Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Tourism Related Abstracts

116 Lisbon Experience, Mobility, Quality of Life and Tourist Image: A Survey

Authors: Luca Zarrilli, Miguel Brito, Marianna Cappucci

Abstract:

Tourists recently awarded Lisbon as the best city break destination in Europe. This article analyses the various types of tourist experiences in the city of Lisbon. The research method is the questionnaire, aimed at investigating the choices of tourists in the area of mobility, their perception of the quality of life and their level of appreciation of neighbourhoods, landmarks and infrastructures. There is an obvious link between the quality of life and the quality of the tourist experience, but it is difficult to measure it. Through this questionnaire, we hope to have made a small contribution to the understanding of the perceptive sphere of the individual and his choices in terms of behaviour, which is an essential element of any strategy for tourism marketing.

Keywords: Mobility, Perception, Tourism, hospitality, Quality of Life, Lisbon

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115 Exploitation of Technology by the Tshwane Residence for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, P. Tladi, J. Maimela

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This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information to the Tshwane interested parties for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with ICT and because of that, SA is on the map as one the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: Tourism, Information and Communication Technology, Tshwane residents, technology for tourism

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114 The Business of American Football: The Kicker Position and Performance to Salary Correlation

Authors: James R. Ogden, Denise T. Ogden

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The National Football League (USA) is the largest sporting business in the United States. In order to generate revenue, it is important that NFL teams win. Coaches, owners and general managers of the NFL teams want to create powerful teams with reliable players and they are willing to spend large amounts of money in order to do so. This research looks at one of the National Football League’s key players, the kicker. It would be intuitively obvious to suggest that those kickers who perform the best get paid the most. In this paper the researchers performed a correlation and regression analysis to determine if there is a correlation between an NFL kicker’s field goal percentage and salary. The research proposition was that higher performing kickers receive higher salaries. The data suggest that there is no correlation between salary and on-field performance.

Keywords: Business Management, Tourism, Sports Marketing, American football

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113 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

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The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: Marketing, Internet, Tourism, Tourism Management

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112 Corporate Socially Responsible and Financial Performance in the Tourism-Related Industries

Authors: Yu Shan Wang

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Different from other industries, the structure of the tourism industry depends to a large degree the environmental and cultural resources. The industry has to undertake social responsibilities for its commercial behaviour. This paper refers to the seven dimensions of the KLD STATS in 1991-2011 as the indicator to CSR practices. The purpose is to investigate what CSR activities create significant impacts on accounting-based financials and firm values by delving into different CSR dimensions. Meanwhile, this paper takes into consideration S&P 500 and control variables (firm sizes and financial leverage). In fact, the commercial behavior of the tourism-related industry may result in negative impacts on the economy and the society. Therefore, this paper classifies a positive set of CSR elements and a negative set of CSR elements for the tourism-related industry in order to examine their respective effects on short-term profitability and long-term firm values. This can shed light on which CSR dimensions exhibit significant impacts on CFP better than holistic CSR indicators, and hence provide more useful information to investors and corporates. This paper uses quantile regressions to avoid the impact of outliers in the data set. This helps to offer specific information so that companies can make informed decisions.

Keywords: Tourism, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, firm value, corporate financial performance, CFP

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111 The Relevant Study of Leisure Motivation, Leisure Attitude and Health Promotion Lifestyle of Elderly People in Taiwan

Authors: Chiung-En Huang, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Ming-Tsang Wu

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure attitude, and health promotion lifestyle. The participants were recruited from a convenience sampling that subjects were at least 55 years of age in Tainan City, Taiwan. Three hundred survey instruments were distributed, and 227 effective instruments were returned, for an effective rate of 75.7%. The collected data were analyzed statistically. The findings of this research were as follows: 1.There is significantly correlated between leisure motivation and leisure attitude. 2. There is significantly correlated between leisure attitude and health promotion lifestyle. 3. There is significantly correlated between leisure motivation and health promotion lifestyle.

