Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Trace Metals Related Abstracts

12 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 222Rn and Trace Metals in Chemical Fertilizers in Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Fatimh Alshahri, Muna Alqahtani


The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 40K and 222Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabia markets. The specific activities of 238U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kgˉ¹, 226Ra ranged from 5.6 ± 2.8 to 392 ± 18 Bq kgˉ¹ and 40K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16476 ± 820 Bq kgˉ¹. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.2 ± 1.2 to 1531.6 ± 160 Bq mˉ³ and from 1.6 to 773.7 mBq mˉ² hˉ¹, respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for Six local samples (NPK and SSP) and one imported sample (SOP) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kgˉ¹. The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy hˉ¹. The highest annual effective dose was in TSP fertilizers (2.1 mSvyˉ¹). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, chemical fertilizers, Trace Metals

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11 Assessment of Trace Metal Concentration of Soils Contaminated with Carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Authors: O.M. Agbogidi, I.M. Onochie


An investigation was carried out on trace metal concentration of soils contaminated with carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria in 2014 with a view to providing baseline formation on their status relative to the control plants and to the tolerable limits recommended by World standard bodies including WHO and FAO. The metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which showed an elevated level when compared with the control plots. High level of metals including Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and arsenic were recorded and these values were significantly different (P<0.05) from values obtained from the control plots. These results are indicative of the fact that carbide polluted soil had higher level of trace metals and because these metals are non-biodegradable elements in the ecosystem, a rise to their lethal levels in food chains is envisaged due to the interdependency of plants and animals stemming from soil-water organisms interrelationship.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Trace Metals, bio-concentration, carbide contaminated soils

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10 Seasonal Variation of the Impact of Mining Activities on Ga-Selati River in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Patience P. Shikwambana


Water is a very rare natural resource in South Africa. Ga-Selati River is used for both domestic and industrial purposes. This study was carried out in order to assess the quality of Ga-Selati River in a mining area of Limpopo Province-Phalaborwa. The pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were determined using a Crinson multimeter while turbidity was measured using a Labcon Turbidimeter. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Pb were analysed in triplicate using a Varian 520 flame atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) supplied by PerkinElmer, after acid digestion with nitric acid in a fume cupboard. The average pH of the river from eight different sampling sites was 8.00 and 9.38 in wet and dry season respectively. Higher EC values were determined in the dry season (138.7 mS/m) than in the wet season (96.93 mS/m). Similarly, TDS values were higher in dry (929.29 mg/L) than in the wet season (640.72 mg/L) season. These values exceeded the recommended guideline of South Africa Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) for domestic water use (70 mS/m) and that of the World Health Organization (WHO) (600 mS/m), respectively. Turbidity varied between 1.78-5.20 and 0.95-2.37 NTU in both wet and dry seasons. Total hardness of 312.50 mg/L and 297.75 mg/L as the concentration of CaCO3 was computed for the river in both the wet and the dry seasons and the river water was categorised as very hard. Mean concentration of the metals studied in both the wet and the dry seasons are: Na (94.06 mg/L and 196.3 mg/L), K (11.79 mg/L and 13.62 mg/L), Ca (45.60 mg/L and 41.30 mg/L), Mg (48.41 mg/L and 44.71 mg/L), Al (0.31 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L), Cd (0.01 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L), Cr (0.02 mg/L and 0.09 mg/L), Pb (0.05 mg/L and 0.06 mg/L), Mn (0.31 mg/L and 0.11 mg/L) and Fe (0.76 mg/L and 0.69 mg/L). Results from this study reveal that most of the metals were present in concentrations higher than the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic use and the protection of aquatic life.

Keywords: Contamination, Surface Water, Trace Metals, mining activities

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9 Distribution, Source Apportionment and Assessment of Pollution Level of Trace Metals in Water and Sediment of a Riverine Wetland of the Brahmaputra Valley

