with temperature, load measurement, and physicochemical analysis can be made the economically inexpensive diagnostic system, which use is not restricted to distribution transformers. This system was tested in educational laboratory environment at measured oil transformer 22/0.4 kV. From the conclusions referred in article is possible to determine, which kind of fault was occurred in the transformer and how was an impact on the temperature, evolution of gases and water content.

Keywords: Diagnostics, monitoring, transformer, gas and moisture sensor

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3 Application of Two Stages Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to Improve Dissolved Gas Analysis Interpretation Techniques

Authors: Suwarno, Kharisma Utomo Mulyodinoto, A. Abu-Siada


Dissolved Gas Analysis is one of impressive technique to detect and predict internal fault of transformers by using gas generated by transformer oil sample. A number of methods are used to interpret the dissolved gas from transformer oil sample: Doernenberg Ratio Method, IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) Ratio Method, and Duval Triangle Method. While the assessment of dissolved gas within transformer oil samples has been standardized over the past two decades, analysis of the results is not always straight forward as it depends on personnel expertise more than mathematical formulas. To get over this limitation, this paper is aimed at improving the interpretation of Doernenberg Ratio Method, IEC Ratio Method, and Duval Triangle Method using Two Stages Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Dissolved gas analysis data from 520 faulty transformers was analyzed to establish the proposed ANFIS model. Results show that the developed ANFIS model is accurate and can standardize the dissolved gas interpretation process with accuracy higher than 90%.

Keywords: ANFIS, transformer, dissolved gas analysis, IEC ratio method, Doernenberg ratio method, Duval triangular method

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2 Compact, Lightweight, Low Cost, Rectangular Core Power Transformers

Authors: Abidin Tortum, Kubra Kocabey


One of the sectors where the competition is experienced at the highest level in the world is the transformer sector, and sales can be made with a limited profit margin. For this reason, manufacturers must develop cost-cutting designs to achieve higher profits. The use of rectangular cores and coils in transformer design is one of the methods that can be used to reduce costs. According to the best knowledge we have obtained, we think that we are the first company producing rectangular core power transformers in our country. BETA, to reduce the cost of this project, more compact products to reveal, as we know it to increase the alleviate and competitiveness of the product, will perform cored coil design and production rectangle for the first-time power transformers in Turkey. The transformer to be designed shall be 16 MVA, 33/11 kV voltage level. With the rectangular design of the transformer core and windings, no-load losses can be reduced. Also, the least costly transformer type is rectangular. However, short-circuit forces on rectangular windings do not affect every point of the windings in the same way. Whereas more force is applied inwards to the mid-points of the low-voltage winding, the opposite occurs in the high-voltage winding. Therefore, the windings tend to deteriorate in the event of a short circuit. While trying to reach the project objectives, the difficulties in the design should be overcome. Rectangular core transformers to be produced in our country offer a more compact structure than conventional transformers. In other words, both height and width were smaller. Thus, the reducer takes up less space in the center. Because the transformer boiler is smaller, less oil is used, and its weight is lower. Biotemp natural ester fluid is used in rectangular transformer and the cooling performance of this oil is analyzed. The cost was also reduced with the reduction of dimensions. The decrease in the amount of oil used has also increased the environmental friendliness of the developed product. Transportation costs have been reduced by reducing the total weight. The amount of carbon emissions generated during the transportation process is reduced. Since the low-voltage winding is wound with a foil winding technique, a more resistant structure is obtained against short circuit forces. No-load losses were lower due to the use of a rectangular core. The project was handled in three phases. In the first stage, preliminary research and designs were carried out. In the second stage, the prototype manufacturing of the transformer whose designs have been completed has been started. The prototype developed in the last stage has been subjected to routine, type and special tests.

Keywords: Productivity, power transformer, transformer, rectangular core

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1 Economical Transformer Selection Implementing Service Lifetime Cost

Authors: Bonginkosi A. Thango, Jacobus A. Jordaan, Agha F. Nnachi


In this day and age, there is a proliferate concern from all governments across the globe to barricade the environment from greenhouse gases, which absorb infrared radiation. As a result, solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity has been an expeditiously growing renewable energy source and will eventually undertake a prominent role in the global energy generation. The selection and purchasing of energy-efficient transformers that meet the operational requirements of the solar photovoltaic energy generation plants then become a part of the Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) investment plan of action. Taking these into account, this paper proposes a procedure that put into effect the intricate financial analysis necessitated to precisely evaluate the transformer service lifetime no-load and load loss factors. This procedure correctly set forth the transformer service lifetime loss factors as a result of a solar PV plant’s sporadic generation profile and related levelized costs of electricity into the computation of the transformer’s total ownership cost. The results are then critically compared with the conventional transformer total ownership cost unaccompanied by the emission costs, and demonstrate the significance of the sporadic energy generation nature of the solar PV plant on the total ownership cost. The findings indicate that the latter play a crucial role for developers and Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) in making the purchase decision during a tender bid where competing offers from different transformer manufactures are evaluated. Additionally, the susceptibility analysis of different factors engrossed in the transformer service lifetime cost is carried out; factors including the levelized cost of electricity, solar PV plant’s generation modes, and the loading profile are examined.

Keywords: transformer, solar photovoltaic plant, total ownership cost, loss factors

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