Keywords: Tourism, leisure motivation, leisure attitude, health promotion lifestyle

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110 A Sociocybernetics Data Analysis Using Causality in Tourism Networks

Authors: M. Lloret-Climent, J. Nescolarde-Selva

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The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model to determine invariant sets, set covering, orbits and, in particular, attractors in the set of tourism variables. Analysis was carried out based on a pre-designed algorithm and applying our interpretation of chaos theory developed in the context of General Systems Theory. This article sets out the causal relationships associated with tourist flows in order to enable the formulation of appropriate strategies. Our results can be applied to numerous cases. For example, in the analysis of tourist flows, these findings can be used to determine whether the behaviour of certain groups affects that of other groups and to analyse tourist behaviour in terms of the most relevant variables. Unlike statistical analyses that merely provide information on current data, our method uses orbit analysis to forecast, if attractors are found, the behaviour of tourist variables in the immediate future.

Keywords: Tourism, Social Responsibility, attractor, invariant set, tourist flows, orbits, tourist variables

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109 Synopsis of Izmir Regional Plan and Interpretations about Tourism in Izmir

Authors: Yakin Ekin, Onur Akbulut

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This study aims not only to create a summarized background for the effective and efficient use of the potential of Izmir by providing the strategic planning works and institutional and sectoral strategy documents with different purposes realized by all relevant institutions and organizations in Izmir and Aegean Region to steer towards the same priorities and aims, but also focuses on a criticism and comparison viewpoint about tourism sector in Izmir.

Keywords: Tourism, regional plan, Izmir, sectoral strategy

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108 The Use of Scuba Diving Tourism for Marine Protected Area Management

Authors: L. Mota, O. Frausto

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Marine Protected Areas can benefit from nature based tourism, monitoring environmental impacts and also become target for human presence. From more than 3 million tourists visiting Cozumel Island every year, an average of 2,8 million arrive by cruise ship, and 41% are estimated to have motivation for water activities. The destination is relying so much on the tourism activity, that scuba diving and snorkeling in the National Park Reef of Cozumel sustain the major economic activity. In order to achieve the sustainable development indicator designed for regional environmental development, the PNAC offers a training course for tourism providers acceding the protected area. This way, the update of the last 5 years of such training is directed to diving staff, boat crew and professionals, making them able to assist in managing the natural resource. Moreover, the case study is an example to be used for raising awareness among tourists visiting protected areas.

Keywords: Education, Tourism, Sustainability, marine protected area, scuba diving

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107 An Investigation of Customer Relationship Management of Tourism

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

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This research paper aimed to developing a causal relationship model of success factors of customer relationship management of tourism in Thailand and to investigating relationships among the potential factors that facilitate the success of customer relationship management (CRM). The research was conducted in both quantitative and qualitative methods, by utilizing both questionnaire and in-depth interview. The questionnaire was used in collecting the data from 250 management staff in the hotels located within Bangkok area. Sampling techniques used in this research included cluster sampling according to the service quality and simple random sampling. The data input was analyzed by use of descriptive analysis and System Equation Model (SEM). The research findings demonstrated important factors accentuated by most respondents towards the success of CRM, which were organization, people, information technology and the process of CRM. Moreover, the customer relationship management of tourism business in Thailand was found to be successful at a very significant level. The hypothesis testing showed that the hypothesis was accepted, as the factors concerning with organization, people and information technology played an influence on the process and the success of customer relationship management, whereas the process of customer relationship management factor manipulated its success. The findings suggested that tourism business in Thailand with the implementation of customer relationship management should opt in improvement approach in terms of managerial structure, corporate culture building with customer- centralized approach accentuated, and investment of information technology and customer analysis, in order to capacitate higher efficiency of customer relationship management process that would result in customer satisfaction and retention of service.

Keywords: Tourism, Customer Relationship Management, Thailand, casual relationship model

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106 Role of Tourism in Increasing of Price of Land and Housing in Iran: Case Study of Shahmirzad City

Authors: Hamidreza Joodaki, Sara Farzaneh, Jaleh Afshar Qhazvin

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Tourism industry is considered as the greatest and most various industry in the world. Most of these countries know this dynamic industry as main source of income, occupation, growth of private sector and development of infrastructure. One of the old methods of investment in countries such as Iran have transitional economy, is buying land and house, sometimes is resulted to high profit and of course for this reason hustler's are very interested in this background. Nowadays buying and selling land in the areas with pleasant climate in our country is considered. Since, Shahmirzad is a city with fair and desired environmental attractions is located in the border of deserted cities, mainly has special climatic position and these conditions are resulted to attraction of passenger, tourist for passing their leisure hours from Semnan and other cities of the area and from other provinces in hot seasons and with regard to these suitable conditions in the city buying land and housing also have been considered by most of residents of Semnan and cities around Shahmirzad by now. The aim of present research is investigation the role of tourism in increasing price of land and housing in Shahmirzad city. By studying on price of land and housing especially in central area, that gardens of the city are located in this area, we have concluded that role of tourism have caused in price of land and housing specially these prices in central and old areas are more expensive than towns around the city.