Authors: Kali Prasad Sarma, Sanghita Dutta


Deepor Beel (DB), the lone Ramsar site and an important wetland of the Brahmaputra valley in the state of Assam. The local people from fourteen peripheral villages traditionally utilize the wetland for harvesting vegetables, flowers, aquatic seeds, medicinal plants, fish, molluscs, fodder for domestic cattle etc. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the concentration and distribution of trace metals in water-sediment system of the beel in order to protect its ecological environment. DB lies between26°05′26′′N to 26°09′26′′N latitudes and 90°36′39′′E to 91°41′25′′E longitudes. Water samples from the surface layer of water up to 40cm deep and sediment samples from the top 5cm layer of surface sediments were collected. The trace metals in waters and sediments were analysed using ICP-OES. The organic Carbon was analysed using the TOC analyser. The different mineral present in the sediments were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). SEM images were recorded for the samples using SEM, attached with energy dispersive X-ray unit, with an accelerating voltage of 20 kv. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS20.0 for windows. In the present research, distribution, source apportionment, temporal and spatial variability, extent of pollution and the ecological risk of eight toxic trace metals in sediments and water of DB were investigated. The average concentrations of chromium(Cr) (both the seasons), copper(Cu) and lead(Pb) (pre-monsoon) and zinc(Zn) and cadmium(Cd) (post-monsoon) in sediments were higher than the consensus based threshold concentration(TEC). The persistent exposure of toxic trace metals in sediments pose a potential threat, especially to sediment dwelling organisms. The degree of pollution in DB sediments for Pb, Cobalt (Co) Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and arsenic (As) was assessed using Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI). The results indicated that contamination of surface sediments in DB is dominated by Pb and Cd and to a lesser extent by Co, Fe, Cu, Cr, As and Zn. A significant positive correlation among the pairs of element Co/Fe, Zn/As in water, and Cr/Zn, Fe/As in sediments indicates similar source of origin of these metals. The effects of interaction among trace metals between water and sediments shows significant variations (F =94.02, P < 0.001), suggesting maximum mobility of trace metals in DB sediments and water. The source apportionment of the heavy metals was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). SEM-EDS detects the presence of Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, As and Fe in the sediment sample. The average concentration of Cd, Zn, Pb and As in the bed sediments of DB are found to be higher than the crustal abundance. The EF values indicate that Cd and Pb are significantly enriched. From source apportionment studies of the eight metals using PCA revealed that Cd was anthropogenic in origin; Pb, As, Cr, and Zn had mixed sources; whereas Co, Cu and Fe were natural in origin.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Trace Metals, Deepor Beel, enrichment factor

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8 Accumulation of Trace Metals in Leaf Vegetables Cultivated in High Traffic Areas in Ghent, Belgium

Authors: Veronique Troch, Wouter Van der Borght, Véronique De Bleeker, Bram Marynissen, Nathan Van der Eecken, Gijs Du Laing


Among the challenges associated with increased urban food production are health risks from food contamination, due to the higher pollution loads in urban areas, compared to rural sites. Therefore, the risks posed by industrial or traffic pollution of locally grown food, was defined as one of five high-priority issues of urban agriculture requiring further investigation. The impact of air pollution on urban horticulture is the subject of this study. More particular, this study focuses on the atmospheric deposition of trace metals on leaf vegetables cultivated in the city of Ghent, Belgium. Ghent is a particularly interesting study site as it actively promotes urban agriculture. Plants accumulate heavy metals by absorption from contaminated soils and through deposition on parts exposed to polluted air. Accumulation of trace metals in vegetation grown near roads has been shown to be significantly higher than those grown in rural areas due to traffic-related contaminants in the air. Studies of vegetables demonstrated, that the uptake and accumulation of trace metals differed among crop type, species, and among plant parts. Studies on vegetables and fruit trees in Berlin, Germany, revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and parameters related to barriers between sampling site and neighboring roads. This study aims to supplement this scarce research on heavy metal accumulation in urban horticulture. Samples from leaf vegetables were collected from different sites, including allotment gardens, in Ghent. Trace metal contents on these leaf vegetables were analyzed by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). In addition, precipitation on each sampling site was collected by NILU-type bulk collectors and similarly analyzed for trace metals. On one sampling site, different parameters which might influence trace metal content in leaf vegetables were analyzed in detail. These parameters are distance of planting site to the nearest road, barriers between planting site and nearest road, and type of leaf vegetable. For comparison, a rural site, located farther from city traffic and industrial pollution, was included in this study. Preliminary results show that there is a high correlation between trace metal content in the atmospheric deposition and trace metal content in leaf vegetables. Moreover, a significant higher Pb, Cu and Fe concentration was found on spinach collected from Ghent, compared to spinach collected from a rural site. The distance of planting site to the nearest road significantly affected the accumulation of Pb, Cu, Mo and Fe on spinach. Concentrations of those elements on spinach increased with decreasing distance between planting site and the nearest road. Preliminary results did not show a significant effect of barriers between planting site and the nearest road on accumulation of trace metals on leaf vegetables. The overall goal of this study is to complete and refine existing guidelines for urban gardening to exclude potential health risks from food contamination. Accordingly, this information can help city governments and civil society in the professionalization and sustainable development of urban agriculture.

