Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

transboundary Related Abstracts

2 The Role of Leapfrogging: Cross-Level Interactions and MNE Decision-Making in Conflict-Settings

Authors: Arrian Cornwell, Larisa Yarovaya, Mary Thomson


This paper seeks to examine the transboundary nature of foreign subsidiary exit vs. stay decisions when threatened by conflict in a host country. Using the concepts of nested vulnerability and teleconnections, we show that the threat of conflict can transcend bounded territories and have non-linear outcomes for actors, institutions and systems at broader scales of analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been done before. By introducing the concepts of ‘leapfrogging upwards’ and ‘cascading downwards’, we develop a two-stage model which characterises the impacts of conflict as transboundary phenomena. We apply our model to a dataset of 266 foreign subsidiaries in six conflict-afflicted host countries over 2011-2015. Our results indicate that information is transmitted upwards and subsequent pressure flows cascade downwards, which, in turn, influence exit decisions.

Keywords: Conflict, subsidiary exit, information transmission, pressure flows, transboundary

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1 Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa in the Transboundary Area of Kenya and Tanzania Using mtDNA and msDNA Markers

Authors: Sammy Kibor, Filip Huyghe, Marc Kochzius, James Kairo


Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa, (Bleeker, 1849) is a commercially and ecologically important small pelagic fish common in the Western Indian Ocean region. The present study aimed to assess genetic diversity and population structure of the species in the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary area using mtDNA and msDNA markers. Some 630 bp sequence in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) and five polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were analyzed. Fin clips of 309 individuals from eight locations within the transboundary area were collected between July and December 2018. The S. gibbosa individuals from the different locations were distinguishable from one another based on the mtDNA variation, as demonstrated with a neighbor-joining tree and minimum spanning network analysis. None of the identified 22 haplotypes were shared between Kenya and Tanzania. Gene diversity per locus was relatively high (0.271-0.751), highest Fis was 0.391. The structure analysis, discriminant analysis of Principal component (DAPC) and the pair-wise (FST = 0.136 P < 0.001) values after Bonferroni correction using five microsatellite loci provided clear inference on genetic differentiation and thus evidence of population structure of S. gibbosa along the Kenya-Tanzania coast. This study shows a high level of genetic diversity and the presence of population structure (Φst =0.078 P < 0.001) resulting to the existence of four populations giving a clear indication of minimum gene flow among the population. This information has application in the designing of marine protected areas, an important tool for marine conservation.

Keywords: Population Genetics, microsatellites, transboundary, marine connectivity

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