Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Trade Related Abstracts

8 Effects of International Trade on Economic Growth

Authors: Tanimola Kazeem Abiodun

Abstract:

In the paper, attempt was made to investigate the impact of international trade on economic growth at the disaggregate level both from the theoretical and economic angle. The study in its contribution examines this impact at the disaggregated level. To this end, a hypothesis was formulated to investigate the short ?run and long run impact of international trade on growth in the country. In the econometrics investigation that follow, international trade was disaggregated to export and imports and their short run and long run effect on growth was examined. Also, the aggregate international trade was also investigated to see the long run effects of its own growth. The results of the findings indicate that; both export and import impact significantly to growth in the short run. The long-run impact of export on growth was found to be positive, significant and stable both. Engle-Granger co integration test and error correlation mechanism were applied to these long run relationships. For the import, while the short run was found to be positive and significant on its impact on growth, the long run relationship was found to be negative but not significant. Therefore, it is thus recommended among others that the country should engage more on export promotion drives.

Keywords: Econometrics, International Trade, Trade, Economic growth, Export, Foreign Trade, disaggregated, import

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7 The Impact of Information Communication Technology on Promoting Travel Trade Industry in a Developing Economy, Case Study Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Mohammed Alamai, Abdullahi Marshal Idris, Adama Idris

Abstract:

Today, marketing does not only involve selecting target markets, but it also involves communicating with the customers through various means to put across your selling point. Modern marketing involves driving new product development based on customer needs by getting feedback from them. Utilizing the latest technology for better communication with the customers is the latest advancement in Marketing in the 21st century. The survey approach was used where a sample of tourist destinations across the six geographical zones of the country at random was done to ascertain the use of information communication systems in promoting their products and or services, the findings revealed that only a few utilize these modern advanced means in marketing and promoting their products and a need to develop effective and up to date online services for marketing was proffered as solutions to the findings observed.

Keywords: Communication, Information, Travel, Trade, Promotion

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6 Reconnecting The Peripheral Wagons to the Euro Area Core Locomotive

Authors: Igor Velickovski, Aleksandar Stojkov, Ivana Rajkovic

Abstract:

This paper investigates drivers of shock synchronization using quarterly data for 27 European countries over the period 1999-2013 and taking into account the difference between core (‘the euro area core locomotive’) and peripheral euro area and transition countries (‘the peripheral wagons’). Results from panel error-correction models suggest that core of the euro area has not been strong magnetizer of the shock convergence of periphery and transition countries since the euro inception as a result of the offsetting effects of the various factors that affected the shock convergence process. These findings challenge the endogeneity hypothesis in the optimum currency area framework and rather support the specialisation paradigm which is concerning evidence for the future stability of the euro area.

Keywords: Trade, dynamic panel models, shock synchronisation, optimum currency area

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5 The Impact of Trade on Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets

Authors: Anna M. Pretorius

Abstract:

The emerging markets category for portfolio investment was introduced in 1986 in an attempt to promote capital market development in less developed countries. Investors traditionally diversified their portfolios by investing in different developed markets. However, high growth opportunities forced investors to consider emerging markets as well. Examples include the rapid growth of the “Asian Tigers” during the 1980s, growth in Latin America during the 1990s and the increased interest in emerging markets during the global financial crisis. As such, portfolio flows to emerging markets have increased substantially. In 2002 7% of all equity allocations from advanced economies went to emerging markets; this increased to 20% in 2012. The stronger links between advanced and emerging markets led to increased synchronization of asset price movements. This increased level of stock market integration for emerging markets is confirmed by various empirical studies. Against the background of increased interest in emerging market assets and the increasing level of integration of emerging markets, this paper focuses on the determinants of stock market integration of emerging market countries. Various studies have linked the level of financial market integration with specific economic variables. These variables include: economic growth, local inflation, trade openness, local investment, budget surplus/ deficit, market capitalization, domestic bank credit, domestic institutional and legal environment and world interest rates. The aim of this study is to empirically investigate to what extent trade-related determinants have an impact on stock market integration. The panel data sample include data of 16 emerging market countries: Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey for the period 1998-2011. The integration variable for each emerging stock market is calculated as the explanatory power of a multi-factor model. These factors are extracted from a large panel of global stock market returns. Trade related explanatory variables include: exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP and total trade as percentage of GDP. Other macroeconomic indicators – such as market capitalisation, the size of the budget deficit and the effectiveness of the regulation of the securities exchange – are included in the regressions as control variables. An initial analysis on a sample of developed stock markets could not identify any significant determinants of stock market integration. Thus the macroeconomic variables identified in the literature are much more significant in explaining stock market integration of emerging markets than stock market integration of developed markets. The three trade variables are all statistically significant at a 5% level. The market capitalisation variable is also significant while the regulation variable is only marginally significant. The global financial crisis has highlighted the urgency to better understand the link between the financial and real sectors of the economy. This paper comes to the important finding that, apart from the level of market capitalisation (as financial indicator), trade (representative of the real economy) is a significant determinant of stock market integration of countries not yet classified as developed economies.

