Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Toxicity Related Abstracts

65 Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations

Authors: Tuğba Özdal, Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk

Abstract:

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.

Keywords: Toxicity, Health, Regulations, BPA

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
64 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Methidathion Pesticide

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

Abstract:

Methidathion (MTD) (Trade name Supracide®) is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide used intensively worldwide including Saudi Arabia. However, there is a lack in published studies about it's genotoxicity. In this study we evaluated MTD toxicity in rat bone marrow cells (in vivo) and in lymphocytes (in vitro) using different doses based on LD50. MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells were recorded in rat's bone marrow samples. CA, MI (number of cells undergoing mitosis) necrotic, and apoptotic cells recorded in lymphocytes. Results showed that there was a slight increase in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells. However, no structural chromosomal aberrations were detected in vivo or in vitro. On the other hand, the results showed significant increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells following MTD administration in a dose-dependent manner comparing to positive and negative control groups. In light of these results, MTD can be considered highly cytotoxic and moderate genotoxic, and precaution should be taken when using MTD.

Keywords: Toxicity, methidathion, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
63 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Salvia officinals Extracts on Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammed A. Alshehri

Abstract:

Salvia officinalis is an aromatic plant member of the mint (Labiatae) family. It is popular kitchen herb. Not surprise to find that the name of this herb related to cure, in Latin language Salvia means to cure where officinalis means medicinal which answer why the sage has a top place in the list of medicinal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattusrattus) to Salvia officinals. For this purpose, adult female rats, weighing 200–250 g, were used as donors. A total of 36 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the experimental groups (rats were intraperitonealy injected with Salvia officinalis pure extract at (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.1mg/kg body weight, the same dose was administered once a day. Control group (rats were injected intraperitonealy physiological saline. And positive control were injected with Cyclophosphamide. On the 21st days following Salvia officinalis pure extract exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of bone marrow were collected. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micro-nucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index), and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic, and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a no significant increase in the frequency of micro-nucleatedas well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells. In light of these results, if Salvia officinalis pure extract may considered to be safe from the stand point of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects.

Keywords: Toxicity, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations, Salvia officinalis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
62 Effect of Phthalates on Male Infertility: Myth or Truth?

Authors: Rashmi Tomar, A. Srinivasan, Nayan K. Mohanty, Arun K. Jain

Abstract:

Phthalates have been used as additives in industrial products since the 1930s, and are universally considered to be ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, as well as diet and medical treatments. Animal studies showing the existence of an association between some phthalates and testicular toxicity have generated public and scientific concern about the potential adverse effects of environmental changes on male reproductive health. Unprecedented declines in fertility rates and semen quality have been reported during the last half of the 20th century in developed countries and increasing interest exists on the potential relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants, including phthalates, and human male reproductive health Studies. Phthalates may be associated with altered endocrine function and adverse effects on male reproductive development and function, but human studies are limited. The aim of the present study was detection of phthalate compounds, estimation of their metabolites in infertile & fertile male. Blood and urine samples were collected from 150 infertile patients & 75 fertile volunteers recruited through Department of Urology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Blood have been collected in separate glass tubes from the antecubital vein of the patients, serum have been separate and estimate the phthalate level in serum samples by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry using NIOSH / OSHA detailed protocol. Urine of Infertile & Fertile Subjects was collected & extracted using solid phase extraction method, analysis by HPLC. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge the present study based on human is first to show the presence of phthalate in human serum samples and their metabolites in urine samples. Significant differences were observed between several phthalates in infertile and fertile healthy individuals.

Keywords: Toxicity, Male Infertility, HPLC, Gas Chromatography, phthalates, serum, urine

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
61 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader

Abstract:

Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: Toxicity, Nickel, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, orthodontic treatment, saliva

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
60 Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops

Authors: Balwinder Singh, Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang

Abstract:

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.