Keywords: Urban Agriculture, Trace Metals, atmospheric deposition, leaf vegetables, traffic pollution

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7 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo


As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: wastewater, Trace Metals, coagulation-flocculation, jar test

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6 Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination in Surficial and Core Sediments from Ghannouch- Gabes Coastline, Impact of Phosphogypsum Discharge, Southeastern of Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea: Geochemical and Mineralogical Approaches

Authors: Rim Ben Amor, Myriam Abidi, Moncef Gueddari


The purpose of the present study is to assess the level and the distribution of CaO, SO3, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn incore sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast, Gulf of Gabes, Tunisian Mediterranean coast. The XRD analyses indicate that the sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast are mainly composed of quartz, calcite, gypsum and fluorine reflecting the impact of the phosphate fertilizer industrial waste. The vertical distribution of surface sediments shows for all the elements analyzed, that the area located between the commercial and the fishing port of Gabes, is the most polluted zone, where the two harbors acted as barriers and limited the dispersion of phosphogypsum discharge. The abundance order of metals was found to be Zn > Cd > Cu >Pb and that the highest levels of heavy metals were found in the uppermost segment of the sediment core compared to lower depth subsurface due to a continuous input of PG release and showed that the area between the two harbor suffered from several types of pollutants compared to reference core C1, collected from non-industrialized area. The level of pollution was evaluated using contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The obtained results of Igeo allowed us to distinguish that the area between the commercial harbor of Ghannouch and the fishing harbor of Gabes is the most polluted where sediments are strongly contaminated for Pb, Cu and Cd. The pollution load index (PLI) of all sediments collected classified them as "polluted". According to contamination factor (Cf), the sediments can be considered as ‘considerable’ to ‘very high’ contaminated for Pb, ‘very high to moderate’ for Cd, ‘ moderate’ for Zn, between ‘moderate’ and ‘considerable’ for Cu. Statistical analyses show that heavy metals, fluoride, calcium and sulphate are resulting from the same anthropogenic origin. The metallic pollution status of sediments of Ghanouch -Gabes coast is worrying and requires a serious intervention.

Keywords: Trace Metals, contamination factor, phosphogypsum, core sediments, accumulation factor

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5 Seasonal Variability of Picoeukaryotes Community Structure Under Coastal Environmental Disturbances

Authors: Benjamin Glasner, Carlos Henriquez, Fernando Alfaro, Nicole Trefault, Santiago Andrade, Rodrigo De La Iglesia


A central question in ecology refers to the relative importance that local-scale variables have over community composition, when compared with regional-scale variables. In coastal environments, strong seasonal abiotic influence dominates these systems, weakening the impact of other parameters like micronutrients. After the industrial revolution, micronutrients like trace metals have increased in ocean as pollutants, with strong effects upon biotic entities and biological processes in coastal regions. Coastal picoplankton communities had been characterized as a cyanobacterial dominated fraction, but in recent years the eukaryotic component of this size fraction has gained relevance due to their high influence in carbon cycle, although, diversity patterns and responses to disturbances are poorly understood. South Pacific upwelling coastal environments represent an excellent model to study seasonal changes due to a strong influence in the availability of macro- and micronutrients between seasons. In addition, some well constrained coastal bays of this region have been subjected to strong disturbances due to trace metal inputs. In this study, we aim to compare the influence of seasonality and trace metals concentrations, on the community structure of planktonic picoeukaryotes. To describe seasonal patterns in the study area, satellite data in a 6 years time series and in-situ measurements with a traditional oceanographic approach such as CTDO equipment were performed. In addition, trace metal concentrations were analyzed trough ICP-MS analysis, for the same region. For biological data collection, field campaigns were performed in 2011-2012 and the picoplankton community was described by flow cytometry and taxonomical characterization with next-generation sequencing of ribosomal genes. The relation between the abiotic and biotic components was finally determined by multivariate statistical analysis. Our data show strong seasonal fluctuations in abiotic parameters such as photosynthetic active radiation and superficial sea temperature, with a clear differentiation of seasons. However, trace metal analysis allows identifying strong differentiation within the study area, dividing it into two zones based on trace metals concentration. Biological data indicate that there are no major changes in diversity but a significant fluctuation in evenness and community structure. These changes are related mainly with regional parameters, like temperature, but by analyzing the metal influence in picoplankton community structure, we identify a differential response of some plankton taxa to metal pollution. We propose that some picoeukaryotic plankton groups respond differentially to metal inputs, by changing their nutritional status and/or requirements under disturbances as a derived outcome of toxic effects and tolerance.