Keywords: Tourism, climate conditions, price of land and housing, Shahmirzad

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105 Community Participation for Sustainable Development Tourism in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Bua Srikos

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The purpose is to study the model and characteristic of participation of the suitable community to lead to develop permanent water marketing in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province. A total of 342 survey questionnaires were administered to potential respondents. The researchers interviewed the leader of the community. Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) was used to talk with 20 villagers on arena. The findings revealed that overall, most people had the middle level of the participation in developing the durable Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti, Samutsongkhram Province and in aspects of gaining benefits from developing it with atmosphere and a beautiful view for tourism. For example, the landscape is beautiful with public utilities. The participation in preserving and developing Bang Noi Floating Market remains in the former way of life. The basic factor of person affects to the participation of people such as age, level of education, career, and income per month. Most participants are the original hosts that have houses and shops located in the marketing and neighbor. These people involve with the benefits and have the power to make a water marketing strategy, the major role to set the information database. It also found that the leader and the villagers play the important role in setting a five-physical database. Data include level of information such as position of village, territory of village, road, river, and premises. Information of culture consists of a two-level of information, interesting point, and Itinerary. The information occurs from presenting and practicing by the leader and villagers in the community.All of phases are presented for listening and investigating database together in both the leader and villagers in the process of participation.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Tourism, Community, Participation, encouragement

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104 An Investigation of Project-Based Learning: A Case Study of Tourism Students

Authors: Benjaporn Yaemjamuang

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The purposes of this study were to investigate the success of project-based learning and to evaluate the performance and level of satisfaction of tourism students who participated in the study. This paper drew upon a data collection from a senior tourism students survey conducted in Rajamangala University during summer 2013. The purposive sampling was utilized to obtain the sample which included 45 tourism students. The pretest and posttest method was utilized. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had gained higher knowledge after the posttest significantly. The respondents’ knowledge increased about 53.33 percent from pretest to posttest. Also, the findings revealed the top three highest level of satisfaction as follows: 1) the role of teacher and students, 2) the research activities of the project-based learning, 3) the learning methods of the project-based learning. Moreover, the mean score of all categories was 3.98 with a standard deviation of 0.88 which indicated that the average level of satisfaction was high.

Keywords: Tourism, Performance, Project-Based Learning, satisfaction

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103 “Moves” for Guiding Presentations in French

Authors: Suwaree Yordchim, Nuchanat Handumrongkul, Anantachai Aeka

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Despite four years of study in the tourism industry, the Bachelor’s graduates cannot perform their jobs as experienced tour guides. This research aimed to develop French teaching and studying for Tourism with two main purposes: to analyze ‘Moves’ used in oral presentations at tourist attractions; and to study content in guiding presentations or 'Guide Speak'. The study employed audio recording of these presentations as an interview method in authentic situations, having four tour guides as respondents and information providers. The data was analyzed via moves and content analysis. The results found that there were eight moves used; namely: welcoming, introducing oneself, drawing someone’s attention, giving information, explaining, highlighting, persuading, and saying goodbye. In terms of content, the information being presented covered the outstanding characteristics of the places and well-integrated with other related content. The findings were used as guidelines for curriculum development; in particular, the core content and the presentation forming the basis for students to meet the standard requirements of the labor-market and professional schemes.

Keywords: Tourism, French, moves, guiding presentation

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102 ICT Applications and Gender Participation on the Sustainability of Tourism and Hospitality Industry

Authors: Ayanfulu Yekini

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The hotel and tourism industry remains male-dominated, particularly in the upper echelons of management and ICT remained underutilized. While there is a massive revolution in this trend across the globe, it appears much progress has not been made in our nation Nigeria. This paper aimed at evaluating the relevance of ICT and Gender Participation to Sustainability of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Nigeria. The research study was conducted in tourism organizations, travel agents, hotels, restaurants, resorts, professionals in tourism, travel and hospitality industry within Nigeria. The respondents are from the tourism/hospitality industries employees and entrepreneurs only.