Keywords: Toxicity, Resistance, Insecticides, Spodoptera litura

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
59 Analgesic, Toxicity and Anti-Pyretic Activities of Methanolic Extract from Hyoscyamus albus Leaves in Albinos Rats

Authors: Yahia Mouloud, Yahia Massinissa, Henhouda Affaf

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity; analgesic and anti-pyretic properties of standardized HA methanolic extract (HAMeOH) in vivo. The acute toxicity study was performed on rats while adopting the OECD-420 Guidelines (fixed dose procedure). Assessment of analgesic activity was performed in rats with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-pyretic effect was tested by brewer’s yeast induced fever in rats. For the acute toxicity test, the higher dose administration of 2000 mg/kg bw. of Hyoscyamus albus did not produce any toxic signs or deaths in rats. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the body and organ weights between control and treated groups. The (LD50) of Hyoscyamus albus was higher than 2000 g/kg bw. In subacute toxicity study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed with the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw. of extracts of for 28 consecutive days. These analgesic experimental results indicated that HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, in the model of yeast induced elevation of the body temperature HAMeOH showed dose-dependent lowering of the body temperature up to 3h at both the doses these results obtained, were comparable to that of paracetamol. The present findings indicate that the leaves of Hyoscyamus albus L. possess potent analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Keywords: Toxicity, Hyoscyamus albus, methanolic extract, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity, formalin test

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
58 Acute Toxicity Studies of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Datura stramonium in Female Rats: Effect on Liver and Kidney

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of acute administration of TOTAL alkaloids, the main active principle of Datura stramonium, with toxic properties, were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After acute intraperitoneal administration of dose 120 mg kg-1 (≈1/3 DL50) of total alkaloids to the seeds of D. stramonium, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. After 5 days a significant reduction was observed in total alkaloids of seeds. The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB) show significant changes in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, glucose and total protein observed between groups. After 24 h Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and creatinine were significantly higher in the treated male rats than the control group histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, datura stramonium

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
57 Subacute Toxicity Study of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Peganum harmala in Female Rat

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of subacute administration of total alkaloids of seeds Peganum harmala were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After intraperitoneal administration of dose 50 mg/kg for 10 days and 40 mg/kg for 7 days of total alkaloids to the seeds of Peganum harmala (animal treatment lasted 17 days), there were remarkable changes in general appearance and deaths occurred in experimental group. After 17 days a significant reduction was observed in the surviving animals treated with total alkaloid seeds.The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT), Hemoglobin (HGB) and White blood cells (WBCs), show significant reduction in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, glucose and creatinine observed between groups. However the urea was significantly higher in the treated female rats than the control group. Histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes. Alkaloids of Peganum harmala showed significant toxicity in female rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, Peganum harmala

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
56 Impact of Calcium Carbide Waste Dumpsites on Soil Chemical and Microbial Characteristics

Authors: C. E. Ihejirika, M. I. Nwachukwu, R. F. Njoku-Tony, O. C. Ihejirika, U. O. Enwereuzoh, E. O. Imo, D. C. Ashiegbu

Abstract:

Disposal of industrial solid wastes in the environment is a major environmental challenge. This study investigated the effects of calcium carbide waste dumpsites on soil quality. Soil samples were collected with hand auger from three different dumpsites at varying depths and made into composite samples. Samples were subjected to standard analytical procedures. pH varied from 10.38 to 8.28, nitrate from 5.6mg/kg to 9.3mg/kg, phosphate from 8.8mg/kg to 12.3mg/kg, calcium carbide reduced from 10% to to 3%. Calcium carbide was absent in control soil samples. Bacterial counts from dumpsites ranged from 1.8 x 105cfu/g - 2.5 x 105cfu/g while fungal ranged from 0.8 x 103cfu/g - 1.4 x 103cfu/g. Bacterial isolates included Pseudomonas spp, Flavobacterium spp, and Achromobacter spp, while fungal isolates include Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus stolonifer. No organism was isolated from the dumpsites at soil depth of 0-15 cm, while there were isolates from other soil depths. Toxicity might be due to alkaline condition of the dumpsite. Calcium carbide might be bactericidal and fungicidal leading to cellular physiology, growth retardation, death, general loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem processes. Detoxification of calcium carbide waste before disposal on soil might be the best option in management.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Toxicity, Denitrification, calcium-carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
55 Development of a Human Skin Explant Model for Drug Metabolism and Toxicity Studies