Keywords: Trade, Emerging Markets, panel data, financial market integration

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4 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context

Authors: V. Charaia

Abstract:

This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?

Keywords: Trade, investments, Conflict economics, remittances

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3 Environmental Impact of Trade Sector Growth: Evidence from Tanzania

Authors: Mosses E. Lufuke

Abstract:

This paper attempted to investigate whether there is Granger-causality running from trade to environment as evidenced in the changing climatic condition and land degradation. Using Tanzania as the reference, VAR-Granger-causality test was employed to rationalize the conundrum of causal-effect relationship between trade and environment. The changing climatic condition, as the proxy of both nitrous oxide emissions (in thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent) and land degradation measured by the size of arable land were tested against trade using both exports and imports variables. The result indicated that neither of the trade variables Granger-cause the variability on gas emissions and arable land size. This suggests the possibility that all trade concerns in relation to environment to have been internalized in domestic policies to offset any likely negative consequence.

Keywords: Environment, Growth, Trade, Impact

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2 Border Trade Policy to Promote Thailand - Myanmar Mae Sai, Chiang Rai Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

Research Thai- Myanmar Border Trade Promotion Policy, Mae Sai District, Chiang Rai Province The objectives of this study were to study the policy of promoting Thai- Myanmar border trade in Mae Sai district, Chiang Rai province. And suitable models for the development of border trade in Mae Sai. Chiang Rai province This research uses qualitative methodology. The method of collecting data from research papers. Participatory Observation In-depth interviews in which the information is important, the governor of Chiang Rai. Chiang Rai Customs Service Executive Office of Mae Sai Immigration Bureau Maesai Chamber of Commerce and Private Entrepreneurs By specific sampling Data analysis uses content analysis. The study indicated that Border Trade Promotion Policy The direction taken by the government to focus on developing 1. Security is further reducing crime. Smuggling and human trafficking Including the preparation to protect people from terrorism and natural disasters. And cooperation with Burma on border security. 2. The development of wealth is the promotion of investment. The transport links, logistics value chain. Products and services across the Thai-Myanmar border. Improve the regulations and laws to promote fair trade. Convenient and fast 3. Sustainable development is the ability to generate income, quality of life of people in the Thai border to increase continuously. By using balanced natural resources, production and consumption are environmentally friendly. Which featured the participation of all sectors of the public and private sectors in the region to drive the development of the border with Thailand. Chiang Rai province To be more competitive .

Keywords: Policy, Trade, border, promote

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1 Does Trade and Institutional Quality Play Any Significant Role on Environmental Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Authors: Luqman Afolabi

Abstract:

This paper measures the impacts of trade and institutions on environmental quality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To examine the direction and the magnitude of the effects, the study employs the pooled mean group (PMG) estimation technique on the panel data obtained from the World Bank’s World Development and Governance Indicators, between 1996 and 2018. The empirical estimates validate the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis (EKC) for the region, even though there have been inconclusive results on the environment – growth nexus. Similarly, a positive coefficient is obtained on the impact of trade on the environment, while the impact of the institutional indicators produce mixed results. A significant policy implication is that the governments of the SSA countries pursue policies that tend to increase economic growth, so that pollutants may be reduced. Such policies may include the provision of incentives for sustainable growth-driven industries in the region. In addition, the governance infrastructures should be improved in such a way that appropriate penalties are imposed on the pollutants, while advanced technologies that have the potentials to reduce environmental degradation should be encouraged. Finally, it is imperative from these findings that the governments of the region should promote their trade relations and the competitiveness of their local industries in order to keep pace with the global markets.

Keywords: Trade, Environmental Quality, institutional quality sustainable development goals

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