Keywords: Tourism, Hotel, ICT, Nigeria, gender participation

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101 Slovenia in the Heart of Europe

Authors: M. Žibert, T. Špindler, S. Uhan, A. Lisec

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We can find Slovenia in the heart of Europe and has really good geographical location. With same slogan are promoted Switzerland, Montenegro, Greece and probably many others. However, from anatomic point of view, injustice is being made to someone because the heart is placed only in left part of chest cavity and there we can`t find place for the entire territory from Switzerland to the south of Balkan.

Keywords: Logistics, Tourism, Slovenia, Ljubljana

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100 Integrating ICT- Based Applications for Sustainable Tourism Development in Algeria

Authors: Boutkhil Guemide, Chellali Benachaiba

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an inevitable impact on different industries and their performances. The tourism industry as the largest and fastest growing industry in the world cannot be excluded from this technology and its huge impacts. ICT provides information about tourist attractions in the different destinations before travelling and may improve tourists’ satisfaction. Although Algeria has great tourism potentials, it still needs to be performed well in promoting its attractions to international tourists via ICT tools yet. This research explores the impact of ICT on foreign tourists’ satisfaction of the tourism industry and uses Algerian tourist agencies as a case study, and proposes a model for the impact of ICT on sustainable tourism. Finally, it is concluded that e-ticketing, e-reservation, online payment, multilingual and updated information websites are essential needs for planning strategies in the field of e-tourism. Also, it is recommended that the tourism authorities should develop e-tourism infrastructures in order to keep up with the competitiveness of this field to enable the country to benefit from the global benefits of the tourism industry.

Keywords: Tourism, Sustainable Tourism, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), tourists’ satisfaction

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99 Living outside the fence: Opportunities for Neighbouring Communities to Supply Products and Services to the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

Authors: Andrew Rylance, Anna Spenceley

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An evaluation was undertaken to understand opportunities for stimulating local enterprise development within the tourism supply chain, linked to a private game reserve in South Africa, the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which neighbors the Kruger National Park. The study focused on understanding the market demand for local products and services from commercial lodges, and the current local supply from enterprises and entrepreneurs in local communities. This article quantifies the value of current procurement spend by lodges on local products and services and estimates their potential future expenditure. The study matches these responses with the availability of products and services in the neighboring communities. It also provides insights into relationships between private lodges, game reserves and local communities in South Africa. It concurs with previous research on tourism supply chains in rural South Africa, and also makes recommendations for the development of local businesses with higher technical capacity development.

Keywords: Business Development, Tourism, Communities, South Africa, Sabi Sand Game Reserve, market study, supply study

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98 A Periodogram-Based Spectral Method Approach: The Relationship between Tourism and Economic Growth in Turkey

Authors: Mesut BALIBEY, Serpil TÜRKYILMAZ

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A popular topic in the econometrics and time series area is the cointegrating relationships among the components of a nonstationary time series. Engle and Granger’s least squares method and Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method are the most widely-used methods to determine the relationships among variables. Furthermore, a method proposed to test a unit root based on the periodogram ordinates has certain advantages over conventional tests. Periodograms can be calculated without any model specification and the exact distribution under the assumption of a unit root is obtained. For higher order processes the distribution remains the same asymptotically. In this study, in order to indicate advantages over conventional test of periodograms, we are going to examine a possible relationship between tourism and economic growth during the period 1999:01-2010:12 for Turkey by using periodogram method, Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method, Engle and Granger’s ordinary least square method.

Keywords: Tourism, Economic growth, cointegration, periodogram ordinate

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97 Identification Social Impact of Tourism for Society in Batu, East Java, Indonesia Which Is Included the Transition of Their Main Job Caused by Tourism Development

Authors: Muhammad Denny Abdillah, Mochammad Rasyid Poedjijanto

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Batu, East Java, Indonesia is located in highland about 680-1,200 meters above ocean surface and has temperature 15-19 degree Celsius. With this condition, so the main profession of people around is a farmer. But, along with era’s developing, now Batu is started to improve their development in tourism sector and show up them as an icon of tourism in Indonesia. Such as: playground, museum, and paralayang’s summit. That is made Batu in nowadays well known as the one of recommended city to visit. The change of the development from farming sector to tourism sector make people around prefer doing job in trade than engage in farming. That’s make authors want to observe about this social phenomenon which is happening in Batu, whereas from the beginning the primary profession is a farmer, now changed to be a trader around the tourism place.