Authors: K. K. Balavenkatraman, B. Bertschi, K. Bigot, A. Grevot, A. Doelemeyer, S. D. Chibout, A. Wolf, F. Pognan, N. Manevski, O. Kretz, P. Swart, K. Litherland, J. Ashton-Chess, B. Ling, R. Wettstein, D. J. Schaefer

Abstract:

Skin toxicity is poorly detected during preclinical studies, and drug-induced side effects in humans such as rashes, hyperplasia or more serious events like bullous pemphigus or toxic epidermal necrolysis represent an important hurdle for clinical development. In vitro keratinocyte-based epidermal skin models are suitable for the detection of chemical-induced irritancy, but do not recapitulate the biological complexity of full skin and fail to detect potential serious side-effects. Normal healthy skin explants may represent a valuable complementary tool, having the advantage of retaining the full skin architecture and the resident immune cell diversity. This study investigated several conditions for the maintenance of good morphological structure after several days of culture and the retention of phase II metabolism for 24 hours in skin explants in vitro. Human skin samples were collected with informed consent from patients undergoing plastic surgery and immediately transferred and processed in our laboratory by removing the underlying dermal fat. Punch biopsies of 4 mm diameter were cultured in an air-liquid interface using transwell filters. Different cultural conditions such as the effect of calcium, temperature and cultivation media were tested for a period of 14 days and explants were histologically examined after Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Our results demonstrated that the use of Williams E Medium at 32°C maintained the physiological integrity of the skin for approximately one week. Upon prolonged incubation, the upper layers of the epidermis become thickened and some dead cells are present. Interestingly, these effects were prevented by addition of EGFR inhibitors such as Afatinib or Erlotinib. Phase II metabolism of the skin such as glucuronidation (4-methyl umbeliferone), sulfation (minoxidil), N-acetyltransferase (p-toluidene), catechol methylation (2,3-dehydroxy naphthalene), and glutathione conjugation (chlorodinitro benzene) were analyzed by using LCMS. Our results demonstrated that the human skin explants possess metabolic activity for a period of at least 24 hours for all the substrates tested. A time course for glucuronidation with 4-methyl umbeliferone was performed and a linear correlation was obtained over a period of 24 hours. Longer-term culture studies will indicate the possible evolution of such metabolic activities. In summary, these results demonstrate that human skin explants maintain a normal structure for several days in vitro and are metabolically active for at least the first 24 hours. Hence, with further characterisation, this model may be suitable for the study of drug-induced toxicity.

Keywords: Toxicity, human skin explant, phase II metabolism, epidermal growth factor receptor

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
54 Forced Swim Stress Does Not Induce Structural Chromosomal Aberrations in Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

Abstract:

Anything that poses a challenge or a threat to our well-being is a stress. Understanding the genetic material and cellular response of rats threatened with Repeated swimming stress provides insights that can influence human health. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetical damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattus rattus) to forced swimming stress. For this purpose, animals have been submerged in water path 15 minutes daily for 2 weeks. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a slightly but not significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated as well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells.

Keywords: Toxicity, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations, submergence stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
53 Effects of Exhaust Gas Emitted by the Fleet on Public Health in the Region of Annaba (Algeria): Ecotoxicological Test on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

Authors: Aouissi Nora, Meksem Leila

Abstract:

This work focused on the study of air pollution generated by the transport sector in the region of Annaba. Our study is based on two parts: the first one concerns an epidemiological investigation in the area of Annaba situated in the east Algerian coast, which deals with the development of the fleet and its impact on public health. To get a more precise idea of the impact of road traffic on public health, we consulted the computing center office of the National Social Insurance Fund. The information we were given by this office refers to the number of reported asthma and heart disease after medical examination during the period 2006-2010. The second part was devoted to the study of the toxicity of exhaust gases on some physical and biochemical parameters of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). After germination and three-leaf stage, the pots are placed in a box of volume (0,096 m3) having an input which is linked directly to the exhaust pipe of a truck, and an outlet to prevent asphyxiation plant. The experience deals with 30 pots: 10 pots are exposed for 5 minutes to exhaust smoke; the other 10 are exposed for 15 minutes, and the remaining 10 for 30 minutes. The epidemiological study shows that the levels of pollutants emitted by the fleet are responsible for the increase of people respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. As for biochemical analyses of vegetation, they clearly show the toxicity of pollutants emitted by the exhaust gases, with an increase in total protein, proline and stimulation of detoxification enzyme (catalase).

