Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Topology Related Abstracts

7 Evaluation and Analysis of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network: Home Monitoring as Case Study

Authors: Omojokun G. Aju, Adedayo O. Sule


ZigBee wireless sensor and control network is one of the most popularly deployed wireless technologies in recent years. This is because ZigBee is an open standard lightweight, low-cost, low-speed, low-power protocol that allows true operability between systems. It is built on existing IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and therefore combines the IEEE 802.15.4 features and newly added features to meet required functionalities thereby finding applications in wide variety of wireless networked systems. ZigBee‘s current focus is on embedded applications of general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organising networks which requires low to medium data rates, high number of nodes and very low power consumption such as home/industrial automation, embedded sensing, medical data collection, smart lighting, safety and security sensor networks, and monitoring systems. Although the ZigBee design specification includes security features to protect data communication confidentiality and integrity, however, when simplicity and low-cost are the goals, security is normally traded-off. A lot of researches have been carried out on ZigBee technology in which emphasis has mainly been placed on ZigBee network performance characteristics such as energy efficiency, throughput, robustness, packet delay and delivery ratio in different scenarios and applications. This paper investigate and analyse the data accuracy, network implementation difficulties and security challenges of ZigBee network applications in star-based and mesh-based topologies with emphases on its home monitoring application using the ZigBee ProBee ZE-10 development boards for the network setup. The paper also expose some factors that need to be considered when designing ZigBee network applications and suggest ways in which ZigBee network can be designed to provide more resilient to network attacks.

Keywords: Topology, Wireless Security, Home Monitoring, ZigBee, wireless sensor network (WSN), IEEE 802.14.5

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6 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari


In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: Topology, Trust, Fault Detection, WSN, multi-path routing

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5 Topology-Based Character Recognition Method for Coin Date Detection

Authors: Xingyu Pan, Laure Tougne


For recognizing coins, the graved release date is important information to identify precisely its monetary type. However, reading characters in coins meets much more obstacles than traditional character recognition tasks in the other fields, such as reading scanned documents or license plates. To address this challenging issue in a numismatic context, we propose a training-free approach dedicated to detection and recognition of the release date of the coin. In the first step, the date zone is detected by comparing histogram features; in the second step, a topology-based algorithm is introduced to recognize coin numbers with various font types represented by binary gradient map. Our method obtained a recognition rate of 92% on synthetic data and of 44% on real noised data.

Keywords: Topology, Detection, Character Recognition, coin

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4 The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s Works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer Based Analysis of Form and Structure

Authors: Aline M. C. Santoro, João C. Pantoja, Eduardo P. Rossetti


While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.

Keywords: Topology, Structure, Form, Typology, Niemeyer

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3 A Linearly Scalable Family of Swapped Networks

Authors: Richard Draper


A supercomputer can be constructed from identical building blocks which are small parallel processors connected by a network referred to as the local network. The routers have unused ports which are used to interconnect the building blocks. These connections are referred to as the global network. The address space has a global and a local component (g, l). The conventional way to connect the building blocks is to connect (g, l) to (g’,l). If there are K blocks, this requires K global ports in each router. If a block is of size M, the result is a machine with KM routers having diameter two. To increase the size of the machine to 2K blocks, each router connects to only half of the other blocks. The result is a larger machine but also one with greater diameter. This is a crude description of how the network of the CRAY XC® is designed. In this paper, a family of interconnection networks using routers with K global and M local ports is defined. Coordinates are (c,d, p) and the global connections are (c,d,p)↔(c’,p,d) which swaps p and d. The network is denoted D3(K,M) and is called a Swapped Dragonfly. D3(K,M) has KM2 routers and has diameter three, regardless of the size of K. To produce a network of size KM2 conventionally, diameter would be an increasing function of K. The family of Swapped Dragonflies has other desirable properties: 1) D3(K,M) scales linearly in K and quadratically in M. 2) If L < K, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(L,M). 3) If L < M, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(K,L). 4) D3(K,M) can perform an all-to-all exchange in KM2+KM time which is only slightly more than the time to do a one-to-all. This paper makes several contributions. It is the first time that a swap has been used to define a linearly scalable family of networks. Structural properties of this new family of networks are thoroughly examined. A synchronizing packet header is introduced. It specifies the path to be followed and it makes it possible to define highly parallel communication algorithm on the network. Among these is an all-to-all exchange in time KM2+KM. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the swap properties of the network of the CRAY XC® and D3(K,16) are compared.

Keywords: Topology, dragonfly, interconnection network, all-to-all exchange, CRAY XC®, packet switching, swapped network

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2 Combination of Topology and Rough Set for Analysis of Power System Control

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed


In this research, we have linked the concept of rough set and topological structure to the creation of a new topological structure that assists in the analysis of the information systems of some electrical engineering issues. We used non-specific information whose boundaries do not have an empty set in the top topological structure is rough set. It is characterized by the fact that it does not contain a large number of elements and facilitates the establishment of rules. We used this structure in reducing the specifications of electrical information systems. We have provided a detailed example of this method illustrating the steps used. This method opens the door to obtaining multiple topologies, each of which uses one of the non-defined groups (rough set) in the overall information system.

Keywords: Electrical Engineering, Topology, Information System, rough set, rough topology

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1 Symmetry-Protected Dirac Semi-Metallic Phases in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Authors: Mohammad Saeed Bahramy


Transition metal dichalcogenides have experienced a resurgence of interest in the past few years owing to their rich properties, ranging from metals and superconductors to strongly spin-orbit-coupled semiconductors and charge-density-wave systems. In all these cases, the transition metal d-electrons mainly determine the ground state properties. This presentation focuses on the chalcogen-derived states. Combining density-functional theory calculations with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, it is shown that these states generically host a coexistence of type I and type II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances. It will be discussed how these naturally arise within a single p-orbital manifold as a general consequence of a trigonal crystal field, and as such can be expected across many compounds. Our finding opens a new route to design topological materials with advanced functionalities.

Keywords: Topology, Electronic Structure, Transition metal dichalcogenides, Dirac semimetals

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