Keywords: Development, Tourism, profession, Batu

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96 An Interactive Platform Displaying Mixed Reality Media

Authors: Alfred Chen, Cheng Chieh Hsu, Yu-Pin Ma, Meng-Jie Lin, Fu Pai Chiu, Yi-Yan Sie

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This study is attempted to construct a human-computer interactive platform system that has mainly consisted of an augmented hardware system, a software system, a display table, and mixed media. This system has provided with human-computer interaction services through an interactive platform for the tourism industry. A well designed interactive platform, integrating of augmented reality and mixed media, has potential to enhance museum display quality and diversity. Besides, it will create a comprehensive and creative display mode for most museums and historical heritages. Therefore, it is essential to let public understand what the platform is, how it functions, and most importantly how one builds an interactive augmented platform. Hence the authors try to elaborate the construction process of the platform in detail. Thus, there are three issues to be considered, i.e.1) the theory and application of augmented reality, 2) the hardware and software applied, and 3) the mixed media presented. In order to describe how the platform works, Courtesy Door of Tainan Confucius Temple has been selected as case study in this study. As a result, a developed interactive platform has been presented by showing the physical entity object, along with virtual mixing media such as text, images, animation, and video. This platform will result in providing diversified and effective information that will be delivered to the users.

Keywords: Tourism, Human-Computer Interaction, Mixed Reality, mixed media

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95 The Research of Culture Heritage Tourism Loyalty in Taiwan

Authors: Chih-Wen Wu

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This study examines the antecedents of heritage tourism loyalty and its relation to destination image, consumer travel experience, and destination satisfaction in the tourism context. In this respect, a number of important questions concerning how destination image, consumer travel experience, and destination satisfaction impact destination loyalty are raised. This study attempts to identify three key antecedents of loyalty in the heritage context. The author empirically tests predicted relationships by using personal interview data from 475 foreign tourists. The conceptual model investigated the relevant relationships among the constructs by using confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Findings from the research sample support the argument that destination image, consumer travel experience, destination satisfaction are the key determinants of destination loyalty. Destination image and consumer travel experience influence destination satisfaction. The author also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of research findings for marketing the heritage globally.

Keywords: Tourism, heritage, Destination Image, destination loyalty, consumer travel experience, destination satisfaction

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94 Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta Indonesia as a Potential Destination for Education Tourism

Authors: Henry Prihanto Nugroho

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This paper suggests education tourism as an option into developing more sustainable mass tourism. Identifying the potential of education tourism and developing a sustainable packages will have an impact on social economic development in the area. Indonesia especially Yogyakarta can increase their tourism earnings by tapping into this growing market phenomenon. Educational tourism, a growing part in the world tourism market, has attracted great attention because of its direct impact on the community and as an alternative strategy for poverty alleviation. Tourism is considered as one of the main industries and sectors highly contributing to economic development in Indonesia especially in Yogyakarta, this region can be an ideal case for studying the issue of educational tourism in Universitas Gadjah Mada. This paper tries to introduce the educational tourism as an important alternative source of the economy accelerator in the context of Yogyakarta Indonesia. This paper also aims to discuss the education tourism potential at the University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia then to create and established an Education Tourism package at Gadjah Mada University. Education Tourism is a means to empower academics, local community, local businesses, and to improve the economic welfare. Methods: Focus group discussions, direct observation, survey and best practice method. Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between attitude, environmental impact, economic impact, and socio-cultural impacts and practice in the field when the potential is seized. The findings incorporate insights into the socio-cultural and economic potential of education tourism and practices related to community development at the University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia by creating an Education Tourism Packages that will suit the needs of the tourist. Educational tourism can create sustainable development for local communities, academic society, universities, and stakeholders.

Keywords: Sustainable, Tourism, education tourism, Gadjah Mada

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93 Exploring Tourist’s Attitude towards Environmentally Friendly Practices