Keywords: Biochemistry, Air Pollution, Epidemiology, Toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
52 The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds

Authors: Halil Barış Özel, Handan Ucun Özel

Abstract:

The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.

Keywords: Toxicity, Copper, cadmium, oriental beech

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
51 Layersomes for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: A. C. Rana, Abhinav Singh Rana

Abstract:

Layer by layer coating of biocompatible polyelectrolytes converts the liposomes into stable version i.e 'layersomes'. This system was further used to deliver the Amphotericin B through the oral route. Extensive optimization of different process variables resulted in the formation of layersomes with the particle size of 238.4±5.1, PDI of 0.24±0.16, the zeta potential of 34.6±1.3, and entrapment efficiency of 71.3±1.2. TEM analysis further confirmed the formation of spherical particles. Trehalose (10% w/w) resulted in the formation of fluffy and easy to redisperse cake in freeze dried layersomes. Controlled release up to 50 % within 24 h was observed in the case of layersomes. The layersomes were found stable in simulated biological fluids and resulted in the 3.59 fold higher bioavailability in comparison to free Amp-B. Furthermore, the developed formulation was found to be safe in comparison to Fungizone as indicated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine level.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liposomes, amphotericin B, layersomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
50 Toxicity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and. For this, a new control method appeared it comes to the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on part of the cuticule the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae var acridium biocontrol agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment in the digestive tract and it administrant 20μl of entomopathogenic solution orally at a dose DL50 = 3.25 x107 sp./ ml (median lethal dose estimated at earlier), 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. After dissection cuticles are recovered and then subjected to histological sections. The histological technique followed is that of Martoja Martoja-Pierson (1967). Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticule which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: Toxicity, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
49 Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside Isolated from Combretum molle R.

Authors: Abdu Zakari, Sai’d Jibril, Adoum A. Omar

Abstract:

The leaves of Combretum molle was selected on the basis of its uses in folk medicine as insecticides. The leave extracts of Combretum molle was tested against the larvae of Artemia salina, i.e. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Filaria disease vector) i.e. Larvicidal Test, using crude ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. The methanolic extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses both in the BST and the Larvicidal activity test. The LC50¬ values obtained are 24.85 µg/ml and 0.4µg/ml respectively. The bioactivity-guided column chromatography afforded the pure compound ACM–3. ACM-3 was not active in the BST with LC50 value >1000µg/ml, but was active in the Larvicidal activity test with LC50 value 4.0µg/ml. ACM-3 was proposed to have the structure I, (Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside).

Keywords: Toxicity, larvicidal, Combretum molle, Artemia salina, Culex quinquefasciatus Say

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
48 Effect of Arsenic Treatment on Element Contents of Sunflower, Growing in Nutrient Solution

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay

Abstract:

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic. Consequences of arsenic toxicity in the plant organism is decreases the weight of the roots, and causes discoloration and necrosis of leaves. The toxicity of arsenic depends on the quality and quantity of the arsenic specialization. The arsenic in the soil and in the plant presents as a most hazardous specialization. A dicotyledon plant were chosen for the experiment, namely sunflower. The sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution in different As(III) levels. The content of As, P, Fe were measured from experimental plants, using by ICP-MS.Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of As(V) and As(III) in the nutrition solution and the content of P in the sunflower tissue. The amount of Fe was decreasing if we used a higher concentration of arsenic (30 mg kg-1). We can tell the conclusion that the arsenic had a negative effect on the sunflower tissue P and Fe content.