Keywords: Seasonal Patterns, Trace Metals, Picoeukaryotes, plankton communities

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4 Incidences and Chemico-Mobility of Toxic Heavy Metals in Environmental Samples

Authors: I. Hilia, C. Hange, F. Hakala, M. Matheus, C. Jansen, J. Hidinwa, O. Awofolu


The article reports on the occurrences, level, and mobility of selected trace metals in environmental samples. The conceptual basis was to examine the possible influence of anthropogenic activities and the impact on human and environmental health. Environmental samples (soil, plant and lower animal) were randomly collected from stratified study/sampling areas, preserved and pre-treated before analysis. Mineral acid digestion procedure was employed for the isolation of metallic contents in samples, and elemental qualitative and quantitative analysis was by ICP-OES. Analytical protocol was validated through the quality assurance process and was found acceptable with quantitative metallic recoveries in the range of 85-90%; hence considered applicable for the analyses of environmental samples. The mean concentration of analysed metals in soil samples ranged from 53.2- 2532.8 mg/kg (Cu); 59.5- 2020.1 mg/kg (Zn); 1.80 – 21.26 mg/kg (Cd) and 19.6- 140.9 mg/kg (Pb). The mean level in grass samples ranged from 9.33 – 38.63 mg/kg (Cu); 64.20-105.18 mg/kg (Zn); 0.28–0.73 mg/kg (Cd) and 0.53 -16.26 mg/kg (Pb) while the mean level in lower animal sample (beetle) varied from 9.6 - 105.3 mg/kg (Cu); 134.1-297.2 mg/kg (Zn); 0.63 – 3.78 (Cd) and 8.0 – 29.1 mg/kg (Pb) across sample collection points (SCPs) 1-4 respectively. Metallic transfer factors (TFs) were in the order Zn >Cd > Cu > Pb with metal Pollution Indices (MPIs) in the order SCP1 > SCP2 > SCP3 > SCP4. About 60-70 % of analysed metals were above the maximum allowable limits (MALs) in soil and plant samples. Results obtained revealed the general prevalence of analysed metals at all sampled sites with indication of metallic mobility across the food chain which portrayed dire consequences for environmental and human health. Systematic environmental remediation and pollution abatement strategies are recommended.

Keywords: Pollution, Human Health, Trace Metals, ICP-OES, Incidences

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3 Metal Contents in Bird Feathers (Columba livia) from Mt Etna Volcano: Volcanic Plume Contribution and Biological Fractionation

Authors: Cinzia Federico, Edda E. Falcone, Sergio Bellomo, Lorenzo Brusca, Manfredi Longo, Walter D’Alessandro


Although trace metals are an essential element for living beings, they can become toxic at high concentrations. Their potential toxicity is related not only to the total content in the environment but mostly upon their bioavailability. Volcanoes are important natural metal emitters and they can deeply affect the quality of air, water and soils, as well as the human health. Trace metals tend to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms, depending on the metal contents in food, air and water and on the exposure time. Birds are considered as bioindicators of interest, because their feathers directly reflects the metals uptake from the blood. Birds are exposed to the atmospheric pollution through the contact with rainfall, dust, and aerosol, and they accumulate metals over the whole life cycle. We report on the first data combining the rainfall metal content in three different areas of Mt Etna, variably fumigated by the volcanic plume, and the metal contents in the feathers of pigeons, collected in the same areas. Rainfall samples were collected from three rain gauges placed at different elevation on the Eastern flank of the volcano, the most exposed to airborne plume, filtered, treated with HNO₃ Suprapur-grade and analyzed for Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Zn, Cu, Sr, Ba, Cd and As by ICP-MS technique, and major ions by ion chromatography. Feathers were collected from single individuals, in the same areas where the rain gauges were installed. Additionally, some samples were collected in an urban area, poorly interested by the volcanic plume. The samples were rinsed in MilliQ water and acetone, dried at 50°C until constant weight and digested in a mixture of 2:1 HNO₃ (65%) - H₂O₂ (30%) Suprapur-grade for 25-50 mg of sample, in a bath at near-to-boiling temperature. The solutions were diluted up to 20 ml prior to be analyzed by ICP-MS. The rainfall samples most contaminated by the plume were collected at close distance from the summit craters (less than 6 km), and show lower pH values and higher concentrations for all analyzed metals relative to those from the sites at lower elevation. Analyzed samples are enriched in both metals directly emitted by the volcanic plume and transported by acidic gases (SO₂, HCl, HF), and metals leached from the airborne volcanic ash. Feathers show different patterns in the different sites related to the exposure to natural or anthropogenic pollutants. They show abundance ratios similar to rainfall for lithophile elements (Ba, Sr), whereas are enriched in Zn and Se, known for their antioxidant properties, probably as adaptive response to oxidative stress induced by toxic metal exposure. The pigeons revealed a clear heterogeneity of metal uptake in the different parts of the volcano, as an effect of volcanic plume impact. Additionally, some physiological processes can modify the fate of some metals after uptake and this offer some insights for translational studies.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Bioindicators, Trace Metals, feathers, volcanic plume