Authors: René Haarhoff

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Consumers are constantly reminded of their responsibility towards the environment in a world where words such as global warming, carbon footprint, recycling or ‘green’’ everything has become common language. What was previously considered to be ordinary practices are in many instances frowned upon today and consumers are expected to individually contribute towards a greener mother earth. However unused recycle bins, single travelers in luxury cars, busy airports and vast deforested areas for new developments tell another story. The question arises whether the everyday man in the street really takes the responsibility to balance the three pillars of sustainability: the planet, its people and profit. Undeniably our activities impact on the environment where a healthy economy is needed in a fast paced global environment. The situation is further gloomed in instances where the consumer has paid for inclusive services which directly impacts on the environment. A prime example of this is the tourism industry: accommodation establishments or resorts include clean, daily washed towels and bedding, large bath tubs, inclusive use of electricity and water to name a few. This research evaluates environmentally friendly practices consumers follow at home and also when on holiday. Respondents at Bloemfontein airport, often using tourism products were included in the study. Results reveal that the majority of respondents state that they are concerned about the environment yet when questioned on donation towards endangered species, switching off lights in hotel rooms or using water sparingly a significant difference in results are evident. From the research results it is evident that consumers do not practice what they preach towards a greener environment.

Keywords: Environment, Tourism, Consumer, Green, sustainable practices

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92 Tourism and Sustainability Example Projects in the EU

Authors: Renee Yi-Mond Yuan

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The fast development of tourism industries around the world, has largely contributed to many cities, and countries economical and social progress. Past year Taiwan in particular was ranked among one of fastest raise growth country. Thanks to the prominent importance of this phenomenon; seasonal mobility or multipurpose trips have reached more than 1 Billion tourists crossing International borders and more than 4 billion intramural travelers that have nourished the economy and employment in the service sector in most attractive regions, representing about one tenth of World GDP amount, including trade, research, cultural or journalistic purposes. Then the increased activities are giving pressure to the consumption of energy, water, resources, and Greenhouse Gas emissions. The further concentration of tourists in most beautiful sites of the World with consistent supply and reduced pollutions and means for waste control and risks management are challenging the preservation and protection of the natural original environment, including species and their ecosystems, ethnics and their cultures or languages, protection of inherited landscapes and monuments for the future generations to come. In this article, few projects will be analyzed, methods and directions in the EU sustainable development scheme giving way to economical and social activities and preserve rural areas and remote countryside as well as smarter cities development. EU ETS forecasting escalation in the next few decades for road and air, and will reconsider investments and reliance on Biobased alternatives that may turn out solutions and contributions to sustain popularization of tourism development. Study of Examples of Stakeholders practices and Governments efforts, consumer’s attitude to bring new forms of more responsible holidays models: ecotourism, eco-certification, partnerships, investment in technologies and facilities, and possibly create greener perceptions and less impacting demands for the longer term through association, organizations and awards.

Keywords: Tourism, Sustainability, Protection, Risks Management, change in rural/urban environment

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91 Souk Waqif in Old Doha, Qatar: Cultural Heritage, Urban Regeneration, and Sustainability

Authors: Djamel Boussaa

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Cultural heritage and tourism have become during the last two decades dynamic areas of development in the world. The idea of heritage is crucial to the critical decision-making process as to how irreplaceable resources are to be utilized by people of the present or conserved for future generations in a fast changing world. In view of the importance of ‘heritage’ to the development of a tourist destination the emphasis on developing appropriate adaptive reuse strategies cannot be overemphasized. In October 1999, the 12th general assembly of the ICOMOS in Mexico stated, that in the context of sustainable development, two interrelated issues need urgent attention, cultural tourism and historic towns and cities. These two issues underscore the fact that historic resources are non-renewable, belonging to all of humanity. Without adequate adaptive reuse actions to ensure a sustainable future for these historic resources, may lead to their complete vanishing. The growth of tourism and its role in dispersing cultural heritage to everyone is developing rapidly. According to the World Tourism Organization, natural and cultural heritage resources are and will remain motivating factors for travel in the foreseeable future. According to the experts, people choose travel destinations where they can learn about traditional and distinct cultures in their historic context. The Qatar rich urban heritage is now being recognized as a valuable resource for future development. This paper discusses the role of cultural heritage and tourism in regenerating Souk Waqif, and consequently the city of Doha. Therefore, in order to use cultural heritage wisely, it will be necessary to position heritage as an essential element of sustainable development, giving particular attention to cultural heritage and tourism. The research methodology is based on an empirical survey of the situation, based on several visits, meetings and interviews with the local heritage players. The rehabilitation project initiated since 2004 will be examined and assessed. Therefore, there is potential to assess the situation and propose directions for a sustainable future to this historic landmark. Conservation for the sake of conservation appears to be an outdated concept. Many irreplaceable natural and cultural sites are being compromised because local authorities are not giving economic consideration to the value of rehabilitating such sites. The question to be raised here is 'How can cultural heritage be used wisely for tourism without compromising its social sustainability within the emerging global world?'