Keywords: Toxicity, Arsenic, Sunflower, ICP-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
47 Chronic Exposure of Mercury on Amino Acid Level in Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

Authors: Mary Josephine Rani

Abstract:

Virtually all metals are toxic to aquatic organisms because of the devastating effect of these metals on humans; heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of aquatic pollution. Metal concentrations in aquatic organisms appear to be of several magnitudes higher than concentrations present in the ecosystem. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The principal sources of contamination in wastewater are chloralkali plants, battery factories, mercury switches, and medical wastes. Elevated levels of mercury in aquatic organisms specially fish represent both an ecological and human concern. Amino acid levels were estimated in five tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of Clariasbatrachus after 28 days of chronic exposure to mercury. Free amino acids serve as precursor for energy production under stress and for the synthesis of required proteins to face the metal challenge.

Keywords: Toxicity, Fish, Amino Acids, Mercury

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
46 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic

Abstract:

Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: Toxicity, doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
45 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley

Abstract:

The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, Toxicity, Nanotoxicology, cell death

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
44 Carbendazim Toxicity and Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E in African Giant Rats

Authors: A. O. Omonona, T. A. Jarikre

Abstract:

Increase specialization in agriculture and use of pesticides may inadvertently cause ecosystem degradation and eventually loss of biodiversity. The populations of numerous wildlife species have undergone a precipitous decline. Many of these problems have been attributed directly to habitat loss and over exploitation resulting from unregulated pesticide uses. Carbendazim a broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl, is used to control plant disease in cereals and fruit. The effect of carbendazim exposure and the ameliorative effect of tocopherol (vitamin E) were assessed on African giant rat AGR. Hematological, biochemical and histological changes were used to determine the health condition of the animals exposed to pesticide. Sixteen AGR were stabilized, weighed and then divided into four experimental groups (A to D). Two groups were pretreated with vitamin. Group A was exposed to carbendazim only, B- carbendazim + vitamin, C- vitamin only, and D- blank (control). Packed cell volume PCV was estimated by the microhematocrit method, Leucocyte and Platelet counts were determined using the hemocytometric method. Cholinesterase (AchE) and markers of oxidative stress were quantified, and tissue changes examined microscopically. There were no behavioral changes observed in the animals, but there was a decrease in body weight and abortion after 23 days of exposure to carbendazim. There was significant differences in the packed cell volume, the hemoglobin concentration and the red blood cell counts (p < 0.05). The increases in malonyl aldehyde MDA was significant (p < 0.05) in the pesticide intoxicated rats compared to control. Vitamin E supplementation reduced MDA level significantly (p < 0.05). There was a sharp remarkable decrease in acetylcholinesterase levels in the pesticide intoxicated rats (p < 0.05). Vitamin E supplementation normalise the AchE levels comparable to that in control. Grossly, the vital organs appeared normal in the pesticide exposed and control groups except moderate pulmonary congestion. Microscopically, there was severe diffuse hepatocellular swelling in carbendazim exposed group. The severity of hepatocellular injury was reduced in the rats with vitamin E. This study ascertained the toxic effect of carbendazim and antioxidative properties of vitamins in the Africa giant rat.

Keywords: Toxicity, Pesticides, antioxidant, carbendazim, African giant rat

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
43 Protective Effect of Celosia Argentea Leaf Extract on Cadmium Induced Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Sulyman Abdulhakeem Olarewaju, S. O. Malomo, M. T. Yakubu, J. O. Akolade

Abstract:

The ameliorative effect of Celosia argentea var. cristata leaf extract against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in selected tissues of rats was investigated. Toxicity coupled with oxidative stress was induced in rats by oral administration of Cd (8 mg/kg b. wt). Preliminary quantitative phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant analyses showed that the methanolic extract of C. argentea leaves was constituted by polyphenols (5.72%), saponins (3.20%), tannins (0.65%) and cadenolides (0.006%). IC50 of 9800, 7406, and 45.04 μg/ml were recorded for inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals respectively. Simultaneous administration of C. argentea leaf extract with Cd significantly attenuated Cd-induced elevation of serum enzyme markers such as aspartate and alanine transaminase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as γ-glutaryltransferase in a dose-dependent fashion, while their reduced level in the liver were significantly increased. Higher levels of enzymatic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were observed in the liver, brain, kidney and testes of the Cd-induced rats treated with C. argentea extract, while lipid peroxidation expressed in malondialdehyde concentrations were lower when compared to values in rats administered Cd only. Other Cd-induced toxicity and stress markers in the serum viz. reduced uric acid and albumin levels as well as elevated total and unconjugated bilirubin were attenuated by the extract and their values compared favorably with those animals co-administered cadmium with ascorbic acid. Data from the study showed that oral administration of extract from the leaf C. argentea may ameliorate Cd-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, cadmium, celosia

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
42 The Evaluation of the Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)

Authors: Djebar Mohammed Reda, Meksem Nabila, Meksem Amara Leila, Ferfar Meriem

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants.In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalse, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: Toxicity, triticum durum, sulfonylurea, oxydative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
41 The Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf)

Authors: M. R. Djebar, L. Meksem Amara, M. Ferfar, N. Meksem

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants. In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalase, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: Toxicity, triticum durum, sulfonylurea, oxydative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
40 Lethal and Sublethal Effect of Azadirachtin on the Development of an Insect Model: Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera)

Authors: Bendjazia Radia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi

Abstract:

Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. It is one of the most biologically active natural inhibitors of insect growth and development and it is known to be an antagonist of the juvenile hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, its mechanism of action remains still unknown. In the present study, the toxicity of a commercial formulation of Azadirachtin (Neem Azal, 1% azadirachtine) was evaluated by topical application at various doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 µg/insect) on the third instars larvae of D. melanogaster. Lethal doses (LD25: 0.28µg and LD50: 0.67µg), were evaluated by cumulated mortality at the immature stages. The effects of azadirachtin (LD25 and LD50) were then evaluated on the development (duration of the larval and pupal instars, the weight of larvae, pupa and adults) of Drosophila melanogaster. Results showed that the insecticide increased significantly the larval and pupal instar duration. A reduction of larval and pupal weight is noted under azadirachtin treatment as compared to controls. In addition, the weight of surviving adults at the two tested dose was also reduced. In conclusion, azadirachtin seemed to interfere with the functions of the endocrine system resulting in development defects.

Keywords: Development, Toxicity, azadirachtin, d.melanogaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
39 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

Abstract:

Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: Toxicity, sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
38 Histopathological Changes in Liver and Muscle of Tilapia Fish from QIRE Exposed to Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong

Abstract:

Toxicity of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) to Tilapia guinensis was carried out for 4 days with a view to determining their effects on the liver and muscle tissues. Tilapia guinensis samples of about 10 - 14cm length and 0.2 – 0.4kg weight each were obtained from University of Calabar fish ponds and acclimated for three (3) days before the experimental set up. Survivors after the 96-hr LC50 test period were selected from test solutions of the heavy metals for the histopathological studies. Histological preparations of liver and muscle tissues were randomly examined for histopathological lesions. Results of the histological examinations showed gross abnormalities in the liver tissues due to pathological and degenerative changes compared to liver and muscle tissues from control samples (tilapia fishes from aquaria without heavy metals). Extensive hepatocyte necrosis with chronic inflammatory changes was observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Cu solution. Similar but less damaging effects were observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Pb and Fe. The extent of lesion observed was therefore heavy metal-related. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the muscle tissues.

