Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

traction Related Abstracts

6 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: Cervical, randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness

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5 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Lubrication, traction, starvation, elliptical contact, minimum film thickness

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4 Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar

Abstract:

The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.

Keywords: traction, surface roughness, EHL, linear pressure-viscosity, water/glycol

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3 Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Aerodynamic Package of a Formula Student Car

Authors: Aniketh Ravukutam, Rajath Rao M., Pradyumna S. A.

Abstract:

In the past few decades there has been great advancement in use of aerodynamics in cars. Now its use has been evident from commercial cars to race cars for achieving higher speeds, stability and efficiency. This paper focusses on studying the effects of aerodynamics in Formula Student car. These cars weigh around 200kgs with an average speed of 60kmph. With increasing competition every year, developing a competitive car is a herculean task. The race track comprises mostly of tight corners and little or no straights thus testing the car’s cornering capabilities. Higher cornering speeds can be achieved by increasing traction at the tires. Studying the aerodynamics helps in achieving higher traction without much addition in overall weight of car. The main focus is to develop an aerodynamic package involving front wing, under tray and body to obtain an optimum value of down force. The initial process involves the detail study of geometrical constraints mentioned in the rule book and calculating the limiting value of drag as per the engine specifications. The successive steps involve conduction of various iterations in ANSYS for selection of airfoils, deciding the number of elements, designing the nose for low drag, channelizing the flow under the body and obtain an optimum value of down force within the limits defined in the initial process. The final step involves design of model using these results in Virtual environment called OptimumLap® for detailed study of performance with and without the presence of aerodynamics. The CFD analysis results showed an overall down force of 377.44N with a drag of 164.08N. The corresponding parameters of the last model were applied in OptimumLap® and an improvement of 3.5 seconds in lap times was observed.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, body, Virtual Environment, traction, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), down force, drag, formula student, front wing, undertray, rule book

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2 Analysis of Standard Tramway Surge Protection Methods Based on Real Cases

Authors: Alain Rousseau, Alfred Aragones, Gilles Rougier

Abstract:

The study is based on lightning and surge standards mainly the EN series 62305 for facility protection, EN series 61643 for Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, High Voltage surge arrester standard en 60099-4 and the traction arrester standards namely EN 50526-1 and 50526-1 dealing respectively with railway applications fixed installations D.C. surge arresters and voltage limiting devices. The more severe stress for tramways installations is caused by direct lightning on the catenary line. In such case, the surge current propagates towards the various poles and sparkover the insulators leading to a lower stress. If the impact point is near enough, a significant surge current will flow towards the traction surge arrester that is installed on the catenary at the location the substation is connected. Another surge arrester can be installed at the entrance of the substation or even inside the rectifier to avoid insulation damages. In addition, surge arresters can be installed between + and – to avoid damaging sensitive circuits. Based on disturbances encountered in a substation following a lighting event, the engineering department of RATP has decided to investigate the cause of such damage and more generally to question the efficiency of the various possible protection means. Based on the example of a recent tramway line the paper present the result of a lightning study based on direct lightning strikes. As a matter of fact, the induced surges on the catenary are much more frequent but much less damaging. First, a lightning risk assessment is performed for the substations that takes into account direct lightning and induced lightning both on the substation and its connected lines such as the catenary. Then the paper deals with efficiency of the various surge arresters is discussed based on field experience and calculations. The efficiency of the earthing system used at the bottom of the pole is also addressed based on high frequency earthing measurement. As a conclusion, the paper is making recommendations for an enhanced efficiency of existing protection means.

Keywords: Risk, Lightning, traction, surge arrester, surge protective device

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1 Design and Validation of Different Steering Geometries for an All-Terrain Vehicle

Authors: Prabhsharan Singh, Rahul Sindhu, Piyush Sikka

Abstract:

The steering system is an integral part and medium through which the driver communicates with the vehicle and terrain, hence the most suitable steering geometry as per requirements must be chosen. The function of the chosen steering geometry of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is to provide the desired understeer gradient, minimum tire slippage, expected weight transfer during turning as these are requirements for a good steering geometry of a BAJA ATV. This research paper focuses on choosing the best suitable steering geometry for BAJA ATV tracks by reasoning the working principle and using fundamental trigonometric functions for obtaining these geometries on the same vehicle itself, namely Ackermann, Anti- Ackermann, Parallel Ackermann. Full vehicle analysis was carried out on Adams Car Analysis software, and graphical results were obtained for various parameters. Steering geometries were achieved by using a single versatile knuckle for frontward and rearward tie-rod placement and were practically tested with the help of data acquisition systems set up on the ATV. Each was having certain characteristics, setup, and parameters were observed for the BAJA ATV, and correlations were created between analytical and practical values.

Keywords: All-Terrain Vehicle, traction, steering system, steering geometry, Ackermann, Adams car, Baja Sae, tire slip, understeer gradient

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