Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Transfer Learning Related Abstracts

4 Application of Deep Learning Algorithms in Agriculture: Early Detection of Crop Diseases

Authors: Manaranjan Pradhan, Shailaja Grover, U. Dinesh Kumar


Farming community in India, as well as other parts of the world, is one of the highly stressed communities due to reasons such as increasing input costs (cost of seeds, fertilizers, pesticide), droughts, reduced revenue leading to farmer suicides. Lack of integrated farm advisory system in India adds to the farmers problems. Farmers need right information during the early stages of crop’s lifecycle to prevent damage and loss in revenue. In this paper, we use deep learning techniques to develop an early warning system for detection of crop diseases using images taken by farmers using their smart phone. The research work leads to building a smart assistant using analytics and big data which could help the farmers with early diagnosis of the crop diseases and corrective actions. The classical approach for crop disease management has been to identify diseases at crop level. Recently, ImageNet Classification using the convolutional neural network (CNN) has been successfully used to identify diseases at individual plant level. Our model uses convolution filters, max pooling, dense layers and dropouts (to avoid overfitting). The models are built for binary classification (healthy or not healthy) and multi class classification (identifying which disease). Transfer learning is used to modify the weights of parameters learnt through ImageNet dataset and apply them on crop diseases, which reduces number of epochs to learn. One shot learning is used to learn from very few images, while data augmentation techniques are used to improve accuracy with images taken from farms by using techniques such as rotation, zoom, shift and blurred images. Models built using combination of these techniques are more robust for deploying in the real world. Our model is validated using tomato crop. In India, tomato is affected by 10 different diseases. Our model achieves an accuracy of more than 95% in correctly classifying the diseases. The main contribution of our research is to create a personal assistant for farmers for managing plant disease, although the model was validated using tomato crop, it can be easily extended to other crops. The advancement of technology in computing and availability of large data has made possible the success of deep learning applications in computer vision, natural language processing, image recognition, etc. With these robust models and huge smartphone penetration, feasibility of implementation of these models is high resulting in timely advise to the farmers and thus increasing the farmers' income and reducing the input costs.

Keywords: Image Recognition, Transfer Learning, CNN, data augmentation, analytics in agriculture, crop disease detection, one shot learning

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3 Dynamic Control Theory: A Behavioral Modeling Approach to Demand Forecasting amongst Office Workers Engaged in a Competition on Energy Shifting

Authors: Akaash Tawade, Manan Khattar, Lucas Spangher, Costas J. Spanos


Many grids are increasing the share of renewable energy in their generation mix, which is causing the energy generation to become less controllable. Buildings, which consume nearly 33% of all energy, are a key target for demand response: i.e., mechanisms for demand to meet supply. Understanding the behavior of office workers is a start towards developing demand response for one sector of building technology. The literature notes that dynamic computational modeling can be predictive of individual action, especially given that occupant behavior is traditionally abstracted from demand forecasting. Recent work founded on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has provided a promising conceptual basis for modeling behavior, personal states, and environment using control theoretic principles. Here, an adapted linear dynamical system of latent states and exogenous inputs is proposed to simulate energy demand amongst office workers engaged in a social energy shifting game. The energy shifting competition is implemented in an office in Singapore that is connected to a minigrid of buildings with a consistent 'price signal.' This signal is translated into a 'points signal' by a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to influence participant energy use. The dynamic model functions at the intersection of the points signals, baseline energy consumption trends, and SCT behavioral inputs to simulate future outcomes. This study endeavors to analyze how the dynamic model trains an RL agent and, subsequently, the degree of accuracy to which load deferability can be simulated. The results offer a generalizable behavioral model for energy competitions that provides the framework for further research on transfer learning for RL, and more broadly— transactive control.

Keywords: Transfer Learning, Social Game, energy demand forecasting, social cognitive behavioral modeling

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2 Vision-Based Daily Routine Recognition for Healthcare with Transfer Learning

Authors: Yan Liu, Bruce X. B. Yu, Keith C. C. Chan


We propose to record Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) of elderly people using a vision-based system so as to provide better assistive and personalization technologies. Current ADL-related research is based on data collected with help from non-elderly subjects in laboratory environments and the activities performed are predetermined for the sole purpose of data collection. To obtain more realistic datasets for the application, we recorded ADLs for the elderly with data collected from real-world environment involving real elderly subjects. Motivated by the need to collect data for more effective research related to elderly care, we chose to collect data in the room of an elderly person. Specifically, we installed Kinect, a vision-based sensor on the ceiling, to capture the activities that the elderly subject performs in the morning every day. Based on the data, we identified 12 morning activities that the elderly person performs daily. To recognize these activities, we created a HARELCARE framework to investigate into the effectiveness of existing Human Activity Recognition (HAR) algorithms and propose the use of a transfer learning algorithm for HAR. We compared the performance, in terms of accuracy, and training progress. Although the collected dataset is relatively small, the proposed algorithm has a good potential to be applied to all daily routine activities for healthcare purposes such as evidence-based diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Healthcare, Transfer Learning, daily activity recognition, IoT sensors

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1 Convolutional Neural Networks for Feature Extraction and Automated Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

Authors: Ying Zhao, John Geldmacher, Christopher Yerkes


Advances in the development of deep neural networks and other machine learning algorithms combined with ever more powerful hardware and the huge amount of data available on the internet has led to a revolution in ML research and applications. These advances present massive potential and opportunity for the military applications such as the analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery is a useful tool capable of capturing high resolution images regardless of cloud coverage and at night. However, there is a limited amount of publicly available SAR data to train a machine learning model. This paper shows how to successfully dissect, modify, and re-architect cross-domain object recognition models such as the VGG-16 model, transfer learning models from the ImageNet, and the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier. The paper demonstrates that the combinations of these factors can significantly and effectively improve the automated object recognition (ATR) of SAR clean and noisy images. The paper shows a potentially inexpensive, accurate, transfer and unsurpervised learning SAR ATR system when data labels are scarce and data are noisy, simplifying the whole recognition for the tactical operation requirements in the area of SAR ATR.

Keywords: Deep learning, Transfer Learning, kNN, SAR images, k-nearest neighbor, synthetic aperture radar images, VGG-16

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