Keywords: Toxicity, Histopathology, heavy metal, degenerative changes, hepatocyte necrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
37 On-Farm Biopurification Systems: Fungal Bioaugmentation of Biomixtures For Carbofuran Removal

Authors: Carlos E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Karla Ruiz-Hidalgo, Kattia Madrigal-Zúñiga, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Mario Masís-Mora, Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas

Abstract:

One of the main causes of contamination linked to agricultural activities is the spillage and disposal of pesticides, especially during the loading, mixing or cleaning of agricultural spraying equipment. One improvement in the handling of pesticides is the use of biopurification systems (BPS), simple and cheap degradation devices where the pesticides are biologically degraded at accelerated rates. The biologically active core of BPS is the biomixture, which is constituted by soil pre-exposed to the target pesticide, a lignocellulosic substrate to promote the activity of ligninolitic fungi and a humic component (peat or compost), mixed at a volumetric proportion of 50:25:25. Considering the known ability of lignocellulosic fungi to degrade a wide range of organic pollutants, and the high amount of lignocellulosic waste used in biomixture preparation, the bioaugmentation of biomixtures with these fungi represents an interesting approach for improving biomixtures. The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of the bioaugmentation of rice husk based biomixtures with the fungus Trametes versicolor in the removal of the insectice/nematicide carbofuran (CFN) and to optimize the composition of the biomixture to obtain the best performance in terms of CFN removal and mineralization, reduction in formation of transformation products and decrease in residual toxicity of the matrix. The evaluation of several lignocellulosic residues (rice husk, wood chips, coconut fiber, sugarcane bagasse or newspaper print) revealed the best colonization by T. versicolor in rice husk. Pre-colonized rice husk was then used in the bioaugmentation of biomixtures also containing soil pre-exposed to CFN and either peat (GTS biomixture) or compost (GCS biomixture). After spiking with 10 mg/kg CBF, the efficiency of the biomixture was evaluated through a multi-component approach that included: monitoring of CBF removal and production of CBF transformation products, mineralization of radioisotopically labeled carbofuran (14C-CBF) and changes in the toxicity of the matrix after the treatment (Daphnia magna acute immobilization test). Estimated half-lives of CBF in the biomixtures were 3.4 d and 8.1 d in GTS and GCS, respectively. The transformation products 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran were detected at the moment of CFN application, however their concentration continuously disappeared. Mineralization of 14C-CFN was also faster in GTS than GCS. The toxicological evaluation showed a complete toxicity removal in the biomixtures after 48 d of treatment. The composition of the GCS biomixture was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The design variables were the volumetric content of fungally pre-colonized rice husk and the volumetric ratio compost/soil. According to the response models, maximization of CFN removal and mineralization rate, and minimization in the accumulation of transformation products were obtained with an optimized biomixture of composition 30:43:27 (pre-colonized rice husk:compost:soil), which differs from the 50:25:25 composition commonly employed in BPS. Results suggest that fungal bioaugmentation may enhance the performance of biomixtures in CFN removal. Optimization reveals the importance of assessing new biomixture formulations in order to maximize their performance.

Keywords: Toxicity, Pesticides, Fungi, Bioaugmentation, degradation, biopurification systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
36 Toxicity of Cymbopogon proximus (Maharaib) Oil Extract to Newzealand Rabbits

Authors: A. B. Amna, M. A. E. Samia, A. K. Hassan

Abstract:

The clinical, pathological, hematological and biological changes in Newzealand rabbits groups given daily oral doses of 0.1,0.25 and 0.5 ml/kg body weight/day of Cpmbopogon proximus oil extract were investigated in an experiment durated for 21 days. Other than the dose co-related mortality rates, the clinical signs were observed daily after dosing to be low appetite and nervous signs including restlessness and increased consciousness. Pulmonary excretion of the oil extract led to bloody spots on the lungs, lymphocyte infiltration, congestion and edema. Renal glumeruli manifested lymphocyte infiltration in addition to shrinkages and easinophilic material in the medulla, if considered with the corticomedullary generalized necrosis and the significant changes in urea, they can explain the renal dysfunction. Hepatic malfunction was manifested by significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transferases accompanied by the congested, fatty changed livers. The direct physical effect of the extracted oil was detected by the catarrhal inflammation of the intestines.There was no significant haematological change except for the slight changes in RBCs and MCVs in rabbits given the highest dose. Future work for Cpmbopogon proximus oil extract was forwarded and practical implications of the result were highlighted.

Keywords: Toxicity, cymbopogon proximus (maharaib), oil extract, Newzealand rabbits

Procedia PDF Downloads 318