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2 Geochemical Evaluation of Weathering-Induced Release of Trace Metals from the Maastritchian Shales in Parts of Bida an Anambra Basins, Nigeria

Authors: Adetunji Olusegun Aderigibigbe


Shales, especially black shales, are of great geological significance, in the study of heavy/trace metal contamination. This is due to their abundance in occurrence and high concentration of heavy metals embedded which are released during their weathering. Heavy metals constitute one of the most dangerous pollution known to human because they are toxic (i.e., carcinogenic), non-biodegradable and can enter the global eco-biological circle. In the past, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment and agricultural top soil has been attributed to industrial wastes, mining extractions and pollution from traffic vehicles; only a few studies have focused on weathering of shale as possible source of heavy metal contamination. Based on the above background, this study attempts to establish weathering of shale as possible source of trace/heavy metal contaminations. This was done by carefully selecting fresh and their corresponding weathered shale samples from selected localities in Bida and Anambra Basins. The samples were analysed in Activation Laboratories Ltd; Ontario, Canada for trace/heavy metal. It was observed that some major and trace metals were released during weathering, i.e., some were depleted and some enriched. By this contamination of water zones and agricultural top soils are not only traceable to biogenic processes but geogenic inputs (weathering of shale) as well.

Keywords: Pollution, Heavy Metals, Contamination, Shales, Trace Metals, fresh samples, weathered samples

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1 The Role of Two Macrophyte Species in Mineral Nutrient Cycling in Human-Impacted Water Reservoirs

Authors: Ludmila Polechonska, Agnieszka Klink


The biogeochemical studies of macrophytes shed light on elements bioavailability, transfer through the food webs and their possible effects on the biota, and provide a basis for their practical application in aquatic monitoring and remediation. Measuring the accumulation of elements in plants can provide time-integrated information about the presence of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the contents of micro- and macroelements in two cosmopolitan macrophytes, submerged Ceratophyllum demersum (hornworth) and free-floating Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit), in order to assess their bioaccumulation potential, elements stock accumulated in each plant and their role in nutrients cycling in small water reservoirs. Sampling sites were designated in 25 oxbow lakes in urban areas in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). In each sampling site, fresh whole plants of C. demersum and H. morsus-ranae were collected from squares of 1x1 meters each where the species coexisted. European frog-bit was separated into leaves, stems and roots. For biomass measurement all plants growing on 1 square meter were collected, dried and weighed. At the same time, water samples were collected from each reservoir and their pH and EC were determined. Water samples were filtered and acidified and plant samples were digested in concentrated nitric acid. Next, the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn was determined using atomic absorption method (AAS). Statistical analysis showed that C. demersum and organs of H. morsus-ranae differed significantly in respect of metals content (Kruskal-Wallis Anova, p<0.05). Contents of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were higher in hornwort, while European frog-bit contained more Ca, Fe, K, Mg. Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF=content in plant/concentration in water) showed similar pattern of metal bioaccumulation – microelements were more intensively accumulated by hornwort and macroelements by frog-bit. Based on BCF values both species may be positively evaluated as good accumulators of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. However, the distribution of metals in H. morsus-ranae was uneven – the majority of studied elements were retained in roots, which may indicate to existence of physiological barriers developed for dealing with toxicity. Some percent of Ca and K was actively transported to stems, but to leaves Mg only. Although the biomass of C. demersum was two times greater than biomass of H. morsus-ranae, the element off-take was greater only for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Nevertheless, it can be stated that despite a relatively small biomass, compared to other macrophytes, both species may have an influence on the removal of trace elements from aquatic ecosystems and, as they serve as food for some animals, also on the incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. There was a significant positive correlation between content of Mn and Fe in water and roots of H. morus-ranae (R=0.51 and R=0.60, respectively) as well as between Cu concentration in water and in C. demersum (R=0.41) (Spearman rank correlation, p<0.05). High bioaccumulation rates and correlation between plants and water elements concentrations point to their possible use as passive biomonitors of aquatic pollution.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Biomonitoring, Trace Metals, Aquatic Plants, bioaccumulation, macroelements

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