Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

transect Related Abstracts

2 Density of Introduced Birds (Sturnidae: Mynas) in Urban Areas of Kuching and Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Authors: Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maisarah Abdullah, Nurfarahin Azizan, Mohd-Azlan Jayasilan, Andrew Alek Tuen


Common myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Javan myna (A. javanicus) belong to the family Sturnidae. These two species range from Iran, Afghanistan, and east through the Indian subcontinent to south China, Indochina and the mainland Southeast Asia. It was introduced to Sarawak in 1980’s and since then the population has increased tremendously. A study to determine the density of these two species was conducted in the Kuching and Samarahan Districts, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo between November 2013 and January 2014. In Kuching City a total of 12 transect lines of 500 m each were established totaling 6 km. In Samarahan District, six 500 m transect lines were established both within Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) campus and in Serian Town totaling 6 km. The results showed that the density of Javan myna in Kuching City (east) was 13.9 birds/ha, Kuching City (center) was 21.3 birds/ha and Kuching City (west) was 43.1 birds/ha. The density of common myna at UNIMAS campus was 20.3 birds/ha and Serian Town was 13.2 birds/ha. The density of human population probably plays an important role in determining the density of mynas in an area as it is associated with the availability of food sources, roosting and nesting places originating from human activity.

Keywords: Density, myna, transect, invasive, Sarawak, Borneo

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1 Development of a Context Specific Planning Model for Achieving a Sustainable Urban City

Authors: Jothilakshmy Nagammal


This research paper deals with the different case studies, where the Form-Based Codes are adopted in general and the different implementation methods in particular are discussed to develop a method for formulating a new planning model. The organizing principle of the Form-Based Codes, the transect is used to zone the city into various context specific transects. An approach is adopted to develop the new planning model, city Specific Planning Model (CSPM), as a tool to achieve sustainability for any city in general. A case study comparison method in terms of the planning tools used, the code process adopted and the various control regulations implemented in thirty two different cities are done. The analysis shows that there are a variety of ways to implement form-based zoning concepts: Specific plans, a parallel or optional form-based code, transect-based code /smart code, required form-based standards or design guidelines. The case studies describe the positive and negative results from based zoning, Where it is implemented. From the different case studies on the method of the FBC, it is understood that the scale for formulating the Form-Based Code varies from parts of the city to the whole city. The regulating plan is prepared with the organizing principle as the transect in most of the cases. The various implementation methods adopted in these case studies for the formulation of Form-Based Codes are special districts like the Transit Oriented Development (TOD), traditional Neighbourhood Development (TND), specific plan and Street based. The implementation methods vary from mandatory, integrated and floating. To attain sustainability the research takes the approach of developing a regulating plan, using the transect as the organizing principle for the entire area of the city in general in formulating the Form-Based Codes for the selected Special Districts in the study area in specific, street based. Planning is most powerful when it is embedded in the broader context of systemic change and improvement. Systemic is best thought of as holistic, contextualized and stake holder-owned, While systematic can be thought of more as linear, generalisable, and typically top-down or expert driven. The systemic approach is a process that is based on the system theory and system design principles, which are too often ill understood by the general population and policy makers. The system theory embraces the importance of a global perspective, multiple components, interdependencies and interconnections in any system. In addition, the recognition that a change in one part of a system necessarily alters the rest of the system is a cornerstone of the system theory. The proposed regulating plan taking the transect as an organizing principle and Form-Based Codes to achieve sustainability of the city has to be a hybrid code, which is to be integrated within the existing system - A Systemic Approach with a Systematic Process. This approach of introducing a few form based zones into a conventional code could be effective in the phased replacement of an existing code. It could also be an effective way of responding to the near-term pressure of physical change in “sensitive” areas of the community. With this approach and method the new Context Specific Planning Model is created towards achieving sustainability is explained in detail this research paper.

Keywords: systemic approach, transect, context based planning model, form based code

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