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Economy, Social Sustainability, Regeneration

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90 The Effect of Ethnic and Boko Haram Insurgency in the Economic Development of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Industries in Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Juliana Abara, Dayo Keshi

Abstract:

Through cultural heritage materials, nations witness significant boom in the world of art and tourism as well as attract foreign investors and tourists to the benefit of the regions and countries where they are located. There are notable heritage sites which record visits by tourists in their thousands annually. According to UNESCO the cultural heritage reflects the life of the community, its history and its identity. Its preservation helps to rebuild broken communities, re-establish their identities, and link their past with their present and future. During any form of conflict or war, a lot happen. People die, houses destroyed and every other thing in the society suffers. Wars and conflicts in various countries have claimed antiquities, heritage materials, contemporary Arts, Galleries, Museums, Archives and very important Monuments and Heritage sites. My Paper deals with the effects of insurgencies and conflicts on cultural heritage and tourism industries in Nigeria and how they can be protected and restored so as to yield the desirable economic gains. Preceding from the premise that conflict of any type puts our cultural heritage at risk; this paper also explores the practical challenges and opportunities available to us in the face of incessant ethnic and Boko Haram (western education is abomination) insurgents and their wanton destruction of lives and properties. There will be a review of relevant literature and documents on the effects of violence on heritage materials and tourism industries in Nigeria particularly and other parts of the world in generally .My paper also highlights the activities the National Council for Arts and Culture as well as other Cultural Agencies in Nigeria have employed to sensitize the stakeholders, the youth, the elderly, and the community at large on the need for peaceful co-existence so as to collectively strive to safeguard and secure our cultural heritage in the face of all these challenges for posterity and desirable economic gains.

Keywords: Challenges, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Conflict, Insurgency

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89 A Review of the Environmental Impact of Physical Expansion of Shandiz City

Authors: Foruzan Taheri, Seyedeh Negar Hosseinian, Katayoon Alizadeh

Abstract:

The small countryside city of Shandiz, with a population of about 13.297 is located 35 km to the west of the Mashhad metropolitan. Due to Shandiz’s natural beauty, suitable climate, and its close proximity to Mashhad which is the largest city in the eastern half of the country, many people own second houses in this area. In addition to this, Shandiz hosts millions of visitors annually. Its economic role, which is parallel and complementary to Mashhad, has caused population growth, the increase of activities, and physical expansion, all of which exceed the city’s capacity. The aim of this descriptive and analytical study was to evaluate the impact of city expansion on the environment and aid in preventing further harm to the natural environment of this perimeter. Data were collected from population and housing statistics during a different period of time-based on GIS. Results show that the existence of an integrated environmental management system in order to coordinate development projects and the expansion of tourism programs that meet environmental conditions are necessary and achieving sustainable development with quality of life in this area without considering environmental limitations and capabilities cannot be sustained.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Tourism, Physical Development, population growth, Shandiz City

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88 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

Abstract:

Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, intermediate cities

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87 The Shadow of Terrorism in the World Tourism Industry: Impacts, Prevention and Recovery Strategies

Authors: Maria Brás

Abstract:

The main purpose of the presentation is to identify the impacts and appropriate measures to prevent potential attacks, or minimize the risk of an attack in tourist destination. Terrorism has been growing in the shadow of unpredictability, however, is possible to minimize the danger of a terrorist attack by doing the: (1) recognition; (2); evaluation; (3) avoidance; (4) threat reduction. The vulnerability of tourism industry to terrorism is an undeniable fact, and terrorists know it. They use this advantage attacking tourists for very specific reasons, such as the: (1) international coverage by the media, “if it bleeds it leads” ; (2) chances of getting different nationalities at the same place and time; (3) possibility of destroyed the economy of a destination, or destinations (“terrorism contamination effect”), through the reduction of tourist demand; (4) psychological, and social disruption based on fear of negative consequences. Security incidents, such as terrorism, include different preventive measures that can be conducted in partnership with: tourism industry (hotels, airports, tourist attractions, among others); central government; public and/or private sector; local community; and media. The recovery strategies must be based on the dissemination of positive information to the media; in creating new marketing strategies that emphasize the social and cultural values of the destination; encourage domestic tourism; get government, or state, financial support.

Keywords: Security, Safety, Prevention, Tourism, Terrorism, Impacts, Recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 212